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CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND OPIOIDS 

CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND OPIOIDS                                                                                      2

Abstract

Opioids are used extensively for chronic pain management in the United States. These substances interact with receptors on nerve cells in the body and brain. Opioid pain receptors are safer when taken in short-term as prescribed by the doctor. An opioid is said to be misused when used in larger quantities than prescribed, or when taken without a doctor’s prescription. Long-term use of this product creates a dependence that leads to overdoses that can cause death. Devastating consequences of the opioid epidemic include increased misuse and related overdoses. Measures to control the epidemics are needed to control opioid prescription by establishing regulations and creating awareness on the impacts of opioid overdose. This paper has researched state regulations guiding prescriptive practice related to education, prescribing controlled substances, and obtaining an advanced practice license. The research has been done by choosing Pennsylvania and West Virginia cities and comparing their respective regulations. The paper has defined controlled substances and opioids and highlighted how they are misused and abused. Opioid epidemic and state regulations are discussed, and a conclusion given.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Controlled Substance and Opioids

A controlled substance is an illegal drug with detrimental effects on human’s health and welfare. The state and federal governments regulate these substances, and people caught in their possession can be fined and imprisoned by local, federal, or state law enforcement. Opioids are a drug classification including heroin, synthetic opioids like fentanyl, and pain-relieving drugs that are legal by prescription. They are natural drugs derives from poppy, and help relieve pain, by altering brain response to pain. A variety of prescribed opioids are used to provide relief from toothaches, dental procedures, surgeries, chronic conditions such as cancer, and injuries. Opioids are safe to use when used correctly by following doctor’s instructions.

Opioid Misuse and Abuse

Opioid misuse is taking the substances in different ways or larger quantities than prescribed by doctors, or taking without doctors’ prescription. Regular use of opioids even with doctors’ prescriptions can lead to dependence, and when misused, these opioids pain relievers lead to overdoses that can cause death incidents. People easily misuse these substances because they produce euphoria in addition to pain relief.

The Euphoria created by opiates is unlike any naturally occurring rush of endorphin, and this propels users to use the drug repeatedly to experience the feeling. Regular use of the substance makes the brain to stop creating endorphin and dopamine, limiting individuals to experience the feelings unless they use opiates (Pinkerton & Hardy, 2017). People crave for higher doses of opiates to experience the continued pleasure that fails to occur naturally and end up being addicts. They typically abuse the production order to lessen their pain and have a continued euphoric feeling on demand.

People who become dependent on these controlled substances may experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking them. Dependence is coupled with tolerance, meaning users need to take more doses of the same effects. Opioid addicts may switch to heroin because it is less expensive than prescription drugs.

Long-term misuse of opiates changes normal brain functioning leading to physical and psychological reliance. Opiate withdrawal symptoms exist from mild to severe, depending on dependence although they are different between individuals. Early withdrawal symptoms include tearing up, agitation, anxiety, and fever among others. Late withdrawal symptoms include diarrhea, depression, nausea, and drug cravings. Some psychological withdrawal symptoms and craving for drugs may prolong for days. Psychological support and therapy are provided to victims by mental health professionals as part of a substance abuse program.

Opioid Epidemic

The current problem with opioids in the world is their increased misuse and relative overdoses. There are incidences of newborns experiencing withdrawal syndromes because of pregnant mothers using and misusing opioids during pregnancy. The crisis was brought by efforts to increase prescribing for the pain to get it to zero in the 1900s. Pharmaceutical companies developed stronger and long-lasting opioids, with aggressive marketing to physicians while limiting potential risks. Users realized that short-term opioids and the long-acting ones resulted in enhanced euphoria and had additive nature. Physicians used to prescribe higher doses because of lack of education and experience, and never realized the dangers that existed.

Deaths and Violence Associated with Opioids

The total number of overuse fell by 8.3% in 2017 as compared to 2016 in America, estimating the number to be 1,977 down from 2,155 (J, 2017). The number was still greater with more than 200 deaths compared to the 2015 toll. The provisional data released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showed a decline in opioids overdose deaths in 14 states during the one year period that ended July 2017. The decline is a hopeful indicator that policies are working to curb death tolls.

In the year 2016, the total number of opioid overdoses accounted for more than 42,000 deaths (Ruhm, 2018). A 40% estimate of these overdose deaths resulted from a prescribed opioid. More than 115 people in America die daily because of opioid overdose. Overdose rates began to increase in 2015, with more than 33,000 American deaths because of opioid overdose, including prescribed type, illicit fentanyl, and heroine. Two million people were estimated to suffer from the substance use disorder as a result of prescribed pain relievers, and another half a million individuals suffering from heroin use disorder in 2015. Between 2000 and 2014, the rate of overdose deaths in America increased by 200%, and by 14% between 2013 and 2014 alone.

Opioid overdose is a risk to both genders, although men are at higher risks of overdose-related deaths. Toxicology reports show the increased likelihood of finding heroin males system, and higher chances of finding prescription opioids in female’s system at the time of death. Women mostly use the healthcare system, increasing risks of using multiple prescriptions for opioids which is a risk factor (Druid, 2016).

Illegal drugs epidemics are a battle to protect future generations. Opioid overdose-related deaths for all group shows the young generation is at higher risks of these deaths. Opioids resulted in more than 25% of all fatalities in the 18 to 24 age-groups in Massachusetts. More than 33% deaths were realized for 25 to 34 age groups rising to more than 40% for men in the group. Approximately two out of every three individual deaths that were related to opioids were younger than 45.

Opioid use and crime are associated and develop together amongst opioid using criminals. America’s murder cases rose tremendously in 2015, 2016, and the first half of 2017. According to Massey, (2017), arrests for sale and possession of opioids fell by 9.2% from 2010 to 2013, even as drug use rates were rising. In 2015, arrests rose by 12.5%, the latest year for which data is available (Rana, MD & Braithwaite, MD, 2016). The timing of the drug arrests coincide with the national rise in homicides, with drug-related killings accounting for

Medical Emergencies Related to Opioid Use

Visits to an emergency department for opioid overdoses provide an important marker of acute morbidity (Elixhauser, 2017). Hospitalizations related to opioid misuse and overdoses have increased dramatically, with the rate of adults under impatient program per 100,000 people rising by 200% between 2000 and 2012. The national hospital ambulatory medical care survey between 1993 and 2010 identified emergency department for opioid overdose and outcomes addressed. The outcome measures were national emergency department visit rates for the individual with opioid overdose per a 100 thousand U.S population and 100 thousand emergency department visits. There were approximately 731 thousand emergency department visits for opioid overdose between 1993 and 2010. They represented an overall rate of 14 visits per 100 thousand population and 37 visits per 100 thousand emergency department visits. 41% were for prescription opioid overdose. The national visitation rates increased from 7 to 27 per 100 thousand individuals between 1993 and 2010, and from 19 to 63 per 100 thousand visits.

The results showed an upward trend across multiple demographic groups in the U.S after a stratified analysis of the visit rates per population. The analysis of the visitation rate per a 100 thousand emergency department visits showed an increased rate significantly across several groups above 20 years. The nationally represented U.S database of emergency visits found that emergency visit rate for opioid overdose quadrupled significantly between 1993 and 2010. The finding suggested previous prevention measures were inadequate.

Opioid Regulation in the US

Opioid use in The United States is regulated by the federal and state governments to curb the effects of controlled substances overdose. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are responsible for releasing guidelines related to r chronic stress opioid prescriptions. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is mandated to approving reliable and efficient formulations of opioids to provide immediate and long-lasting medication. The FDA can order pharmaceutical agencies to halt or stop drug manufacturing

Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) works in collaboration with other agencies like departments of justice to enforce powers that put to prosecution pill mills for doctors who prescribe illegally. The DEA implement prescription drug use monitoring programs (PDMPs) that are provided at state levels and application of electronic prescribing for Schedule I and II medications.

State agencies conduct an important role in reducing controlled substances and deaths related to overdoses, protecting public safety, and promoting effective medical pain remedies. They assume the role of regulating practices of medicine and insurance companies within their border. The state utilizes the agencies to train physicians about the impacts of opioids and encourages their licensure depending on registration and application of PDMPs anytime they are prescribing a controlled substance. They encourage the flow of information within states and share prescriptive information that aims at improving the efficiency of controlling overdoses, and also promoting innovations that intervene in reducing impacts associated with illegal prescriptions.

Purpose of this Paper

The paper aims to research state regulations which guide prescriptive practice related to education, prescribing controlled substances, particularly opioids, and obtaining an advanced practical license. This will be done by choosing two different states (Pennsylvania and West Virginia) and comparing and/ contrasting their perspective governing regulations.

Information to providers

Healthcare providers require appropriate knowledge, skills and professional judgment to prescribe drugs. They need to know state regulations that guide prescriptive practice to improve patient safety when prescribing because the policies set out all requirements for prescribing drugs.

Prescribing of controlled substances is regulated by legislative frameworks with policies that health practitioners must put into considerations and obey rules set in prescription laws. Following the policies and having awareness of practice will help prevent history from repeating itself. The medical community was assured by pharmaceutical companies that prescriptive opiates were not addictive to pain relievers in the late 1990s. Medical practitioners prescribed the substance at greater rates subsequently leading to increased misuse and diverse use before the side effects were realized. Drug deaths have been steadily climbing every year globally since the 1990s.

The state regulations define key values of professionalism that form the basis for the expectations set out in policies. Physicians embody the values of compassion, altruism, service, and trustworthiness to act in patient’s best interests, demonstrate professional competence, and maintain their patients’ confidentialities. The practitioners must ensure maximum collaboration, communication, and should not be driven by their advantages.

The Act 124 was put in place to provide a prescription drug monitoring program. The revision of the previous Act 124 aims to amend laws by expounding some other provisions. The prescribers doubt the PDMP systems when individuals are prescribed opioid drug products. Queries are not required when patients have been admitted to licensed healthcare facilities, or in an observation status in the same facilities after initial query, provided they remain admitted or in observation.

