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Plea Bargains

Plea Bargains

Introduction

There are many successful criminal prosecutions particularly in the United States that have not necessarily ended with jury trials. Most of these criminal persecutions have ended through plea bargains. Typically, plea bargains are legal agreements that are developed between prosecutors and the defenders. In this case, defenders agree to plead guilty either partially or fully in regards to charges leveled against them. This paper will discuss why plea bargaining should not be banned in the United States.

Argue For Plea Bargains

Plea bargains allow prosecutors to agree with defenders in reducing the degree or punishment originally intended for defenders. This is accomplished by reducing the severity or number of charges that may be accorded to the defenders. In addition, plea bargains allow both parties to make recommendations such as for defenders to receive reduced sentences. However, it is important to note that some specific plea bargains require the defenders to do more than just pleading guilty. For instance, prosecutors typically provide favorite plea bargains to some defenders who also agree to make testimonies regarding state cases that have been leveled against other defenders or criminals in the society.

Plea bargains should not be banned in the United States also because it allows judicial stakeholders to work in unison regarding specific cases. This means that both defenders and the prosecutors are allowed to work with judges in the process of making determinations in regards to the type of sentence that should be offered to defenders (Legal Information Institute 1). This is only if they agree to accept a plea bargains. This means that individuals in the society who have committed felonies in the state are able to accept their mistakes as well as punishment for their actions. However, it is important to note that in many cases, the roles and responsibilities of judges is seen to be limited. For instance, federal judges tend to retain the ultimate authority regarding sentencing decisions. This means that they are not bound by prosecutors’ specific recommendations.

It is important to note that plea bargains tend to reduce state resources that could otherwise be spent on long and tedious cases. For instance in the case of Robert M. Brandy vs. United States, both the prosecutors and the defender agreed to a plea bargain. Brandy was charged with kidnapping, which is a violation of 18 U.S. 120(a) statutes (Legal Information Institute 1). The petitioner was risking a maximum death penalty since the actual action was not liberated unharmed. Through his counsel, the petitioner agreed to a plea bargain that resulted to reduced sentences of 50 years that were later reduced to 30 years.  This is a classic case where the state could have used more resource since the trial judges were not willing to try it without a jury (Legal Information Institute 2).

In addition, it is important to note that plea bargains should not be banned because they are constitutional. This means that defender’s guilty pleas are usually voluntary in nature such as in the case of Brandy vs. United States. This means that the defenders only agree to plea bargains after fully understanding the consequences of such actions.

Conclusion

In summary, given that they are regarded as contracts between prosecutors and defenders, prosecutors are not bound by any agreed deal if the defenders break their side of bargains. Additionally, a defender is allowed to seek some form of relief if the prosecutor negates their side of bargain.

Works Cited

Legal Information Institute. Case of Robert M. Brandy vs. United States. Accessed through> https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/397/742. Date Accessed. August 1, 2017. Web

Oil Spill

Oil Spill

Oil wastes having access to ocean waters emanate from numerous sources. As Perrons (2013) observe some are accidental spills or leaks from wells and vessels transporting oil and related products.  Other spills are as a result of acute prolonged and careless habitual methods in handling oil usage. The research paper will handle Ixtoc 1 oil spill, give a brief history of the actual happening, corrective actions undertaken to counter the spill and highlight agencies involved. The essay will ultimately discuss the disregarded compliance standards.

Brief Summary

According to United States (2011), oil exploration exercise was undergoing on 3rd June 1979 when Ixtoc 1 blew out and started pouring crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico.  The semi-submersible drilling rig was undertaking the activity northwest of Ciudad Del Carmen when the well suffered a massive blow out resulting to an oil spill of its kind in history. A series on facts show that the blow was gushing oil 20 feet into the air estimated to be approximately 30,000 to 45,000 barrels a day. The well lacked the counter pressure mechanism resulting to excessive force formation in the well column consequently blowing out the well. The aftermath of the blow was fire breakup making Sedco 135F collapse in the sea (Perrons, 2013). Sinking of the rig constrained efforts to control the blow. The fire was caused by the ignition of oil and gas coming out of the well. Three companies i.e. Sedco, a Texas run American company, Permargo and Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexican state agencies were undertaking the oil drilling operation. The well poured out oil into the gulf for nearly ten months releasing approximately 126 million oil gallons. The turn of events of IXTOC-1 catastrophe made the spill the second largest accidental well blow out into the marine waters.

As United States (2011) explains, a day prior to the massive blowout, the three exploring agencies had drilled a depth of 3,615 meters. The level was made of soft sedimentary soil causing the weight of the bit to reduce. A fracture developed on the piping resulting to an entire loss of material circulation in the well. As the engineers from the drilling corporations deliberated on the appropriate corrective action for the glitch, oil and pressure started building up in the well column. The representatives from the companies agreed to mend the fracture by substituting the drill bit with open pipes to force oil downwards. The pressure however was overwhelming and had reached an unstable level causing mud to increase. The operators installed preventer, a safety mechanism to curb potential blow out. The device however failed to work properly after activation attempts by PeMex operators. Increased mud filled the drill pipes hampering the blades from closing and shearing in the right way. The series of events amounted to a catastrophic blowout that transpired at 3.30, June 3rd. The escaping oil and gas ignited leading to a massive explosion. United States (2011) notes that the inferno lasted until 10.00 am following day making the drilling tower collapse and capsize. The oil and gas continued gushing out violently for a duration of 290 days making the venture a total loss.

Corrective actions

Within the period of the disastrous occurrence, attempts were made to cap the pouring out. Though some proved fruitful, the minor successes were realized slowly. Current research on the topic shows that later in August the teams managed to pump 100, 000 steel, iron and lead balls into the well significantly reducing the flow to 10,000 gallons a day. Mexican authorities drilled two relief wells adjacent to the pouring well. Drilling assisted reduce the buildup pressure further. Divers attempted to manually cap the blowout preventer that had failed but in vain (United States, 2011). A combination of cement and salt water was injected into the well. PeMex Corporation successfully sealed and stopped flow of oil using cement plugs. PeMex liaised with Conair aviation to project Corexit a chemical depressant to mitigate impact of spilled oil. The aviation managed to flow 493 aerial missions, handling 1,100 square miles of oil. To lower impact of oil on Barrier Island beaches, skimmers and booms were placed to safeguard inlets to the bays and lagoons (Perrons, 2013).