Bodies in charge of licensing require people applying for initial licenses or certificate authorizing them to be dispensers or prescribers to submit educational documents. The submission should not be later than one year after obtaining an initial license and must show their completion of at least two hours education program in pain management, and addiction identification. They must also show completion of several hours’ education program pertaining prescription or opioid dispensing. The licensing board requires prescribers applying for license renewal to provide completion of two hours of continuing education program related to managing pain and stress, addiction identification, or practice of prescribing opioids. The education is part of the overall requirement, and do not apply to those exempted from the drug enforcement administration necessities for a registration number.

The act 124 entails prescribing opioids to minors. The subscribers are required by law to limit opioid prescription numbers to minors by ensuring a not more than a week supply unless they determine needs to stabilize the minor’s acute medical conditions. The law requires practitioners to do a thorough assessment of whether the minors have taken or they are under prescription for substance use disorder at that time before prescribing any opioids. They have to discuss with the minor’s parents or guardians the risks of addictions and overdoses that commonly occur with use of controlled substances. Prescribers are required to get written consent for prescribing opioids to minors.

The Pennsylvanian Act 126 requires a safe opioid education and patient directives. The licensing board implemented curricula that address safer prescriptions of opioids. The curriculum is provided in all medical schools and training facilities. The act also requires patient voluntary non-opioid directive. Patients are allowed to practice this form of a directive to deny the administration of controlled substance containing an opioid.

Opioid Regulation in Pennsylvania

Opioid-related overdose deaths have dramatically increased in Pennsylvania and across the nation.  Pennsylvania declared heroin and opioid addiction crisis a statewide emergency to combat overdose harm in 2016. Governor Wolf has taken significant steps to improve doctor’s prescribing practices. The Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs ensures a safe and effective prescribing task force. The task force members include a variety of state agencies, medical association representatives, provider advocates, and the community members. They collectively established and applied measures for them medical fields to safely and efficiently use controlled substances in relieving pain. The developed law significantly impact medical practitioners nationwide, because some took effect moments after they were signed.

 

Pennsylvania has an Act 122 that restricts opioids limits to practitioners in emergency situations. The components of the act significantly affect practitioners in situations demanding urgent care and in-hospital emergencies. The act restricts a not more than one week opioid supply. There are extensions for physicians when it comes to treating individuals with acute illness, as they require a more than one week opioid supply. Chronic cancer treatment and palliative care exempt the requirements of Act 122, but physicians have to monitor the patients closely. Under these exceptions, physicians must document patients’ medical record that a non-opioid alternative was inappropriate under the circumstances.

The act prohibits refills, providing that regardless of the amount prescribed, physicians should not in any way write prescriptions to refill controlled substances. Medical practitioners in these situations should refer patients for treatment if they exhibit signs of abusing controlled substances. Physicians are required to make queries on prescription drug monitoring program system to discover chances of these patients being under treatment with opioid drug products by other providers. Queries do not apply to medications provided to patients in need of treatments in urgent care facilities. Any medical practitioner who violates Act 122 has their license sanctioned by the state’s board. Following the law to the latter means the medical practitioner at all time act in good faith and has immunity in civil actions.

            The legislature in Pennsylvania has determined that there should be an increased role for physicians in preventing and mitigating heroine and opioid epidemic. The intentions seem noble, and the burden lies to physicians in treating patients with increased leisure sanctions and liability if they fail to comply with the regulations. They are required to familiarize themselves with the new laws and implement their requirements to curb illegal use of controlled substances (Huber, Robinson, Noe & Van Ness, 2016).

Opioid Regulation in West Virginia

            Western Virginia has the highest rate of opioid-related overdose deaths, and drug overdose is the top mortality causal for people under the age of 45 (writer, 2018). Experts and policymakers are struggling to cobalt the nationwide opioid crisis which was declared a public health emergency, with increased efforts to control their prescriptions. In West Virginia, the poster child for the epidemic new research shows that prescription drug regulations have not affected by a decrease in opioid-related hospitalizations. The nation has experienced a reduced opioid prescription dispensed since 2012 legislations authorized the use of a prescription drug monitoring program. The overall rates of opioid poisonings are relatively constant, with poisonings from heroin and illegal opioids increasing by more than 200%. Regulations on controlled substances were made under the board’s emergency authority given that state commissioner declared opioid addiction a national crisis as a public health emergency.

The bill requires health care prescribers to obey the state’s prescription drug monitoring programs, and also established the licensing and regulation of chronic pain guidelines. The guidelines provide additional regulations for opioid treatment centers and require a consisted continued education for administrators (Lund, 2017).

Studies in Western Virginia examining opioid poisoning rates from 2008 to 2015 reveal complexities of the crisis and how it is a challenge to provide a solution to the problem Smith, MD, Kirsh, Ph.D. & Passik, Ph.D., 2018). Despite having prescriptions decrease, the crisis is still rampant because people are having alternative sources of controlled substances, cheaper and more widely available in the streets.

The Western Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources established an Opioid Response Plan in 2017 through public involvement and expert input. The board of medicine was authorized to be more aggressive in disciplining overprescribing physicians. The plan emphasized the importance of having efforts addressing excessive prescribing not go too far, and develop targeted investigations to assess prescribing, and professional boards recognize the importance of individualized care and clinical judgment. The judgment should support patients with severe pain and where an inappropriate prescription is found, the care providers should support tapering of medication rather than rapid withdrawal. The patient care plan is adopted even after provider’s prescribing certification is terminated, to support appropriate treatment for patients.

Western Virginia encourages insurers to adopt evidence-based guidelines on reimbursement for opioid prescribing before filling co-prescriptions of benzodiazepines and opioids. Non-pharmaceutical coverage approaches are supported to manage pain and improve medical education on pain prescription and treating of substance use disorders. The state is considering developing cross-agency strategies for primary prevention, to include targeted economic development, and expanded use of mentoring. An evidence-based curriculum will be put in place to identify resources for youths at highest risks based on adverse childhood experiences, and expanded primary prevention through education in schools.

West Virginia addresses the issue of opioid overdose-related deaths by putting into practice legislation to be followed by all prescribers. The legislation has a code 16-47-4 that requires good Samaritans to alert the authorities of any cases of controlled substance abuse through 911. The witnesses are protected by the legislation from arrests. The state also uses the West Virginia Code 16-46-31, to allow pharmacist distribute awareness and provide education to the public on the impacts of naloxone. The HB 2195 legislation emphasizes on implementing opioid implementation strategies to prevent their impacts and create awareness into all school curricula. HB 4347 legislation has priority over substance abuse treatment for expectant women.

The West Virginia codes 16-46-31 and 16-47-4, collectively have been linked with more 911 emergency alerts on overdose and reduced deaths. The legislature is considering other bills that will effectively help fight the opioid epidemic.

West Virginia applied for a medical waiver to specifically address substance abuse disorders. The state decided to use a considerable share of its stake with opioid distributors to expand the availability of treatment for people struggling with addiction (Webster & Grabois, 2015).

Huntington has been the heart of opioid epidemic. The city’s overdose death rate is tenfold that of the national rate, prompting the city to make several changes to combat the crisis and reduce its harmful effects. The Huntington city established Office of Drug Control Policy and coordinated with; a coalition of law enforcement, public health leaders, first responders, and local groups to mitigate opioids. The city has emphasized on reducing opioid harm by opening the first needle exchange in the state, a center for weaning babies off drugs, and school programs with students and parents who have been caught in possession of drugs. The drug users are trained on how to administer naloxone to curb deaths on overdose.

Huntington is implementing the measure of sending drug users to treatment care instead of taking them to jail. The city has a Recovery point, a facility with a 100 beds to provide long-term recovery program with a 68% sobriety rate for graduates after a one year program.

Pennsylvania and West Virginia

The most effective solutions applied by states are to increase utilization of advanced practices of certified and registered medical practitioners. Advanced practices ensure the safety of patients is maintained because unqualified physicians prescribe doses with side effects. The lawmakers in both states have responded well to the opioid epidemics by planning legislatures that limit how much pain medicine practitioners prescribe to their patients. Doctors in both cities are required by their legislation to counsel new patients, who pick up a prescription for opioids, about the risks of taking controlled substances. All practitioners are required to assess patients being treated for acute conditions, to prevent risks of addiction and ensure compliance with rules and regulations.

Pharmacists who fail to follow the legislation to the latter lose their certification. The departments of Justice, DEA, and local agencies have gained supporters in both cities as a result of their efforts to combat the growing crisis. The consequences of diversion use of controlled substances include societal, clinical, and economic impacts. The high profile legislative activities force pharmacists to turn away patients who exceed their monthly dispensing limits. All wholesalers are inspected to ensure appropriate dispensing and hesitancy by suppliers and other regulatory agencies in guiding address gray areas.

In response to the ongoing prescription drug overdose epidemics, the cities have put in place prescribing guidelines, continuing education, federal, state, and international measures to deal with the epidemic. All licensed practitioners are required to prescribe opioids to acute pain patients and provide them with information. They are required to apply their skills and reinforce healthy behavior, identify problematic drug and alcohol use early, and reduce substance misuse.

Physicians and health systems reduce their exposure to investigations and prosecution by adhering to best practices and standards of care. They are bound by medical and legal regulations in prescribing opioids. Substantial compliance with opioid prescribing guidelines is the accepted standards of care and satisfies adherence to the many states and federal laws (Pardo, 2017).

Conclusion

Abuse of controlled substances has considerable impacts on the society providing both economic and clinical burdens. Overdoses result to more than 830,000 years potentially before the age of 65, similar to years lost through road accidents. The increase in deaths is attributed to unintentional overdoses because of failure to understand the risks associated with the use of controlled substances. Organizations should work in collaboration to curb abuse and misuse of opioids and use it for intended purposes only. Drug monitoring programs should aim at providing insight into current opioid trends, and minimize fraud prescriptions and related doctor shipping. Pharmacies mostly utilized by prescribed patients should be closely monitored to reduce potential misuse, and health bodies to come up with alternative tamper resistant with multiple mechanisms to reduce the likelihood of opioid abuse.

Pharmacies should be in the forefront in making efforts that prevent and minimize opioid abuse. Policies should be put in place requiring pharmacists to contact prescribing physicians to ensure diagnosis, and previously tried and tested, and expected lengths of therapies are accurate in verifying prescriptions for opioids.

Healthcare career has a vital responsibility to help reverse the exponential curve in opioid-related morbidity and mortality rates by improving prescribing practices. Healthcare providers should work to establish community-wide approach needed to address the opioid crisis effectively. The coordinated approach at local, regional, and state level will simultaneously address multiple parts of the complexities of opioid misuse, dependence, addiction, and recovery.

Raising awareness about chronic pain and pain management will increase knowledge about opioid abuse. Physicians should routinely take SCOPE of pain, free online training where they will learn safe and responsible opioid prescription within their first years of practice. Before providing prescriptions, practitioners should first identify patients with opioid use disorder earlier and should learn various ways of recognizing substance use disorder. The greatest measure to help minimize opioid overdoses is to demonstrate the safety of advanced practice registered nurses, and ensure they have the right skills to handle prescriptions

Reference

Druid, H. (2016). Toxicological and pathological findings in opioid-related deaths. Toxicology Letters, 258,             S36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.06.1235

Elixhauser, A. (2017). Opioid-Related Inpatient Stays and Emergency Department Visits by State, 2009-   2014 #219. Hcup-us.ahrq.gov. Retrieved 3 March 2018, from https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb219-Opioid-Hospital-Stays-ED-    Visits-by-State.jsp

Huber, E., Robinson, R., Noe, C., & Van Ness, O. (2016). Who Benefits from Chronic Opioid Therapy? Rethinking the Question of Opioid Misuse Risk. Healthcare, 4(4), 29. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare4020029

J, F. (2017). Mass. deaths by opioid overdose fell 8.3 percent last year – The Boston Globe. BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 3 March 2018, from https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2018/02/14/mass-deaths-opioid-overdose-fell-percent-lastyear/ov2g3vtfS50NrzCMFI9GcK/story.html

Lund, E. (2017). Preventing, Detecting, and Addressing Opioid Overprescribing. Journal Of Nursing Regulation, 8(2), 5-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2155-8256(17)30092-3

Massey, B. (2017). Battling the Opiate Crisis: Translating the Latest Advances in Addiction Biology into             Novel Treatment Strategies. Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal, 5(4).             http://dx.doi.org/10.15406/ppij.2017.05.00131

Pardo, B. (2017). Do more robust prescription drug monitoring programs reduce prescription opioid overdose?. Addiction, 112(10), 1773-1783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.13741

Pinkerton, R., & Hardy, J. (2017). Opioid addiction and misuse in adult and adolescent patients with cancer. Internal Medicine Journal, 47(6), 632-636. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.13449

Rana, MD, H., & Braithwaite, MD, B. (2016). Physician conviction for prescription-related deaths: How will this affect the opioid debate?. Journal Of Opioid Management, 12(4),   241. http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jom.2016.0338

Ruhm, C. (2018). Corrected US opioid-involved drug poisoning deaths and mortality rates, 1999-2015.  Addiction. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14144

Smith, MD, H., Kirsh, Ph.D., K., & Passik, Ph.D., S. (2018). Chronic opioid therapy issues associated with opioid abuse potential. Journal Of Opioid Management, 5(5), 287. http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jom.2009.0029

Webster, L., & Grabois, M. (2015). Current Regulations Related to Opioid Prescribing. PM&R, 7(11),     S236-S247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.08.011

Writer, E. (2018). WV lawmakers seek to limit opioid prescribing. Charleston Gazette-Mail. Retrieved 3 March 2018, from https://www.wvgazettemail.com/news/health/wv_drug_abuse/wv-lawmakers-seek-to-limit-opioid-prescribing/article_1b088ea7-de2c-55c8-98de-a293bece51f4.html

Panathenaic Festival

Panathenaic Festival

Panathenaic Festival, observed by the ancient Greeks, was one of the most important religious celebrations for people of Athens.[1] This significant religious festival included numerous activities performed by participants from various parts of the Greek World. All Greek citizens were allowed to participate irrespective of their age and gender. Thus, all the men, women, and youths from the ancient Greece took part in various athletic activities such as foot races, discus throw, horse chariot races, wrestling, boxing, pentathlon, javelin, and long jump among others. However, unlike any other Greek public activity, women (especially virgins from noble families) played significant roles during the festivals. They carried the sacrificial meat put in a basket into the ceremony. It was only during this festival when women were allowed to mingle with men who attended the festival freely.[2]As a result, the festival earned them respect from the female members of society due to the role they played. All the citizens of Greece and adjacent parts were allowed to participate in the celebrations except slaves who were under masters’ command at the time of the festival. Free slaves were permitted to attend to a limited extent. The festival took place every four years. Since 556 BCE, the Panathenaic Festival was important in enhancing religious and political connections between various tribes and communities from different parts in the Greek World. [3]Through the participation of people from various parts of Athens and other parts of Greece, the festival was a binding activity that translated into peaceful coexistence between people.[4]At the same time, the Panathenaic Festival enabled religious activities to take place in Athens through the inclusion of the Peplos during the festival presentations. Throughout the festival period, participants honored Athena Polias and her birthday as the goddess in-charge of Athens. This festival was an excellent representation of Athens’ power as well as the commitment to its patron goddess. Through the inclusion of the participants from Athens and other parts of the Greek Empire, the festival created unity and a sense of purpose. People gathered to celebrate their religion and politics. Therefore, the ancient Greeks viewed the Panathenaic Festival as an activity that carried a significant impact in the religious events and the politics of the region.

The Panathenaic Festival and Religious Connections

In the world of the ancient Greeks, worshippers considered religion as personal, direct, as well as a way of presenting various areas of life.[5] To begin with, formal rituals including libations, animal sacrifices, and myths account for the origins of humankind. Besides, ancient Greeks gave gods individual images, built temples in the urban landscape, and participated in the festivals. All these practices indicate that religion was inherent to ancient Greek’s mind. Ancient Greeks believed that the gods were watching them and that they responded to worship and piety acts. Old Greek Empire had different gods such as Hades, Apollo, and Athena and people took part in Panathenaic Festival with the aim of pleasing these gods.

Initially, King Theseus started the Panathenaic Festival.[6] Consequently, the society viewed him as an Athenian hero. King Theseus was related to the cult of Athena. Therefore, he started the festival as a cult to observe and show respect to Athena Polias and other gods such as Erechtheus. The festival also found its roots from the early sacrifices to Erechtheus. It had two crucial stages including the procession and the sacrifice. Through the observance of these steps, with the inclusion of various activities, the Panathenaic Festival expressed its religious significance. The event, which took place every four years, evoked different spiritual connections among the citizens of the Greek Empire and tribes who participated.

Firstly, the festivals took place in the temples which were also used as places of worship because ancient Greeks believed that gods dwelled in the temple or visited it during rituals. During the Panathenaic procession, the sacrificial meat was presented to the gods by the noble virgins in the cults. The Greeks often constructed these sects on an acropolis which dominated a city or a neighboring region. Similarly, Christians conducted various religious ceremonies in an altar built in the temple. Sacrifice and pouring libations were the most common practices observed during ancient Greek era. These two occasions were used to express respect and prayers as a way of honoring their gods. Religious believers usually sacrificed sheep, pigs, goats or cows to the honored god. The sacrificial meat was either wholly burnt or cooked. Some of the meat was given to the gods while the worshippers took the rest. Therefore, the temple was an essential element of religious practices during the Panathenaic Festival.

Secondly, the festivals involved priests who performed various rituals. Similarly, priests conducted religious rituals and ceremonies which include offering sacrifices, pouring libations and delivering prayers. However, the position of the priest was open to all worshippers, since the body of the priest became inviolate upon wearing the sacred headband when conducting the ceremony. Although priests served a specific god, they were not necessarily religious experts. Therefore, in case the worshippers had theological questions the priest could not answer, they were supposed to consult an exegete, who was a state official knowledgeable in religious matters. Both genders had equal chances of serving as priests and conducting religious ceremonies. However, often the priest on duty was supposed to be of the similar sex as the god they represented. However, the leaders restricted priestesses; they were to be either virgins or beyond menopause stage. On the other hand, worshippers constituted of both genders though certain restricted rituals excluded either female or male.

Thirdly, women played a significant role during Panathenaic procession. Likewise, women served as priests and preceded religious ceremonies despite them having no other public position.[7] Besides, in both cases, virgins from great family backgrounds were appointed. Consequently, the priestesses of Greek religion were accorded much respect as compared to their fellows in the society. Due to their dedication to their religious duties, they were regularly given valuable properties, paid and most importantly, accorded respect by other society members due to their contributions. Other community members viewed the priestesses of the Greek religious cults as celebrities and role models. Athena Polias marked the most significant religious function in Athens. Athena served as the patron goddess of Athens whereas Athena Polias served as the incarnation of Athens to guard the polis. Besides, the high priestess of Athena Polias represented the most senior religious position in Athens. A woman from Eteoboutadae’s noble family held the position and exerted considerable religious and political influence in the community. Besides, other females played crucial roles in both the cult and its overall activities.

Moreover, Athens celebrated the Panathenaia every year before commemorating Athena’s birthday. This festival was an excellent representation of Athens’ power as well as the commitment to its patron goddess.[8] In addition to the yearly Panathenaic celebration, they held a more significant Panathenaia celebration in every four years. This festival was more celebrated and had more significance than other common festivals. Consequently, the festival was inclusive of the Panathenaic Procession. During the preparation of the Acropolis’ procession, the believers made a new peplos for Athena’s cult statue housed on the Acropolis. Archon Basileus chose from noble families two young girls to serve as arrephoroiI.[9]They were supposed to stay with Athena’s priestesses for a specific duration to assist in weaving the new attire.[10]During the Procession which took place in the streets of Athens, the cult leaders dropped the peplos ceremonially. Meanwhile, the kanephoroi, who were young virgins of noble blood, carried sacred baskets which contained pieces of meat meant for sacrifices.[11] They presented the sacrificial animals at the altar of Athena together with the peplos.[12] These virgin females were allowed to mingle freely with Athenian men from noble families during the procession, which was very exceptional for the typical women of the Greek community.