The spill on areas such as Aransas Pass and Brazos-Santiago Pass was sealed with sand. Cleaning was undertaken to dispense oil slick on environmentally and economically sensitive islands. Rakes and shovels were employed by laborers to maintain the beaches slick free. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service trained volunteers in handling oil birds. The trained crew carried beach patrols on Padre Island. As Perrons (2013) postulate bird cleaning stations were established by the USFWS as part of the corrective measures. PeMex one of the drilling corporations set up drilling platforms that limited shrimpers and fishers from accessing marine region affected by the oil spill. The restrictions allowed replenishing of fish stocks and prevented fishers from tampering with corrective mechanism. Emergency corrective actions on oil contaminated soil in the region adjacent to the gulf were undertaken. A fuel oil storage tank was submersed 100 feet from the coastal water way on the ground to help clean up affected soils. The fuel tank covered with an impermeable liner equipped with a drainage pipe was used to inject storm water inside polluted soils.

Actions such as excavation of tarnished soils and removal of free floating oil on stagnant water were undertaken. The scooped soils were disposed as special waste away from human and animal habitations (Perrons, 2013). The excavated areas were later regraded and filled with clean soils. Revegetation of affected island and beaches was done using native flora. Water collected in the containment areas was manually pumped and consequently treated. Mechanical clean-up was undertaken to dispense oil from water surface. Activities such as corralling of slicks for example using booms and tow-vessels were undertaken. Moreover, measures such as skimming of slicks using special apparatus and vessels were implemented. Equipment made of synthetic polymers were utilized to enable collecting of slick and prevent formation of oil emulsions. Oil slick on water in remote areas was undertaken as a remedial action. Bioremediation, a treatment option was used in removing oil surfaces (Hoang, Washington State & Washington State Library, 2007). As part of corrective actions the corporations undertaking the exploration in the Mexican gulf developed spill prevention, control and countermeasures plan to prevent occurrence of a similar ordeal. The plan outlined the procedures and equipment such as dikes and terms for spill prevention. The companies integrated plant integrity testing and leak testing to ensure sound operating conditions of wells and vessels.

Agencies involved

Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council

The Economies of the Gulf Coast States Act created the council comprised of governors from states affected by Ixtoc 1 oil spill. According to Hoang et al., (2007) the council was involved in enacting corrective actions to ensure that Gulf of Mexico recovers from the disastrous impacts of the spill.

The Natural Resource Damage Assessment

The agency was involved in separate processes and undertook different responsibilities to ensure recovery of Gulf Environment. The NRDA committed resources used to undertake cleanup exercise in the marine waters. The council mission during the aftermath was to restore the ecosystem and revamp the economy for the Gulf region residents (Perrons, 2013). Efforts by the administrators and stakeholders were aimed at restoring Gulf Coast to its usual vibrant status.

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

The foundation showed commitment to implementing corrective measures stipulated in the Gulf Environmental Benefit Fund. Activities by NFWF were directed at ensuring projects financed by GEBF resulted to natural resource conservation for the Gulf Coast inhabitants (United States, 2011).

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S agency invited and trained volunteers in handling affected oil birds. The team undertook patrols along Gulf Coast islands as part of clean up exercise. USFWS established bird cleaning stations for restoration of Mexican Gulf.

Compliance standards violated

The clean water act and the oil pollution avoidance standards were violated. The regulations as Hoang et al., (2007) explain set forth requirements for prevention, preparedness and swift response to oil spills. The standards require corporations to design and execute oil spill prevention, control and countermeasure strategies. The regulations by EPA stipulate that corporations develop and implement plant and machine integrity tests to prevent accidental oil discharges (Committee for Sustaining Oklahoma’s Energy Resources, Enviro Clean Services, Lodes & Laura Worthen, Murphy, 2014). The EPA requires firms to comply to clean water laws and regulations to safeguard human and plant life. Facilities must have SPCC plan and outline measures to prevent and contain a potential oil spill disaster.

References

Committee for Sustaining Oklahoma’s Energy Resources.; Enviro Clean Services.; Lodes, & Laura Worthen.; Murphy, K. (2014). Spill prevention, control & countermeasure (SPCC) and air regulations update. SOER.

Hoang, N., Washington (State), & Washington State Library. (2007). Concise explanatory statement for the adoption of facility handling standards (WAC 173-180-025) ; vessel oil transfer advance notice and containment requirements (WAC 173-184-025) ; oil spill contingency planning (WAC 173-182-030) ; pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WAC 173-183-100 & 320) ; definitions (WAC 317-05-020). Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Dept. of Ecology.

Perrons, R. (2013). Assessing the damage caused by deepwater horizon : not just another Ixtoc oil spill. Elsevier Ltd.

United States. (2011). Macondo: The Gulf oil disaster : Chief Counsel’s report. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling.

History and Religion of Ancient China and India

History and Religion of Ancient China and India

Work of early Chinese Art

Turning to the work of Clammer (2012), one finds that Chinese art is a virtual art that is either modern or ancient and is practiced or originated in China or done by artists from China. History recognises the art from china as the oldest and continuous tradition across the globe. The transmission media that used to be classified in the western culture since decorative art and renaissance have continued being useful and essential in the Chinese art. Most of the work concerning textiles, ceramics among other techniques was produced over a long duration by various workshops and factories in the country that were distributed abroad and also internally as a way of demonstrating powers and wealth of the emperors. The work of traditional art includes:

Painting

According to Clammer, (2012), the early painting in China involved the application of similar techniques like Chinese Calligraphy done with a brush dipped in a coloured ink. The most useful materials with calligraphy on which painting are made were silk and paper. The paintings can also be made on the walls, folding screens, album sheets among other media. Artist from Han to Tang dynasties commonly used to paint the figure of human. Most of figure painting in the country mostly comes from burial areas where the paintings were commonly preserved in lacquered objects, silk banners among others.