Therefore, it is evident that women played significant roles during the Panathenaic Procession as well as in Athenian religion. As a result, these women were respected and valued by other society members, unlike ordinary Greek women. Besides, it is an indication that women contributed towards connecting the rest of the society with their religion through participating in the festivals.

Besides, feasting characterized the Panathenaic festival since it was the primary part of the ceremony. All participants from different part of the Greek empire and their neighbors participated in the festival. During the celebration, the participants feasted on animal meat which was mostly slaughtered to appease their gods. Similarly, sacrificial animal characterized other religious ceremonies. The animals were meant to please the gods and bringing people together as they shared them. Finally, all individuals were allowed to take part in the Panathenaic festival irrespective of their origin, unlike another festival which had exceptions. As a result, individuals participated in the ceremony regardless of their race, gender, ethnicity as well as their age. Likewise, people were allowed to take part in religious traditions in the society despite their diversities. Therefore, these similarities show connection between this festival and religious activities of the ancient Greeks.

The Panathenaic Festival and Political Connections

Just like with religious activities, Panathenaic festival had a close connection with political matters. That is, Panathenaic festival activities had an impact on the politics of the ancient Greek in various ways.

Firstly, all citizens from the early Greek world and the adjacent parts were involved in the event.[13]However, slaves who were under their masters’ command were not allowed to participate in the festivals. Besides, the freed slaves were allowed to attend to a limited extent. Consequently, the festival unified the entire Greek empire and their neighbors since worshippers were able to come together to observe similar religious ceremonies and rituals during the festival. Besides, the festival enhanced coexistence peacefully among the society members by bringing them together and more so through sharing the sacrificial meat. Similarly, the political goal of the political leaders was to unify the entire empire and ensure there was peaceful coexistence among the citizens and the residents of other parts surrounding them. Besides, during the festival, the leaders engaged in political propaganda discussing the issues taking place in the ancient Greek Empire. Leaders utilized the festival since all citizens were gathered together to attend the ceremony. Therefore, such celebrations and the political world of the ancient Greeks were interrelated.

Furthermore, the gods offered protection to all worshippers during the festivals. During the festival, the Greeks and citizens from their neighborhood offered sacrifice to their gods to appease them.[14]In return, the gods protected the society members from evil spirits as well as any form of attack by their enemies. Similarly, in the Greek empire, political leaders were charged with the responsibility of protecting their citizens from any attack either internal or external. This action shows the connection between the festival and political world of the Greek people during the Athens arena.

Thirdly, the festival leaders taught the civic education to the worshippers who attended the ceremony. Most residents valued the Panathenaic festival, and therefore they participated in large numbers. As a result, the festival was the best platform for the political leaders to teach citizens civic education.[15]Besides, the citizens attentively listened to teachings during the festival which implies they were likely to understand the civic education better. The collective knowledge was meant to strengthen democracy in the empire.[16]The political leaders were assigned the responsibility of teaching political education in the empire. Besides, civic education was a significant factor in the political matters of the early Greek community. Therefore, it is evident that the festival activities connected the festival with the political world of the ancient Greek.

Conclusion

Panathenaic festival was the most valued ceremony among the residents of the ancient Greek world. All the old Greek citizens gathered to celebrate the festival which occurred in every four years irrespective of their gender and age. Also, people from adjacent parts participated in the celebration. However, unlike other Greek public festivals, women were allowed to take an active role during the ceremony. Virgins from noble families were assigned the responsibility of carrying the sacrificial meat placed in baskets. Most importantly, festival connected the ancient Greek people to both religious and political matters. The festival took place in an altar built outside the temple similarly to religious activities. Also, the festival involved the offering of sacrifice and libation to please the gods which characterized most religious activities. Besides, just like religious activities where women served as a priest, during the festival women were directly involved. The festival included sharing of the sacrificial meat which they shared during religious ceremonies. In addition to spiritual connection, the festival had relationships with political matters of the ancient Greek community.

Bibliography

Cartwright, Mark. “Ancient Greek Religion.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified April 11, 2013. https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Religion/.

Charles, Waldstein. The American Journal of Archaeology and the History of the Fine Arts

David, Wiley-Blackwell. “A Brief History of the Olympic Games.” (2004).

Fantham, Modern Greece.” (2006).Elaine. Women in the Classical World. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1994.

Feeney, Denis. Caesar’s Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginning of History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

Haland, Evy Johanne. “Athena’s Peplos: Weaving as a Core Female Activity in Ancient and Modern Greece.” (2006).

Hugh Bowden, Mystery Cults of the Ancient World Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2010.

Jennifer Neils, “The Political Process in the Public Festival: The Panathenaic Festival in Athens,” in Greek and Roman Festivals (2012), 199–215.

Parker, Robert. Polytheism and Society at Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005

Pomeroy, Sarah. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. Schocken Books, New York, 1995.

See Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 1968, 40–42, for features of the festival.

Stevenson, Tom. “The Parthenon Frieze as an Idealised, Contemporary Panathenaic Festival.” (2003): 233-280.

Venetus, A. “Recapturing a Homeric Legacy.” (2009).

Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan. 1885), pp. 10-17.

Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983), 153–161.

writer873. “The Women of Athena’s Cult.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified January 18, 2012. https://www.ancient.eu/article/74/.

[1]Cartwright, Mark. “Ancient Greek Religion.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified April 11, 2013. https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Religion/.

[2]“The Women of Athena’s Cult.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified January 18, 2012. https://ww.ancient.eu/article/74/.

[3]David, Wiley-Blackwell. “A Brief History of the Olympic Games.”  (2004).

[4]. Charles, Waldstein. The American Journal of Archaeology and the History of the Fine Arts

Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan. 1885), pp. 10-17.

[5]Cartwright, Mark. “Ancient Greek Religion.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified April 11, 2013. https://www.ancient.eu/Greek_Religion/.

[6]Feeney, Denis. Caesar’s Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginning of History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

[7]Fantham, Elaine. Women in the Classical World. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1994.

[8]Parker, Robert. Polytheism and Society at Athens. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

[9]Pomeroy, Sarah. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. Schocken Books, New York, 1995.

[10]Haland, Evy Johanne. “Athena’s Peplos: Weaving as a Core Female Activity in Ancient and Modern Greece.” (2006).

[11]See Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens, 1968, 40–42, for features of the festival.

[12]Walter Burkert, Homo Necans: The Anthropology of Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983), 153–161.

[13]Stevenson, Tom. “The Parthenon Frieze as an Idealised, Contemporary Panathenaic Festival.” (2003): 233-280.

[14]Hugh Bowden, Mystery Cults of the Ancient World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2010

[15]Jennifer Neils, “The Political Process in the Public Festival: The Panathenaic Festival in Athens,” in Greek and Roman Festivals (2012), 199–215.

[16]Venetus, A. “Recapturing a Homeric Legacy.” (2009).

Obesity

Name

Instructor

Course

Date

 

Obesity

Obesity is one of the most prevalent diseases which are rapidly growing in the United States. I have focused on two articles that enumerate the problem and utilized distinct rhetorical strategies to persuade on the sources of the disease and also the distinct angles of the epidemic that should be prioritized carrying out research for the cure. Analyzing the distinct rhetorical strategies utilized in the posts show that logos statements are an effective option of convincing the reader or listeners on the points. Using ethos and pathos statements is a more efficient form of convincing the reader or listeners to do something about the issue.

The article by Peggy Ward Smith on the obesity issue in the United States outlines the abnormal weight gain disease in the United States. Peggy emphasizes on the significance of conceding the impacts of behavioral treatment on the obese state and improved financial welfare outlining that therapy on behaviour encompasses dynamism on dieting and exercising to promote healthy living. (Ward-Smith 244). Apart from benefiting the obese individuals, the article lays out that for every amount one invests in the treatment, the return is significantly higher indicating a potential increment in the economic benefits.

Peggy continues to elaborate how administration of medicine and operations has proven successful and effective in dealing with obesity. the main aim of the article is to enumerate the effort and strategy the united states needs to take in order to battle the epidemic, not only for the welfare of the obese individuals but also to combat the economic pressure the disease has laid upon the nation. The article by Levitan and Davis: emotions and eating behaviors bears discussions on obesity but takes a distinct approach on the topic and style.

Levitan and Davis start by utilizing an analysis of Jane who has been diagnosed with obesity as a result of eating disorder. The condition erupted as a result of her excessive consumption. The authors enumerate on the causes and initiators of the epidemic. They lay out that having an emotional relationship with foodstuff has a great contribution to obesity development. They describe how some foods are habit forming and thus initiators of the epidemic (Levitan and Davis 784).

They further lay out that presence of brain chemical imbalance has a certain relationship with obesity and further analysis on the issue is significant. The two articles enumerate the issues on obesity in the United States and how it has impacted the states. The two articles however have a conflicting approach on solving the issue and how they convince the readers and listeners on what they believe. The article by Peggy prioritizes on the logos statements and also encompasses hard to grasp ethos and pathos statements.

The article starts by utilizing tabulations in calculating the BMI to aid identify obesity. Her article argues by utilizing rates outlining that in the year two thousand and three, the rates significantly increased (Ward-Smith 242). The article is a significant logos argument as an argument cannot be solely based on statistics and numerical manipulations. Peggy adds more information on the large amounts of capital spending on obesity in the past. The article outlines how the obese individuals utilize a huge amount of the economies funds. It addresses the feeling of nationalism in combating obesity which is enticing an economic downfall in the country.