Sculpture

The ritual bronzes of Chinese from western Zhou and Shang dynasties has been in existence for a long time frame and has continued influencing the Chinese art. The bronzes were commonly placed in the tombs to avoid continuous sacrificing to the dead members of the country. The sculpture affect the culture and values of the Chinese through application of images to represent different events, occurrences among other ceremonies (Clammer, 2012).

Pottery

Pottery has been an earlier work of Chinese art (Clammer, 2012). The ceramic ware in china has been showing a continuous development and is recognised as one among the most essential types of Chinese arts. The first form of ceramics was performed during Palaeolithic era. The art has been continuing since the ancient periods affecting the culture and value of Chinese.

The origin of Indian culture

Research by Clammer (2012) shows that India is among the oldest civilized countries in the world. The culture of the country has continuously been labelled as an amalgamation of different cultures came from Indian subcontinents. Invaders in the country have been influencing the culture of the country. Through invaders the Dharmic religion was introduced in the country that continues affecting the culture of the country. Through introduction of different culture by the invaders, the philosophy, architecture, music, art and literature of the country has been changing (Clammer, 2012). Invaders contributed to the culture of India through introduction of different religions that including Hinduism and Buddhism that have been spreading throughout the country. Invaders brought about the Muslim religion in the state that practically played a critical role in shaping the cultural heritage in the country. Clammer (2012) postulates that there has been integration of Jains, Sikhs with Muslim and Hindu across the country due to the influence of invaders.

Work of early Indian art

Research by Clammer (2012) shows that art in India began during the Stone Age in the Palaeolithic culture. Much of the Indian art has religious context and the work of early Indian art include sculpture, painting, architecture among others.

 Sculpture

The oldest examples of art in the country came from Indus Valley that flourished from an approximate of 3200 to 2000 BC. Many, small and different sculptures of clay and metal survived from this period (Clammer, 2012).  The sculptures commonly represent animal or human figures. Additional object includes soapstone. Sculpture in the country included the Buddhist Sculpture that flourished between 321-184 BC including large pillars of stones that stood at important sites and crossroad and Hindu sculpture.

Painting

In early years, printing was taken as a serious art by the Indian people. In early period, the Indian people made little difference between artists who used to make images carving stones and those who made in paints. The artist brought reality in from their arts. Painting included wall painting where in the first century, most Buddhist monasteries and temples’ walls were decorated with painted and curved images. Manuscript illustrations were made in the 1000’s in the country (Clammer, 2012). The manuscripts has palm leaf surface used for writing.

Architecture

During the times of Indus Valley, most cities and towns were made following the grid pattern or procedure and the buildings were commonly made of bricks. The Buddhists made their structures using mud or bricks and had pillared balconies, halls with vaulted tops or roofs with dormer type of windows (Clammer, 2012). The people in the country exercised the art during the construction of caves, building strong and standing temples and Islamic architecture where Muslims hired local in construction of their structures. The early art in India shows that Indians place a great percentage on the value and concern for the religion and religious activities.

Influence of religious and philosophical traditions on the development of culture

Clammer (2012) postulates that religion and traditions affects the development and existence of culture in a given society. India and china have different and numerous religions that hold different beliefs and practices. The overall cultural of the country is greatly influenced by the religion because there is no universal cultural code. Lack of coherence and understanding between different groups of people in the country has been influencing culture development in both countries. Furthermore, different groups strongly uphold traditional or early ways of doing things therefore hindering modernization of culture in the countries. Increased immigration into the countries influence culture development through the immigrants holding their home values and cultures and failing to adjust to the cultural undertakings in the two countries.

References

Clammer, J. R. (2012). Culture, development and social theory: Towards an integrated social development. N.p.

Gun Ownership and Work Safety

Gun Ownership and Work Safety

Introduction

Going by words of Kleck (2003), guns, like most firearms, could be dangerous if not well taken care of. The gadgets are a constant threat to lives as well as security. In the recent times, many people are opting to possess firearms, precisely guns for that case, to beef up personal safety and that of friends and families. However, it is pretty vital to take into account the possible threats gun ownership poses to the involved parties (Storey, 2004). The initiative is inclusive of the safety of the other persons around the personalities who own guns and other firearms.

Firearms and safety

For the case of employees, possessing a weapon will raise concern as it affects the other employees who do not own guns as well as the employer as well as the entire staff of the affected firm or company. Apparently, from past incidences, disagreements at work often happen and fights may arise (Storey, 2004). The scenario raises concern, for instance, if the controversy involved a person with a gun and who is also hot tempered. Such an occasion will have a significant probability of a loss of life. Consequently, to curb the occurrence, a couple of rules and regulations should be put in place to effect the necessary changes to contain such happenings. (Kleck, 2003).

Most people only consider gun ownership as the legal right, without regard to the moral or social aspect of such doings. Much as most states permit citizens to own firearms. They only do so to enable the people involved to defend themselves in the case of an attack or an insecure occasion (Storey, 2004). The aspect the persons forget about is the ethical value of owning a gun. The individuals do not consider how socially upright it is to allow gun ownership. However, gun ownership under proper regulations could help solve this puzzle (Kleck, 2003).

I opine that employees should not be allowed to carry guns to workplaces because of the dangers they expose workmates to. As May, Gilson and Harter (2004) state, the security concern of the firm or business organization should be left entirely to the employers. The management should take the responsibility to make sure that the business enterprise is secure and conducive for the employees to work in. Considerably, as most laws state, it is the role of the employer to ensure that the venue of work is secure.

Besides, the employees only have the duty to take care of personal safety and security concerns and the workmates. Also, the workers are prohibited from engaging in improper practices that may endanger their workmates (May, Gilson & Harter, 2004). Having a gun at work is one of such practices. The employees also have a responsibility to report any security threats to the employer. The undertaking includes matters that pose a danger to the workers’ health and safety.

Moreover, most laws call for proper security measures in any job scenario. However, the undertaking is solely the employer’s duty. The manager achieves the endeavor by preventing any behavior that puts the safety and security of the employees at peril. Storey (2004) postulates the to implement the initiative, the company must finalize by appointing or employing a competent person to take care of the safety and security concerns of the whole organization, and by extension, the employees (May et al., 2004).