Peggy also continues to add a pathos argument debating on the adverse judgments and discrimination on the obese individuals. She states that discrimination was not only based on religion and sexuality but also on weight where obese people were highly discriminated (Ward-Smith 242). Peggy enumerates that obesity has been highly associated with biasness and discrimination. The pathos argument utilized connects the reader emotionally to the problem by a small margin. In as much as combination of all the three classes is considered as an influential method to deliver a message, I did not find it necessary to include it as it made the article seem unreliable and not consistent. A large percentage of the article consists of elaborate arguments deduced logically on logos, with details of number of people affected by diseases linked to obesity and the approaches suitable to be a solution to these illnesses for example exercising, dieting and surgery.

Even though the reasoning was to a certain extent persuading, there was limited emotional power to attract the reader’s interest in a way that he or she would regard it seriously and attempt to solve the problem even if they are not exactly victims of obesity. Levitan and Davis’ article differentiate its rhetorical strategy from others in order to have a greater impact on the reader. The use of an association of logos, ethos and pathos reasoning helps the reader come to terms with the problem of obesity hence giving the reader motivation to make a change. The use of a case study at the beginning of the article draws attention to the reader by use of ethos and logos rhetorical strategies. The case study used acts as an example of appealing to ethos since credibility levels are heightened in regard to the reasoning and additionally captures the attention of the reader through pathos since he or she gets into deep awareness of the suffering brought about by obesity which makes the reader want to know more about Jane and try find a solution to her suffering.

It therefore raise awareness using a story rather than percentages, graphs or tables which makes the reader understand the topic of concern better. Instead of drawing all attention to the medical aspect of obesity for instance in Ward-Smith article, Levitan and Davis outlines the addictive nature and relationship with foodstuff likely to initiate obesity (Levitan and Davis 784). It therefore, leads to development of obesity issues. A much detailed pathos point of view is given which relate obesity with state of mind and how it affects ones standard of living (Levitan and Davis 785). The reasoning is added weight by inclusion of a logos argument that obesity treatment poses a challenge as food deserts have prevalently developed making fast food more preferable (Levitan and Davis 785).

The association of obesity to genetic variations is a strong argument which is important in pathos since the reader can comprehend that obesity can be as a result of incontrollable factors. The shedding of light on obesity supports the pathos argument outlines that the mind gets addicted to foodstuffs just as it does with drugs (Levitan and Davis 789). Both articles however present powerful arguments on the issue of obesity hence giving the reader more details on the problem

Works Cited

Ward-Smith, Peggy. “Obesity-America’s health crisis.” Urologic nursing 30.4 (2010): 242.

Levitan, Robert D., and Caroline Davis. “Emotions and eating behaviour: Implications for the current obesity epidemic.” University of Toronto Quarterly 79.2 (2010): 783-799.

 

Child Abuse and Neglect

Child Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse refers to the treatment of children in a malicious way that affects their physical, psychological, or sexual mistreatment and neglect of a child. The mistreatment might be from parents, caregivers, educators or any person who may be directly linked with the children.  According to Chen and Chan, (2016), child neglect is a form of abuse of children where the child’s needs such as medical care, clothing, housing, nutrition, and education are not met. The federal government refers to child neglect and abuse as a form of failure of child caregivers to act as responsible parents for the child, which results in emotional, physical and sexual exploration and abuse.

Risk Factors of Child Abuse

Child abuse can arise from a number of issues that contribute to the risk of abuse increasing. The factors can be grouped into three, that is, the parental, environmental and child factors.

Parental

The parent may have abused other children or was abused at their tender ages. The mother might not be supported and may lack enough education or may be isolated and therefore abuses the child. In addition, the pregnancy may not have been wanted or the parent may not be mentally fit.

 

Environmental

Violence in the family, stress, poverty, overcrowding and lack of good nutrition in ma lead to child abuse (Houlgate, 2017). In addition, non-biological adults who may be living in the same house with the children may abuse these children.

Child

The child may have development or physical disability, lack of attachment between the parent and the child, or constantly falling seek, being unwanted colicky can lead to child abuse. Also, if the child is as a result of an abusive relationship, then it is possible that the child may be abused by the parent (s).

Signs and Symptoms of Child Abuse

            According to LLL, the signs and symptoms of that may suggest cases of child abuse, among others, include:

  • Slower development of their skills and abilities such as socializing and talking as compared other children of the same age.
  • Failure to gain weight and height over time.
  • Unusual parent-child relationship.
  • Emotional health issues such as low self-esteem, depression, thought of suicide, and anxiety.
  • The sudden drop in grades in school.
  • Children running away from home.
  • Signs of pain, discomfort, and fear.

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect

According to Pasalich, Cyr, Zheng, McMahon and Spieker (2016), prevention refers to the strategies and measures that can be undertaken in reducing the probability of a risk from occurring.  Some of the best ways to ensure that child abuse and neglect is curbed include:

  • Development of prevention programs and schemes
  • Promotion of the well-being of families and child-parent relationship
  • Making sure the public is aware of child abuse and that it affects the children.
  • Advocating for Psychological treatment and counseling to parents when they bear children and to those who are parents already.

Roles of Nurses in child abuse and neglect prevention

Primary

            Within the primary prevention, nurses should aim at preventing abuse before it begins by focusing on individuals from the community through expensive based projects to bring issues to the light of the issue and offer help administrations.

Secondary

            Nurses advocate for prevention through the development of programs which are aimed at minimizing the incidences of child neglect and abuse through the identification of families which are likely to abuse and neglect children and giving them supportive services to help them resolve their issues (Pasalich et al., 2016).

 

 

Tertiary

            Here, the nurses are expected to develop frameworks in which they can identify families where child abuse has recently occurred and design plans to help the affected children and the conflicting party to resolve their problems.

Intervention, Treatment, and Reporting

            The nurses should be ready to identify any child who is has been noted to be treated in any abusive way or with neglect. After the identification, the nurses should intervene and try to help these children in overcoming and solving the abuse issue. This process will thus lead to the treatment process, which is only necessary if there is any sexual or physical abuse or malnutrition and other neglects that may need treatment. Houlgate (2017) adds that the nurses should as well report their findings on the abuse of the child to the administration and health care services for preventive measures to be made in due time to reduce additional risks for the children. Any person should report the cases of child neglect if they notice any cases. The reporting can be done to the police stations or health care centers and thus the ones who receive the information can devise plans on solving the same (Chen & Chan, 2016). One of the referral points that is within the United States is the Prevent Child Abuse America organization, which is responsible for treatment, counseling and providing care for children who have been abused.

 

 

 

 

 

Differences between child abuse and child neglecting

Child Abuse Child Neglecting
Physical hurting of a child Failure to provide basic needs
Resulting effects can be treated but may cause long lasting effects. Can cause long-lasting effects on the child
Exist in three categories: physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Exist in four categories; physical, emotional, educational, and environmental neglect.
Examples include; sexual abuse, slapping, isolation, and threats. Examples include poor nutrition and lack of education.

Reporting of the cases should be similar since the cases affect children and may result in unwanted cases. According to Briere, Runtz, Eadie, Bigras and Godbout (2017), the types of abuse cannot be defined in the same way but their reporting systems should be similar. Therefore, many resources are available for the different types of abuse, which may include non-governmental aid, hospital care and the government and the police. The community nursing changes at every level of nursing prevention depending on the type of abuse. The nurses are expected to be more concerned with the community around those children being affected by abuse cases and with parents for the cases where neglect is noted.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the nurses play an important role in preventing child neglect and abuse. This is because it is their responsibility and mandate to ensure children have good security, health and physical and hence the nurses must ensure that children are not abused. The nurses are expected to report any cases of neglect to the administration for proper action to be undertaken in the event of reducing the associated risks arising from child abuse and neglect. As such, it is imperative to ensure the children are protected and the parents and caregivers have the necessary information on how to reduce and prevent child abuse and neglect.

Child Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse refers to the treatment of children in a malicious way that affects their physical, psychological, or sexual mistreatment and neglect of a child. The mistreatment might be from parents, caregivers, educators or any person who may be directly linked with the children.  According to Chen and Chan, (2016), child neglect is a form of abuse of children where the child’s needs such as medical care, clothing, housing, nutrition, and education are not met. The federal government refers to child neglect and abuse as a form of failure of child caregivers to act as responsible parents for the child, which results in emotional, physical and sexual exploration and abuse.

Risk Factors of Child Abuse

Child abuse can arise from a number of issues that contribute to the risk of abuse increasing. The factors can be grouped into three, that is, the parental, environmental and child factors.

Parental

The parent may have abused other children or was abused at their tender ages. The mother might not be supported and may lack enough education or may be isolated and therefore abuses the child. In addition, the pregnancy may not have been wanted or the parent may not be mentally fit.

Environmental

Violence in the family, stress, poverty, overcrowding and lack of good nutrition in ma lead to child abuse (Houlgate, 2017). In addition, non-biological adults who may be living in the same house with the children may abuse these children.

Child

The child may have development or physical disability, lack of attachment between the parent and the child, or constantly falling seek, being unwanted colicky can lead to child abuse. Also, if the child is as a result of an abusive relationship, then it is possible that the child may be abused by the parent (s).

Signs and Symptoms of Child Abuse

            According to LLL, the signs and symptoms of that may suggest cases of child abuse, among others, include:

  • Slower development of their skills and abilities such as socializing and talking as compared other children of the same age.
  • Failure to gain weight and height over time.
  • Unusual parent-child relationship.
  • Emotional health issues such as low self-esteem, depression, thought of suicide, and anxiety.
  • The sudden drop in grades in school.
  • Children running away from home.
  • Signs of pain, discomfort, and fear.

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect

According to Pasalich, Cyr, Zheng, McMahon and Spieker (2016), prevention refers to the strategies and measures that can be undertaken in reducing the probability of a risk from occurring.  Some of the best ways to ensure that child abuse and neglect is curbed include:

  • Development of prevention programs and schemes
  • Promotion of the well-being of families and child-parent relationship
  • Making sure the public is aware of child abuse and that it affects the children.
  • Advocating for Psychological treatment and counseling to parents when they bear children and to those who are parents already.