If the employees should be allowed to carry guns to the places of work, the workers must not take the rifles to working desks. Probably, the staff should have the weapon kept in cars or find any suitable place to keep them (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). By so doing, the responsibility of firm protection will be wholly left to the employer and the state at large.

Besides, the security concerns of the other workers will be well taken care of, as none is exposed to the dangers of getting shot or probably getting hurt in case of fights or fracas at the venue of work. The employees may carry their guns comfortably when they leave the places of work. Consequently, the workers may use the guns along the way home in case of an occurrence that calls for the utilization of a gun in self-protection. Such a scenario will not involve the other employees (May et al., 2004).

Definitely, gun ownership is a general state matter. The issue affects not only the work venues but also the entire country. It is also the government’s responsibility to make sure that all employees in the nation work under the right conditions (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). Due to the undertaking, I personally support the involvement of the legislative guidelines of the state in the determination of proper gun handling techniques at the workplace.

The state should put forward the necessary, proper rules and regulations to contain gun handling. There should also be stringent measures to ensure adequate conduction of gun ownership. Besides, the government should draft directions indicating the repercussions of improper gun handling by those who are entitled to own them (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). There should be strict and severe punishment or charges against those that recklessly use their weapons.

The system also needs to outline clearly situations and locations where people may use their guns as a way of defending themselves. It is important to note that in the event of an injury or death resulting from improper gun handling, or the use of a weapon in absurd situations and locations, the government will take the blame from various nongovernmental organizations (May et al., 2004). I suggest that whether inside or outside the company, the legislative system must play an active role in ensuring proper gun handling.

Storey (2004) explain that to this effect, the system must check to make sure that all the workers that legally possess firearms do not violate the rules of gun handling, for their safety and that of their friends, families and workmates. Also to note, loss of life in the company may affect not only the company but also the whole nation. Such an event illustrates the country’s failure to protect her citizens. Storey (2004) asserts that to ensure proper protection and security for her citizens, the government needs to draft legislative measures to guide and instruct on where and when to use a gun for defending oneself.

Just like any other organization or institution, a firm is entitled to privacy. As most states allow, certain pieces of information are only revealed to particular groups or individual people within an agency. There is not much difference when it comes to companies. Storey (2004) affirms that most firms have the right to conceal some information about their working. Such pieces of information include the ones that the company considers so dear.

Consequently, it is possible that a company may choose to allow firearms into the business premises and never let anyone know of the undertaking. However, what beats logic is how noble such an undertaking is. Note all that right is ethical, as we are all aware (Storey, 2004). So, the decision of a company to allow guns in the work venues is relatively right, but somehow unethical. Much as doing so might be advantageous in some way; it is risky all through (Storey, 2004).

Conclusion

To sum up, the concept of gun ownership is a good idea given that people need to defend themselves at times. However, carrying the guns to the places of work or where they are more likely to cause harm is not advisable. It is solely the firm’s role to keep the business premises secure.

References

Storey, D. J. (2004). Understanding the small business sector. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. N.p.

Kleck, G., & Patterson, E. B. (2003). The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9(3), 249-287. N.p.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 77(1), 11-37. N.p.

Development of Political and Social Structures

Development of Political and Social Structures

Greek structures

According to Levack, Muir and Veldman (2011) the archaic period that existed between 800-480 BC witnessed formation of political and social structures that cultivated values of cultural unity and cooperation among the Greeks. Uniting culture arose from aspects such as written poetry and language as well as social and political changes. Levack, Muir and Veldman (2011) describe the archaic period as a duration of structural revolution. The development of clothes, jewellery, pottery and artworks during the period brought oneness to the Greek society. The residents shared community symposiums, festivals, lavish, meals and athletic games thereby bringing together each member who participated in the contests. The period saw multiple changes in the social structure as well as in governance thereby enhancing sense of community. The political structures acted as a uniting factor that brought society members closer. Levack et al., (2011) postulate that during the period villages were absorbed and the tribes incorporated into the substructure of the Polis fostering more unity.

The governance created political will among the Greek settlers during the archaic era thereby developing efficient and fair system of governance that brought the communities together. The social and political structures encouraged the Archaic Greek communities to work together in ownership and land cultivation (Levack et al., 2011). The land owning and political independence amounted to collaboration between the communities, an element that fostered great sense of community and cultural unity. Polis, a characteristic form of the archaic ancient Greece brought social development and spearheaded value of common life and promoted friendship among Greek community ultimately leading to building of strong sense of unity. Research by Levack et al., (2011) reveal that the sharing of natural resources as well as fundamental political institutions and social traditions created sense of cultural oneness.

Levack, B. Muir, J. & Veldman, M. 2011.The west. Encounters & Transformations. 2011. Vol. 1. 3rd Edition. Pearson Pub.

Crime Investigation Case

Crime Investigation Case

Fisher and Fisher (2012) argue that cases of manual strangulation and sexual assault are rampant and shared in areas of residence. The incidences mostly result from malicious activities, usually perpetrated by ill minded people. It takes a good procedure and course of action to combat the malpractices and finally bring the involved individuals to book and perhaps put them behind bars to face the responsibility for their actions. For the case in question, it is proper that we critically scrutinize the evidence and location of crime to reach a conclusion and make a sound decision.

Evidence samples from the scene

In the case at hand, the primary evidence and samples to collect in the aid of investigation may include the trace evidence that includes the tiny pieces of proof in the crime scene. In this case, the trace evidence includes the fragments of cut grass (Christian, Lavelle, De Jong, Loiselle, Brenner & Joffe, 2000). The elements are vital in showing the relative movement of the victim or the criminal during the time of the crime. (Resick & Schnicke, 2002)

The next piece of evidence will be the T-shirt, handbag, and purse. According to Christian, Lavelle, De Jong, Loiselle, Brenner & Joffe (2000) the phenomena too, are critical in the determination of any contact between the victim and the potential criminal. It is vital to note that the purse and handbag could be carrying forensic evidence, usually invisible to the naked eye, but essential in the crime detection criteria. The evidence that could be transported in the bag and purse is mostly the criminal’s fingerprints (Christian et al., 2000).

It is also important to take the general photograph of the crime scene as a piece of evidence. Also, an explicit picture of the woman lying on the ground is essential. The photos show relative motion of the crime activity, from the initial to the final stage. For instance, the drag marks in the grass could provide a vital clue to the course of the crime (Christian et al., 2000).

Merits and demerits and attending scene discovery

Resick and Schnicke (2002) asserts that visiting the crime scene could both be advantageous and disadvantageous. On the practical side, the investigative officers are in a good position to notice pieces of evidence that could disappear with time. For example, the drag marks, if left for a couple of hours, could go. The scenario leads to the loss of driving hints to the course of the crime process. Such clues are useful in the determination of the likely criminal, considering the possible path before the offense happened (Fisher & Fisher, 2012).

It is also advisable to attend the crime scene to rescue the victim if they show any signs of life. Resick and Schnicke (2002) explains that it is possible that the victims may appear dead but possess some traces of life. In the case of presence of an investigation officer or any medical personnel, immediate help can be arrived at, leading to saving of life (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). The officer present can probably call the ambulance and have the patient taken to a health institution if they show signs of life.

Also, the presence at a scene of a crime can lead to the protection of the evidence present at the time of occurrence. An officer present can detect any threats to the pieces of evidence and possibly deter the interference of proof (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). Consequently, the individuals can secure the area by taping its environs to prevent entry of naive persons or people with malicious intentions (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). Doing so helps in the preservation of evidence until the time it is needed.

On the contrary, it is disadvantageous to attend the crime scene for one prime reason. The primary reason for not attending the scene is that it may lead to the distortion of the evidence available at the felony location (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). Such pieces may include forensic evidence such as fingerprints and hair follicles that may contain DNA information concerning the possible criminal. I, however, opine that the investigation officials be present at the location of crime occurrence to save lives if any and protect the area to help keep the pieces of evidence intact.

Forensic science samples from a pathologist

Notably, the police work hand in hand with the forensic scientists and forensic pathologists in the investigation of crime (Christian et al., 2000). In the case at hand, several pieces of evidence will be required to determine the occurrence of sexual assault. First and foremost, the purse and handbag will be vital in this case. Turning to Resick and Schnicke (2002), one finds that the bag could provide leading information to the coroner concerning the probable criminal. Together with the handbag, the elements may contain forensic evidence, fingerprints to be precise that could aid in the determination of the criminal. According to Christian et al., (2000), any foreign fingerprints give essential clues to the possible criminal.

Also, the blood samples from the woman’s nose, mouth, arm, and breast may give vital hints in the crime investigation. Because the scene showed minimal signs of violence, the blood test may be of so much use. The fluid may lead to the discovery of foreign DNA that could give useful leads to suspects and finally the criminal (Christian et al., 2000).

Also, the body of the woman can get scanned to unearth different fingerprints if any. The occurrence of foreign fingerprints on the body shows the presence of a person or persons during the time of crime incident. Further scrutiny of the prints leads to revealing of the responsible individuals who may be taken as suspects. Crucial interrogations can then start to help identify the real criminal (Christian et al., 2000).

Control samples

The control samples, in the given case, include blood and urine samples to help determine if intoxication could have been the cause of the woman’s death. Scientifically, the urinary and blood alcohol content disclosed in the autopsy reveals that the woman might have been intoxicated (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). As stated by Christian et al., (2000), the use of control samples in the determination of toxicology level could be useful in helping reach a sound decision.

In a nutshell, the crime resolution can sometimes be wanting, especially if it brings so many options in the circle. In cases of manual strangulation and sexual assault, the use of forensic evidence such as DNA and fingerprint samples can help disclose possible suspects and eventually criminals. However, the presence of investigative officials at the crime scene is highly recommended to help guard the scene and assist the victims in any possible way. The coordination between the police spearheading the inquiry and the forensic pathologists is the key to success in such cases.

References

Fisher, B. A., & Fisher, D. R. (2012). Techniques of crime scene investigation. CRC Press.

Christian, C. W., Lavelle, J. M., De Jong, A. R., Loiselle, J., Brenner, L., & Joffe, M. (2000). Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. Pediatrics, 106(1), 100-104. N.p.

Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (2002). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 60(5), 748. N.p.

Astronomy

                                                                              Astronomy

The Viking Program

Account for the Mission

The Viking program was a well-known space operation which was conducted by NASA. It involved launching a pair of space crafts to Mars. The launch was done to discover more about the red planet and its ability to sustain life (Encrenaz et al., 2004). The project grossed over a total of 1 billion U.S dollars, but it was worth the money since a significant amount of insight was collected concerning the red planet.

The mission itself involved launching of two space crafts dubbed Viking 1 and Viking 2. The space probes were not launched on the same day since the scientists at NASA used the first launch as an experiment to test the waters (Encrenaz et al., 2004). In essence, Viking 1 was launched on August 20th the year 1975 while the second probe (Viking 2) was launched on September 9th,1975. All the probes had similar properties; the only real disparity existed due to launch times and landing points.

Each spacecraft consisted of two major parts; these were the orbiter and the lander. The orbiter, as the name suggests was primarily designed to take photographs of the red planet from orbit. The photographs were hence aerial (Encrenaz et al., 2004). It had an overall mass of about 2330 kilogram while including fuel. The orbiters were equipped with 1.6 X 1.2 solar panels which were implanted as pairs on both wings. Each of the panels had about 34,800 solar cells which formed a credible power source as the orbiters revolved around the planet. The net energy produced regarding the sunlight intensity was 620W. It is important to note that the production capacity would have been much higher on a planet which is much closer to the sun (Launius, 2004). In addition to the solar power, the orbiters were fitted with nickel-cadmium batteries each of 30 A-h capacities. The connection formed an excellent source of energy for the orbiters. As already stated above, their primary role was to collect information from the planet via satellite imaging. The orbiters also communicated with the landers and processed the information which was sent their way.