Roles of Nurses in child abuse and neglect prevention

Primary

            Within the primary prevention, nurses should aim at preventing abuse before it begins by focusing on individuals from the community through expensive based projects to bring issues to the light of the issue and offer help administrations.

Secondary

            Nurses advocate for prevention through the development of programs which are aimed at minimizing the incidences of child neglect and abuse through the identification of families which are likely to abuse and neglect children and giving them supportive services to help them resolve their issues (Pasalich et al., 2016).

 Tertiary

            Here, the nurses are expected to develop frameworks in which they can identify families where child abuse has recently occurred and design plans to help the affected children and the conflicting party to resolve their problems.

Intervention, Treatment, and Reporting

            The nurses should be ready to identify any child who is has been noted to be treated in any abusive way or with neglect. After the identification, the nurses should intervene and try to help these children in overcoming and solving the abuse issue. This process will thus lead to the treatment process, which is only necessary if there is any sexual or physical abuse or malnutrition and other neglects that may need treatment. Houlgate (2017) adds that the nurses should as well report their findings on the abuse of the child to the administration and health care services for preventive measures to be made in due time to reduce additional risks for the children. Any person should report the cases of child neglect if they notice any cases. The reporting can be done to the police stations or health care centers and thus the ones who receive the information can devise plans on solving the same (Chen & Chan, 2016). One of the referral points that is within the United States is the Prevent Child Abuse America organization, which is responsible for treatment, counseling and providing care for children who have been abused.

 

 

 

 

 

Differences between child abuse and child neglecting

Child Abuse Child Neglecting
Physical hurting of a child Failure to provide basic needs
Resulting effects can be treated but may cause long lasting effects. Can cause long-lasting effects on the child
Exist in three categories: physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Exist in four categories; physical, emotional, educational, and environmental neglect.
Examples include; sexual abuse, slapping, isolation, and threats. Examples include poor nutrition and lack of education.

Reporting of the cases should be similar since the cases affect children and may result in unwanted cases. According to Briere, Runtz, Eadie, Bigras and Godbout (2017), the types of abuse cannot be defined in the same way but their reporting systems should be similar. Therefore, many resources are available for the different types of abuse, which may include non-governmental aid, hospital care and the government and the police. The community nursing changes at every level of nursing prevention depending on the type of abuse. The nurses are expected to be more concerned with the community around those children being affected by abuse cases and with parents for the cases where neglect is noted.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the nurses play an important role in preventing child neglect and abuse. This is because it is their responsibility and mandate to ensure children have good security, health and physical and hence the nurses must ensure that children are not abused. The nurses are expected to report any cases of neglect to the administration for proper action to be undertaken in the event of reducing the associated risks arising from child abuse and neglect. As such, it is imperative to ensure the children are protected and the parents and caregivers have the necessary information on how to reduce and prevent child abuse and neglect

References

Briere, J., Runtz, M., Eadie, E., Bigras, N., & Godbout, N. (2017). Disengaged parenting: structural equation modeling with child abuse, insecure attachment, and adult symptomatology. Child Abuse & Neglect67, 260-270.

Chen, M., & Chan, K. L. (2016). Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China. Child Abuse & Neglect59, 45-54.

Houlgate, L. D. (2017). Child Abuse and Neglect. In Philosophy, Law and the Family (pp. 127-141). Springer International Publishing.

Pasalich, D. S., Cyr, M., Zheng, Y., McMahon, R. J., & Spieker, S. J. (2016). Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent–child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems. Child abuse & neglect56, 89-98

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Briere, J., Runtz, M., Eadie, E., Bigras, N., & Godbout, N. (2017). Disengaged parenting: structural equation modeling with child abuse, insecure attachment, and adult symptomatology. Child Abuse & Neglect67, 260-270.

Chen, M., & Chan, K. L. (2016). Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China. Child Abuse & Neglect59, 45-54.

Houlgate, L. D. (2017). Child Abuse and Neglect. In Philosophy, Law and the Family (pp. 127-141). Springer International Publishing.

Pasalich, D. S., Cyr, M., Zheng, Y., McMahon, R. J., & Spieker, S. J. (2016). Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent–child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems. Child abuse & neglect56, 89-98

Control process

Control process

Control Process Steps                                     

Establishment of standards

            Turning to the work of Chorafas (2004), one finds that the term standard is a criterion used for measuring results. Standards are norms that assist an organization to accomplish the set goals. The management of an organization can measure the standards using the output obtained (Plunkett, Allen & Attner, 2013). Non-monetary terms such as goodwill, loyalty and customer attraction can also be used to measure standard. Examples of standards in control process include cost standard, income standard among others.

Measuring the performance

            Measuring performance involves comparing the obtained result to what the company had intended to accomplish (Lester & Lester, 2007). In the control process measurement helps management to understand the deviation and devise ways of collecting the shortcomings. Chorafas (2004) argues that the measurement of predetermined and actual results should be similar. Measuring performance helps to reduce additional costs in the future operations.

Comparison between the actual and expected performances

            The management of any organization should compare the set goal and the actual result that the company obtains (Lester & Lester (2007). The comparison phase involves receiving the raw information, classification and recording of the acquired data, periodic evaluation and reporting the status. The comparison stage enables the managers to study the cause of deviations, effect and size of deviation (Plunkett, Allen & Attner, 2013).

Correction of deviations

            After learning the causes, effect and size of the differences, the management should take the appropriate measures to eliminate the deviations in the process. Lester and Lester (2007) state that effective correction of the failures involves the probes in the areas of variance.

Types of control

Premise control

            An organization designs the control to monitor continuously and methodologically the validity of the assumption.

Special alert control

            The control involves a rapid and rigorous reassessment of the firm’s strategy.

Implementation control

The application control comprises controlling the resources in implementing the policies.

Assessing the effectiveness of control

            Chorafas (2004) states that an organization can test the effectiveness of the control by comparing the results before and after the application of the control systems. Furthermore the cost involved in the process can be used to assess the high cost associated with poor performance of the control

References

Chorafas, D. N. (2004). Operational risk control with Basel II: Basic principles and capital requirements. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Lester, A., & Lester, A. (2007). Project management, planning and control: Managing engineering, construction and manufacturing projects to PMI, APM and BSI standards. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. N.p.

Plunkett, W. R., Allen, G. S., & Attner, R. F. (2013). Management: Meeting and exceeding customer expectations (10th Ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

 

Competitive Strategy E-Learning Activities

Competitive Strategy E-Learning Activities

Paragraph one

What is strategy?

            A strategy is a plan or method that an organization chooses in an attempt to establish the desired outcomes of the firm in the future. There are the various goals, tactics, objectives, and descriptions that an organization can adopt in their attempt to being effective in the industry or marketplace. The goals help in targeting a huge customer base in comparison to other players (Whittington, 2000). The goals or the tactics include being low cost providers in the industry, pursuing of global strategy by the organizations that help in targeting customers across the world, integration of a set of regional acquisitions, the companies can also have a tactic of providing unrivalled customer services across the world, always being the first movers and moving from defence to industrial applications. Strategy comes from a Greek word strategos that mean the art of general. Strategies demonstrate the strengths of an organization that can help in competing against other players in the industry. Viardot (2011) states that the executive of the modern organizations needs to develop strategies that lead to their victory.

From the video, a good strategy is the one that provides an answer to the following main four questions: where do we compete? Sadler (2003) argues that a good strategy should give direction on the areas that the company should compete in including the markets and the segment. What unique value do we bring to the market? The question helps in understanding why customers prefer purchasing from a certain market player. The unique values may include differentiation and low-cost strategies. What resources and capabilities do we use in delivering the value? Whittington (2000) records that an organization should evaluate the capital it has, technology and intangible resources including reputation in delivering value to the customers. Capabilities are the things that the company can be able to do or the potential to use the available resources in producing goods and services needed by the customers. How do we sustain the potential of providing the unique value? In sustaining the ability to provide the value, the organization may have various imitations, ability to exclude competitors in the provision of certain goods and services. The question helps in analyzing the factors that an organization to continue being competitive in the market taking into consideration other players in the same industry. IKEA is an example of clearly identified strategy that has been competing across the world

The company has been inexpensive in comparison to other players in the furniture industry, the skills possessed by the company employees is greater than the one held by the local operators, the company has been providing unique value to its customers through proper choice of the markets, low shipping cost for its products to the customers, the company also has technology that helps in mass production of products that help in reducing the cost of operation. Sadler (2003) postulates that different factors including skills of the employees play a key role in determining the position of a company in the industry in comparison to other market players.

Business model innovation

The business model of an organization determines the competitiveness and success of an organization. Business should focus on future even as they conduct their daily activities such as serving the customers. The success of today is the enemy of tomorrow’s success. Innovation increases the value of customers of a service or lower cost of operation and therefore creating competitive advantage. There are various misconceptions about innovation including views such as innovation results from ideas that nobody else has discovered them, big success requires big resources among others. Most successful organizations have innovated their business model. Business model enhances the success of an organization by answering some questions including who are the target customers, what the company offer, how the company creates value and means of generating revenue. There are 55 models that are responsible for the innovation of all business models. There are four steps that an organization can follow in developing its model and are initiation, ideation, integration and implementation.

Turning to the work of Abramson and Littman (2002) one finds that a company should carefully analyse its current model in developing new models. After initiation, the firm should confront the current model with the 55 business models pattern and develop the new pattern. The firm should then check the consistency of the model and then implement it. In development and implementation of the business model, there are various rules that the business should adhere to and include: only implement one business model at a time, clearly communicate the new business model and the need for change, make sure that the process takes the necessary time for it to be effective, get the new management commitment and overcome or avoid the not invented syndrome.  According to Kaplan (2012), innovation is the key factor that contributes to the success of an organization. In additional to technology and new ideas, innovation also includes learning from other people or organizations and re-inventing the model.