Both the orbiters and the landers were launched as one spacecraft. Research indicates that the total mass at launch was about 2328 kilograms. Out of the total mass, about 1447 kg was propellant fuel and altitude control gas (Launius, 2004). This shows that the probes needed an intense amount of firepower to drive their journey across the solar system. Independently, the orbiter weighed roughly 600 kg and the lander 900 kilograms. The total weight at launch according to insight is close to 2.3 tones; this can be likened to the weight of 2 elephants (Pillet et al., 2005). Mars is such a long way off that the two spacecraft took close to a year to reach the surface. The Viking 1, which was launched first, reached Mars on June 19th, 1976 and the second arrived on August 7th, 1976.

The landers were characterized by a hexagonal aluminum base which was supported by three protruding legs. The measuring equipment and satellite links were attached on top of the base. The hardware included photography machines and also some testers which were used to determine the properties of the surroundings (Pillet, et al., 2005). The landers were reported to be excessively sterilized prior to launch which meant that they could not be affected by the organisms which could be found on the surface of the planet. The equipment was also readily offered protection against adverse weather conditions (Shearer, 2003). The sterilization was as follows; each lander was enclosed in a pressurized chamber which is referred to as the “biofield.” The equipment went on to be heated at a temperature of about 111 degrees for 40 hours.

The most crucial phase of the entire operation was the descent into the planet. Each lander was released into the atmosphere by the orbiters, and hence they began descending into the planet’s atmosphere (Launius, 2004). The de-orbital burn was the first stage of this descent which was followed by the atmospheric entry. The atmospheric entry stage is characterized by an intense amount of heat which is generated as a result of heating from the air molecules. A parachute was deployed to help reduce the speed of descent together with rockets which guided the lander until it gently touched the atmosphere. It is important to note that complete Vikings (both landers and orbiters) revolved around the planet for a predefined amount of time, this was so that the surface could be analyzed carefully and the safest region be selected for landing (Launius, 2004). Mars is characterized by valleys seas, and such hence the entire mission could be jeopardized if the lander managed to mount to an area where collective study could not be done. Such a pre-orbit was hence crucial for this purpose.

Following the safe and successful landing of the probes, accurate observation could hence be commenced on the planet (Shearer, 2003). The landers collected soil samples and tested their various properties while the orbiters continued to circulate the planet and observe the atmosphere. This observation was crucial to determine the weather pattern which presided on the planet.

Challenges

The overall projected demanded a significant degree of financial support and resources. It was still riddled with uncertainty on whether or not it would reach the planet. The probe managed to reach the surface against all the odds hence all doubts were cleared (Shearer, 2003). The area where Viking 1 landed was however not safe and unconducive. According to the landing surface data which was collected by the team on July 20, 1976, the probe had landed on an area which is characterized by steep slopes and rough terrain.

The altitudes of these valleys were unknown hence in the event that the landers fell, they could suffer a significant amount of damage. Speculations even stated that the high-altitude area could be a volcano hence the equipment could be on the verge of destruction while at the surface. To this effect, the landing coordinates of the second probe were shifted to a much more planer and more conducive environment (Launius, 2004). This was thanks to the satellite imaging of the orbiter which scanned for a more favorable landing spot before releasing the second probe. It had been previously agreed upon that the two instruments (orbiter and lander) would last up to 90 days which would bring the project to a close, contrary to this belief, the two devices lasted four years.

Objectives

Before moving on to discuss the significance of the mission and how it has positively impacted our lives, it is important to learn about the goals, i.e., why the Vikings were sent there in the first place. The Viking space probes were sent to acquire high resolution and quality images of the surface of the planet. The orbiters were mainly involved with this specific objective.

The Vikings were also sent to analyze and to characterize the structure a composition of the planet’s surface and atmosphere (Launius, 2004). It is important to note that both the landers and the orbiters shared in this objective, although the lander could take photographs of the planet’s surface and also analyze soil samples while the orbiter was only reduced to taking photographs of the atmosphere and satellite communication (Launius, 2004). Finally, the most crucial objective which formed a significant part of the mission at hand was to search for evidence of life on Mars. Such a discovery once made may help us to determine whether or not the planet can support human life and the possibility of starting a whole new human civilization there. In the event that the planet’s resources become depleted over time, life can be transferred to the planet which is characterized by a large degree of untapped resources.

The overall project was a success which was evidenced by the significant degree of findings which were made. The following are examples of such findings and their overall contribution to our knowledge on matters which are outside our solar system (Launius, 2004). Such an experiment was coherently planned, and the benefits were eventually reaped. 

Findings

The surface of Mars is characterized by many geological landforms. These are very similar to the ones which are located on the surface of the earth such as volcanic mountains, valleys and so forth. Majority of these geological features were formed as a result of water-based activities. It is said that these particular findings caused a massive revolution on the idea that there was water on Mars, the possibilities of it supporting life were indeed many.

Features such as river valleys showcased the presence of large enough floods which broke from areas of barricade or concealment (Launius, 2004). Mountainous landforms which were discovered to be significant parts of the landform were also created in various ways. The craters which were found on the surface were believed to have been formed by impacts from objects such as meteorites and so on. Further research indicated that the craters resembled that which was to form if a meteorite fell in an area with soft soil or mud (Launius, 2004). This finding further strengthened the belief of the availability of water on the surface of the planet. In addition to this finding and general idea, vast terrains were seen of places with seemingly large amounts of water in the past but lost due to some unknown reason. As a result, deeply cut trenches could be seen on the surface of the planet. Such a trench is what is most likely to be considered in the event that a river dries up during the dry season. These deeply cut channels were given the name, “Chaotic Terrain.” The term chaotic is used since it is widely believed that the area lost large amounts of water at a concise amount of time (Launius, 2004). Evidence of underground volcanism was also sighted and concluded to be the primary source of water for the planet. The molten material/lava is believed to be responsible for melting the ice and hence by doing so, forming the large pool of water which would eventually seep to the surface (Shearer, 2003). It is also presumed that underground volcanicity developed cracks on the land similar to a way an earthquake does. The cracks may have further intensified and hence leading to collapse of the ground thus the disappearance of the rivers/water channels. The possibility of life on Mars became a reality also.

Influence of Understanding on Solar System

As already mentioned above the findings showed without a doubt that there is the presence of water on the planet. Scientists have thus been able to conclude that the planets in the solar system have the same types of elements on their surfaces. Since water is a compound formed from Hydrogen and Oxygen, this led to the knowledge that there is the possibility of life in outside planets. The findings also revealed that UV intensity on the surface of Mars was much more than that found on the earth (Shearer, 2003). This hence concluded that the amount of solar radiation on a specific planet is not only dependent on the distance from the sun, but also on a significant number of factors. The common belief was that planets further away from the sun are characterized with less temperature due to the increase of distance from the sun, this was however proved to be wrong based on the studies (Shearer, 2003). Finally, the study of the soil revealed that there is indeed life on earth, the soil showed acute oxidation properties hence confirming that the planet was indeed characterized by living organisms. This hence changed the typical conventional understanding the earth alone was capable of supporting life.

References

Encrenaz, T., Bibring., Blanc, M., Barucci., Roques, F. & Zarka, P. (2004). The Solar System. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Launius, R. (2004). Frontiers of space exploration. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Pillet, V., Aparicio, A. & Sánchez, F. (2005). Payload and mission definition in space sciences. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shearer, D. (2003). Space missions. Mankato, Minn: Bridgestone

   Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

 Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

Dajiang (DJI) Company is a multi-national leader in the commercial drone manufacture industry. The company’s headquarters are in Shenzhen, China and was founded by Frank Wang in the year 2006 (Hongjia, 2017). The firm has redesigned and shaped both the external and internal commercial environments to enhance its profitability and triumph. The company has invested in the creation of a broad range of aerial photography and videography products that meet the needs of a diverse society (Hongjia, 2017). This is centered on the production of high quality and affordable brands that meet the customer’s expectations. This paper focuses on the strategic competitiveness and management tactics of the company. It also gives an analysis of technology and globalization and how this has impacted the industry. The resource-based and industrial models are also employed to show how DJI might earn excellent results. The vision and mission statements impact to the success of the corporation and also the stakeholders’ impact is also depicted in this work.

Impact of globalization

Changes in technology and globalization have transformed the way the business is done in the world today. It is evident to say that technology is a major driving force to globalization. This can be attributed to improved infrastructure and communication. Globalization refers to the escalation of links, interaction modes, and flows that interconnect the globe (Morgan, 2015). This concept is quite diverse in its meaning. The emergence of globalization has resulted in a number of both challenges and opportunities. DJI has been able to use this strategy to its advantage. Changes in globalization have helped the company to achieve across the border retailing by having global sourcing, logistics, and pricing. Since the video and photography sector is rapidly evolving, there is high demand for high-quality equipment that will be affordable and stand out of the crowd. DJI has used this globalization strategy to tap into other markets that are affiliates of their primary industry target such as filmmaking (Hongjia, 2017).

Globalization has also helped DJI in the identification of potential areas for specific areas. Having done a research of the consumer base and its needs puts a company way ahead of its competitors. The company has exploited this strategy since the risk associated with foreign liability does not impact their market base as their products are globally recognized and accepted. Entry into the global markets is not an easy task, but DJI’s innovation has taken its toll as new and efficient drones are more preferred, and the other good thing is that that the quality is well matched with the price. Globalization has also helped DJI to diversify its brands to satisfy the growing demand in the video, photography, film and drone market (Morgan, 2015).

Impact of technology changes.

Technological changes have improved DJI by aiding in marketing its products. DJI has employed tactful marketing strategies using various digital platforms such as YouTube and other social media sites. It has also reached out to a lot of consumers using search engine optimization (SEO) which also helps in the diversification of its brands (Hongjia, 2017). The firm’s success can also be attributed to technology as it conducts market situation analysis and also requests for feedback from the clients and potential customers to deliver quality products as per their preferences.

The firm has enhanced its competitive edge by focusing on the use of latest and cutting-edge technology in its brands and also try to balance the prices with quality to increase profitability. In its drones, it incorporates global positioning systems and sensors that aid in seamless control of the devices. In the further exploitation of this competitive edge, the firm has gone out of its comfort zone to delve into the camera industry to deliver comprehensive products (Morgan, 2015). This is evident in its development of robotic gimbal arms that have also been adopted in filmmaking. Changes in technology have helped DJI come up with innovations that keep up with the changing trends in the drone industry. They also use technology to create features that help their products have a variety of uses such as in weather forecasting and monitoring, creative photography, landscaping and mapping, filming and navigation among other areas that other manufacturers have not been able to tap.

DJI’s resource-based model.

The model focuses on the firm’s internal environment and how it influences success and profitability (Hongjia, 2017). This is based on the presence of capability and resources. This, in turn, affects the external environment including analysis of markets, customer preferences, political, social and economic aspects and competitor analysis. DJI has developed a strong network of research and manufacturing schemes that help in the development of high-quality brands. The company also has a robust financial resource and focuses more on the talent of its employees.

DJI has heavily invested and emphasized in research to develop unique products tailored to suit their customer’s preferences (Hongjia, 2017). They also invest in the development of multiple products for different target consumers and ensure that they frequently introduce new products in the market. They have used this model to create an attractive industry that earns the firm above-average proceeds and also lead to a competitive benefit. They also make sure that the in-house ideas result in products that are costly to imitate and unique thus having a global presence. This will help in taping more diverse markets as they have tapped into the opportunities and have laid out strategies to limit risks.

Influence of the vision statement.

DJI’s mission statement has impacted the company’s success by the fact that it ensures that individuals using their products can do more. This is evident since the enterprise manufactures revolutionary products driven by the needs of the customers. DJI has stood out to achieve this by being the top in the drone industry.

Influence of the mission statement.

The company is tailored to spark up creativity to all its users that will lead to groundbreaking changes. DJI ensures that they live up to their mission statement by providing clients with not only the products but more improved versions of the same and provide constant feedback to their customers. This helps them to make their products more efficient and suited to the customer’s preferences. This is shown by the way it incorporates new technology into their goods to enhance performance.