Paragraph two

Application

Strategy

            Nestle company is an Australian company that has been dealing with the various range of products. Research by Lee (2010) shows that the company operates in various countries in the world. The company operates by providing a range of products including food products and drinks. Some of the products that the company has been offering include breakfast cereals, water, chocolate, canned beans among other products. The company has been selling its products at relatively low prices in comparison to other players making it competitive across the globe. The company has also been educating its employees across all regions that it operates on how to deal with the clients with an aim of improving its position. Diversification strategy helps in maintaining the sustainability of an organization (Viardot, 2011). Nestle company has been diversifying through the production of products that is fit for different categories of people and therefore provides value effectively in the industry. The company has established a good reputation and has good technology that has enabled efficient production and delivery of the products to the outlets for easy access by the customers. Brand of the company has been helping the organization in providing value to its customers without great interference and has great imitation in the market. Because of proper services and quality goods, the company has continued being able to influence the customers towards their operations.

Business model innovation

            Volycom Company has been working to provide various products and services that facilitate telecommunication including phones and accessories. According to Abramson and Littman (2002), the company has been operating in a competitive environment where it faces competition from Techno Company and airtel. Trapp (2014) states that to remain competitive in the market, a company should consistently employ competitive advantage techniques that help in improving their competitiveness. Volycom Company has been inventing new ideas and technology that has helped in sustaining it in the market. The company has also improved on the innovation of business model. The business model of the company has helped in explaining to the customers and the general public the products and services that the company offer. Through the explanation of the products and services, the firm has been able to acquire more loyal customers and therefore improving the competitive edge of the firm. In addition, the model helps in explaining the target customers for its products and services, how the company creates value for the products and services it offers and how the company generates revenue.

Research by In Foss and In Saebi (2015) show that Volycom Company started by analyzing the current model in the attempt to develop a new model for the well-being of the company. The firm the employs the available 55 business mottos to develop a new model, check the consistency of the developed model and finally implementing. To remain competitive, the firm has actively been involved in innovating new ideas and model by learning from other companies operating in the same field. The company has been communicating its innovated idea to the members as well as to the intended clients

References

Abramson, M. A., & Littman, I. D. (2002). Innovation. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

In Foss, N. J., & In Saebi, T. (2015). Business model innovation: The organizational dimension.

Kaplan, S. (2012). Business model innovation factory: How to stay relevant when the world is changing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Lee, G. (2010). Business process management of Japanese and Korean companies. New Jersey: World Scientific.

Sadler, P. (2003). Strategic management. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page.

Trapp, M. (2014). Realizing business model innovation: A strategic approach for business unit managers.

Viardot, E. (2011). The timeless principles of successful business strategy. New York: Springer.

Whittington, R. (2000). What is strategy, and does it matter? London: Routledge.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TD7WSLeQtVw (8:47) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4ZSGQW0UMI (8:22)

Fall of the Roman Empire

Fall of the Roman Empire

The reign of the roman empire came tumbling in the late fourth century,having served as a global superpower for nearly 500 years. Claims have been put forward that the fall of the Empire was not in the 476 A.D, but rather in a thousand more years when the eastern part of the Empire continued for the given period (Heather, 2006). Different issues depending on the timeframe affected the fall of Rome. The factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire on along the 5th Century have been discussed below.

Principle factors in the Empire’s decline

            Different Scholars have put forward theories that try to explain the fall of the Roman Empire. The factors that have been made in describing the Fall of Rome in the 5th Century, among others, include:

Invasion by the tribes of the Barbarians

The Western Empire faced a blow when the Germanic tribes invaded their state. Groups such as the Franks, Saxons, Vandals, Lombards, and Angels took turns in ensuring the Empire was ravaged and kept the wave blowing the Roman Empire. According to Heather (2006), the groups had encroached past the empire’s frontiers. However, in the late 4rth century, the Romans staged a rebellion against the German uprising. Eventually, in 476 C.E, the remaining emperor in the West, Odoacer, their overall leader who resisted, overthrew Romulus and became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome. Since then, no Roman Emperor would ever be in a position to decide from a post in Italy.

The rise of the Empire on the East

According to Markel (2008), when Emperor Diocletian divided the Empire into the two halves, governance was made easy in the two separate empires, but as time passed, the two halves drifted apart, and this partially led to the fate of the Western Rome Empire to fall. The Eastern Empire seated in Byzantium while the Western Empire was located in the City of Milan. Both the East and West Empires did not work together in combating the threats that were posed by the outside world. While the Eastern Empire grew in their wealth and improved the security within their borders, the Western Empire tumbled into economic crisis, and this led the invasion by the Barbarian.

Corrupt Governance and Instability of the politics

Bribery and abuse became a norm and trended between the late fourth and the fifth Century. The very officials who were responsible for investigating and curbing corruption within the Western Rome Empire would use their prominent positions in protection from the government in accepting a bribe and promoting the abuse of the laws (Nardo, 2001).

There was inconsistent and ineffective leadership that served to magnify and enlarge the problem of the large size of the Western Roman Empire that was not easy to manage. There was inconsistent leadership within the Empire as during the third century, more than 20 men had died as they took hold of the throne to be emperors within a range of 75 years. The personal bodyguards of the emperor assassinated and installed new sovereigns at will. The poor leadership resulted to the collapse of the empire.

Spread of Christianity and loss of the traditional values

            Christianity played a key role in destruction of the empire. The religion was more common among the poor, and at times, the Romans persecuted the Christians. Constantine brought to a halt the persecution of believers and declared toleration of the religion. Later in 380 C.E, Christianity became the official state religion of the Empire. The religion displaced the polytheistic religion of the Romans that saw the Emperor having divine status and shifted the glory of the nation to Christianity. The change of focus to Christianity from led to undermining the traditions of the Romans and this, in turn, affected the fall of the Empire (Markel, 2008).

 Military Overspreading and Overexpansion

            The Roman Empire stretched from the River Euphrates in the Middle East to the Atlantic Ocean, which promoted a lot in its fall. The administration of the empire was faced with encumbrances in dealing and governing such a vast empire (Nardo, 2001). Communication was not efficient even with their perfect systems of road and transportation in place. The resources and troops that were deployed to control it did not curb the local rebellions that occurred within Rome, and when outside attacks started to happen, the Empire failed to defend their frontiers. Technological improvement in Rome slowed down the civil infrastructure of Rome, and the state fell in despair.

Economic Crisis and the slave labor

The financial crisis within Rome was tearing the Empire apart as the outside forces pulled out constant attacks on them. The poor and the rich had a wide gap between them due to the inflation rate within the state that caused an increase in the taxation. Also, the inflation was due to constant wars that needed funding. The empire was faced with the challenge of labor deficit and the economy of Rome depended vastly on the slaves to work as craftsmen, and till the fields of their state. As a way of avoiding taxation, the wealthy families had set camps in the countryside, and they had their ways of making money from the other ends. Rome’s supply of slaves deteriorated when Vandals began to disrupt the trading system of the Empire as pirates in the Mediterranean Sea (Markel, 2008). The Empire began to fall as a result of the decline in production of agricultural and commercial products which had led to the collapse of their economy and the lack of slaves to provide their services for the firm to use in improving their economic status.

How Rome could have prevented their Fall

Rome’s fall was inevitable since the Empire itself promoted most of the factors that led to the collapse of the state. The Emperor’s leaders were in a position of ensuring that the state was better and that cases of bribery did not exist but they failed to do so, and the Empire had corrupt leaders. In such a way that they punished Christianity in the beginning, the Roman Empire should have condoned the corruption from the start (Heather, 2006). Additionally, the Empire should have sought ways of improving their economic status by gaining the confidence of the people they served and urging them to help curb the financial crisis that was facing the Empire.

Conclusion

Key principles that contributed to the empire collapse could not have been avoided from the start. However, if enough work had been put into play, the Empire could have taken its ground, fought for their rights, and achieved victory. On the other hand, factors such as invasion by the Barbarians were inevitable and curbing them would have been an uphill task.

References

Heather, P. (2006). The fall of the Roman Kingdom: a new past of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.

Markel, R. (2008). The fall of the Roman Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.

Nardo, D. (2001). The end of ancient Rome. San D

Supreme court and stastistics

Alejandro Avila Trial

Case Identification

On July 15, 2002, a five-year-old girl, Samantha Runnion was kidnaped while playing with her friend outside her home at California condominium complex by Alejandro Avila. The accused pretended to ask for his missing Chihuahua after which he grabbed (kidnapped) the girl and forcefully pushed her into his car, after which the girl was sexually molested and strangled (Concannon, 2013).

The Courts Ruling

After the criminal act, the parents pressed charges. Since there was no particular evidence, the hearing was suspended.  On October 8th, 2002 the prosecutor, presented the first evidence of the kidnapping clamming that the DNA test results found of the girl’s fingers were the same as those of Alejandro Avila tissues. Subsequently to the hearing, on 2nd December the legal team of Alejandro Avila requested some more time for serious analysis over the DNA evidence presented to which the judge Francisco Briseno declined. Apart from the judges ruling the case was delayed since the evidence presents were not enough to accuse Mr. Alejandro, along with other developments such as the witness illness and could not avail for the court hearing on 18th November 2004. The delays carried on till the following year April 20, 2005, were pictures from the crime scene were presented to the court. Additionally, there were two more women including Alejandro former girlfriend who witnessed to the court of his harassment. Similarly, a computer expert dealing with the case also brought forth evidence that showed child pornography content on the defendant’s computer.

 

Conclusion of the Case

As a result of the proceedings and the evidence presented, Judge William R. Froeberg of the Orange County Superior Court rejected  Alejandro Avila plead for the court’s mercy over his acts and sentenced him to a death penalty, which happened at a court hearing on July 22, 2005

Topic Two

Person’s arrested for Federal Offenses

Analysis of the Table

In 2001 individuals who were arrested for any related federal offenses, drug offenses seemed to be the highest in that period as it amounted to 28.5% of all the crimes in that category. Immigration offenses came second with 21% score count amounting to 24794 cases, a 16.1% for supervisory cases followed third. The only other major crime in the category that gained more than 10% was property cases that amounted to 14.3%.  Although the property crime was the primary title for crimes like fraud, forgery, embezzlement and fraudulent, to which fraudulent was most popular in the sub category as it amounted to 11.4% of the 14.3% mark of the group. Other offenses like gambling offense, car theft, sexual abuse, child support and civil rights cases to name but a few, were not popular because they were below 1% of the total crimes (Maguire, 2016).

Explanation of the Data

The presented information of the year 2001, is as a result of the recorded data from all agencies involved in crime issues, the table represented an actual image of the situation on the ground. However, crimes such as tax violation, public order offense, and fraud were on an alarming mark as they counted more than 7% of the cases. Overwhelmingly, in relation to the statistics, murder and manslaughter cases were the most disturbing for the reason that for the year they recorded more than 4,843 personal cases.

Reference

Concannon, D. M. (2013). Kidnapping An Investigator’s Guide. Newnes.

Maguire, K. (Ed.). (2016). Sourcebook of criminal justice statisti

Voice Technology

Voice Technology

Introduction

Today, most businesses are increasingly relying on information technology so as to effectively conduct their business operations. More and more businesses are challenged with the most effective applicable methods when using the voluminous amount of data in order to steer growth as well as to improve their competitive position (Vaughan, 2011). Recently, I had the opportunity to experiment with information lines that have become a common medium of communication by many businesses as well as in public services. In this regard, I inquired for different services such as; direction search, horoscope, news feed as well as Oracle’s share stock price. However, to get varying experiences, I used different accents and locations. In this paper, I will share my personal experience and investigate ways of creating and improving mobile friendly websites while at the same time seek to explore services that may be incorporated to voice recognition websites.

  • Question two

My personal experience was quite eye-opening as different systems made me to be aware that both content and sound of my voice have the capacity of providing clues about my personal dialect and emotional state. Therefore;

  1. When I tried to use other accents that do not naturally belong to me, I came to realize that my message got distorted across different communication lines.
  2.  I discovered that effective speaking is more concerned with actually being in a position of speaking in a public context, while at the same time reflecting both clarity and confidence in my voice (Vaughan, 2011).
  3.  I realized that effective voice is achieved in an environment where there is neither noise nor pressure to conform to any expectations or rules. This is because as I tried to communicate in noisy environment where there was pressure, my message tended to get distorted.
  • Question three

While designing a web design, it is critical to incorporate designs that are accessible from all types of mobile devices such as the huge flat-screen and tiny devices. Therefore;

  1. I will ensure that designs incorporate strategies that ensure that they are adaptive and responsive, besides displaying well in various devices (Woods & United States, 2003).
  2. The web designs are supposed to be simplified so that more people are able to access and use them. To achieve this, I may decide to view on certain platforms such as GooglrGoMoMeter, so as to identify any kind of changes that are needed in the design.
  3. I will ensure that design have large font sizes, simpler page design, big touchable buttons as well as having visible critical information concerning cooking recipes.
  4.  Finally to get consumers for the cooking recipes, I will provide important personal details such as name, phone number and any accessible link at the extreme top left in the web site’s home page (Woods & United States, 2003).
  • Question four

As a web designer I know that voice recognition website may not be in a position to speak the exact same way they speak under normal conditions such as when using slang (Pautasso, Bussler & Gschwind, 2008). To improve user experience in for cooking consumers, there are several strategies that I may employ;

  1. The first main important service is having an extensive list of voice commands that would be effective during formatting and editing processes of texts.
  2. Secondly, it is critical to have a dictation that is functional on any type of browser or app that has a virtual keyboard.
  3. Lastly, most consumers would want to multitask while dictating. For this reason, having the services of a voice dictation app would be an ideal solution.

References

Vaughan, J. (2011). Web Scale Discovery Services: A Library Technology Report. Chicago: ALA Editions.

Woods, W. T., & United States. (2003). Contracting for information technology services. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

Pautasso, C., Bussler, C., & Gschwind, T. (2008). Emerging Web services technology. Basel: Birkhauser.

Price in Marketing Strategy

Price in Marketing Strategy

Pricing Strategy

A pricing strategy can be either long-term or a short-term plan. Prior to developing a strategy for either the long term or short-term plan, the entrepreneur should consider many factors. Keating (2010) explains that the value of one’s product should be compared with that of the competitor. One should also determine whether the market has the ability and the willingness to purchase such a product. The product should have the ability to increase the company’s profits and enable the firm to meet its returns and market distribution objectives (Davidson & Simonetto, 2012). Even before developing a pricing strategy, it is prudent to identify the position of the company, develop a brand strategy and define the channels hoof distribution so that the pricing reveals the value of the product and support the brand (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). Pricing should be taken seriously, as it has an influence on the thoughts of the customers about the product.

First-class pricing, market incursion pricing, cost-cutting pricing, price floating, psychosomatic pricing and fortune pricing are the main pricing strategies known (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). First class pricing involves setting prices far much higher than the costs the competitors are charging for the same product. The strategy is advantageous to small-scale businesses that produce unique goods and is always effective in the early stages of a product life in the market (Keating, 2010). Market incursion pricing offers low prices for products with an aim of attracting more customers. However, Iftinca and Altier (2016) claim that the strategy can lead to losses in the early stages. Cost-cutting pricing is meant for customers who are cost cognizant. The strategy forces the production industries to reduce their costs of production and marketing with an aim of keeping the prices of the products down (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). Price floating strategy lets companies increase the sales volume of new products in the market by charging high costs during the early stages of the product life and gradually reducing the costs as competitors become many in the market. Psychosomatic pricing is a way sellers attract buyers emotionally rather than logically for example by setting a price at $99 instead of $100 (Svendsen, 1999). Finally, fortune pricing involves selling a package of products at a cheaper price that if they would sell each product individually. It is in some way offering free gifts to buyers for purchasing one’s products.

The pricing strategy that should be employed in photo mix max is price-floating strategy with an adoption of psychosomatic pricing. The rationale behind this price floating strategy is that it will allow the company to increase the profit levels as it adapts to the market before it reduces the prices to attract the cost-cognizant buyers. According to Iftinca and Altier (2016), the strategy helps the company recover the costs it used in its development and create a first-time impression of its exclusive quality when the product is first released out to the consumers. Alongside price floating, the psychosomatic strategy aims at creating an impression of affordable prices even if the difference between $100 and $99 is actually minimal (Krstic & Becic, 2011). This is justified by the habit of customers concentrating on the first digit in a price rather than the last digit.

Testing for Price Suitability

The price strategy is tried against various trading circumstances within the market. The pricing strategy may not be applicable in some divisions of the company. In most circumstances, high prices may lead to wastage of money or lose on major company dealings. In determining the best price, a list of all the trading circumstances is tested and analyzed to know the effects on income that can be caused by different prices (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). To test the fitness of the price, the price selected is compared with that of competitors. The pricing strategy has to be changed for a new strategy if the differences between the competitors and individual prices cannot be justified (Krstic & Becic, 2011). The projections the company makes about nature of products and services in the future should be accomplished so that the customers will build and develop trust on the company products.

 

Profitability Strategy

In order to make profits, the company should be able to cater for the cost of its expenses. Careful evaluation of spending costs is a necessary step to take before determining a price (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). The costs should be categorized into variable and fixed overheads. Fixed costs include spending needs that are always there regardless of the capacity of the profits and sale sizes. Variable costs are the spending requirements that are directly proportional to the increase in sales (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). An example of fixed cost is rent and market rates whereas an example of variable costs is an increase in labor and raw material requirements. The price set ought to be higher than the variable costs of production of the goods and services.

Market Suitability

The product photo mix max in NYC suits the market as before the product had been developed, marketing strategy had been created. Selection of the target market and the placing of the product had also been done before (Keating, 2010) .Apart from the value of the product, price is another key variable used in putting the product in place in the market. The product promotion and distribution decisions of other products produced by competitor’s influences the price (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). The demand curve of the product indicates how the sales of the product have been positively influenced by the pricing selected. However, the company should not stop carrying out various tests of the price above and below the existing price. This is because of the elasticity of price in demand. If inelastic demand is realized then price should be increased.

Distribution Channels Effects on the Pricing

Multiple channels of distribution of the photo mix max should be adopted. It is not possible to sell directly the products from the manufacturer to the consumers. Therefore, it is efficient to have several distribution channels. Intermediaries are of great importance in both the business entity and the customers (Keating, 2010). The players facilitate the enhanced competence, better grouping of products, creating a routine in transactions and connecting of goods to various customers. The company will lose its greater power above the manufactured goods and spend extra on every channel of distribution if the number of middle-men in the channel of distribution rise (Davidson & Simonetto, 2012). More intermediaries, however, cause a wider market. Successful running of the distribution channels includes the creation of better relationships among intermediaries. Iftinca and Altier (2016) argues that encouraging the independence of each member of the distribution channel will lead to efficiency of the pricing strategy selected. Structuring the distribution channels independently improves on how the members of the distribution channel relate to each other.

References

Davidson, A. & Simonetto, M. (2012). Pricing strategy and execution: an overlooked way to increase revenues and profits. Strategy & Leadership, 33(6), 25-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10878570510631639

Iftinca, M. & Altier, C. (2016). Stacking up Cav3.2 channels. Channels, 1-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2016.1242289

Keating, B. (2010). Distribution Channels: Understanding and Managing Channels to Market20101Julian Dent. Distribution Channels: Understanding and Managing Channels to Market. London: Kogan Page 2008. 338 pp., ISBN: 13: 978‐0‐74945‐256‐8 £35.00 Edited by Geoffrey P. Lantos. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(4), 312-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421011059630

Krstic, I. & Becic, S. (2011). Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage. Svendsen, A. (1999). The stakeholder strategy (1st Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Marketing, 42(2), 118-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/markt1102118k

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