Impact of stakeholders in the firm’s success.

Capital market investors such as creditors fund the business in its ventures in the expectation of positive outcomes from them (Morgan, 2015). The company does not disappoint and returns adequate profits to their sponsors. Through this approach, the company can finance the manufacture of new products and conduct research. Product market stakeholders include suppliers and primary clients that influence the company’s performance. By employing an efficient supply chain, DJI fulfills the prospects of each shareholder thus allowing it to attain profits and success globally. Consumers of DJI products demand reliable products at reasonable costs (Morgan, 2015). The competent relationship developed by the firm is used to create and deliver affordable, timely and customized products. Organizational stakeholders include the management and the employees also contribute to the success of DJI by working together to develop high quality and affordable products that have garnered global attention.

It can be analyzed from the above discussion that DJI considers all the four views of value creation namely stakeholder approach, resource-based models, technology and globalization changes enables it to develop competitive advantage and capture substantial opportunities in the market.

References

Hongjia, X. (2017). Techno-entrepreneur from Emerging Economies: A case of DJI in Global Competition and Innovation. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. 1178). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.

Morgan, D. (2015). China’s DJI drones flying high among US companies. Thomson Reuters.

Communication Skills

 Communication Skills

In communication, I have developed some strength that has helped me to improve my communication capabilities. I have developed the ability to deal with tricky and confusing situations and making sound decisions. I am also straightforward, and I try to remain an open book and anyone who wants to know my personal information at work has the capability as all my information is readily available. This makes it easy for me when dealing with my seniors as they know my technical competencies as well as the skills that I possess and therefore making it easy to assign me tasks. I also view issues in other peoples perspective, and this helps me avoid issues in arguments as even if I give my point without worrying how people would take me I take time to listen and understand situations from both ends and act accordingly. I am also strong in paying attention to people’s discussion, and this helps me grasp whatever is being discussed at easy. I have also been keen on choosing channels to use to communicate any information to people as effectiveness in communication also depends on the communication channel.

I agree I have some weaknesses when it comes to communication but I strive to overcome them. One of the major weaknesses that I have is trying to find solutions to my problems alone without sharing my issues. This makes it hard for me as sometimes it is stressing to try crack issues all alone without depending on someone for advice. I also have the weakness of saying or stating my point of view without worrying about how people think about me and sometimes this has landed me in trouble as I try explaining my position to different people. This makes it hard as I lack control especially when I am in a situation that is affecting me directly.

I am planning to develop my communication skill set through concentrating on my strengths and trying to polish and improve my weak points. This is through learning to share issues that stress me to close friends and family as that could reduce the load and therefore making me feel free. I am also planning to gauge my thoughts and points that I raise in conversations as I have realized that some points hurt people’s feelings differently and therefore gauging the words before I speak could be the best way of making people view me differently.

Communication is dynamic, and a wide field and many issues need to be considered when assessing the communication competence. One of the major issues that are not addressed in the quiz and is critical is the issue of being judgmental of people during a conversation (Zuckerman, DePaulo & Rosenthal, 2011). Most people are very fast to conclude and judge others during a conversation without fully having to understand why people take certain stands. The other critical issue is the feelings expressed during a conversation or rather the reaction that one has as they communicate. Some people do not understand that different messages being passed should have a different reaction for them to have an impact on the audience and this is also a way of determining the effectiveness of a conversation or rather a communication.

Verbal communication is sharing information through speech. Some of the examples of verbal communication include oral presentations, interviews, lectures, presentations and conversations (Zuckerman, DePaulo & Rosenthal, 2011). Non-verbal communication, on the other hand, is sharing of information using gestures. Some of the examples of Non-verbal communications include winks, smiles, waves, gestures, salute, touch and other bodily movements (Siegman, 2014). In conversation, most of the people use a combination of both verbal and non-verbal skills to drive a point. This is because they complement each other and make it easy to pass information effectively during a conversation.

References

Zuckerman, M., DePaulo, B. M., & Rosenthal, R. (2011). Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. Advances in experimental social psychology, 14, 1-59.

Siegman, A. W. (2014). Nonverbal behavior and communication. Psychology Press.

 

Employee Productivity

Employee Productivity

Introduction

Employee productivity is a measure of a worker’s or a group of workers’ efficiency in an organization. It is an assessment that could be evaluated regarding the output of a given employee at a specific period. This productivity shall be assessed using the average of employees performing the same tasks. Employee productivity is, therefore, an integral consideration for any business since the success and growth of any organization rely on the diligence and productivity of the workforce.

The employees who exert extra effort in most cases lean towards showing big disparities in the profits by the company, and therefore it is necessary to offer some motivation to all the employees to maximize their full potential and optimal levels of productivity. Motivated employees always look for better ways of doing a job and tend to be more quality oriented and productive (Cushman, Knobe & Sinnott-Armstrong, 2015). This will make the company that encourages increased productivity to be more successful as compared to their counterparts that do not. The rewards, therefore, should have a form of influencing the better feeling of the employee concerning their achievement in the company rather than money which will make the employee react each time thinking of their pockets and ignoring the operational goals and their promotion (Rollinson, 2014). Skills improvement, job commitment as well as opportunities for job development are some better ways of motivation to these employees (Armstrong & Baron, 2014).

Several theories have been put forth on employee motivation and productivity, but all of them are centered by a universal principle that managers should determine the needs of their employees to keep them happy as they work and offer motivation for high performance and achievement of the organization’s goals. The relationship therefore between the employee’s performance and the company’s outcome is of great significance. There are some controversial issues that arise on most occasions. A major one is that as much as the employees should be motivated to reach the required levels of productivity, money should not be used as a token as this will not tally with the realization of the organization objectives. Controversies occur since productivity goes in line with the motivation of the employees (Koopman, 2012).

The management of employees requires the employers to take steps that create a productive and a good work environment that makes the workers have a feeling of security and understand the expectations. The employers can minimize the chances of a drop in productivity associated with workplace controversies through getting to know the conventional causes of these issues and being able to stop them from occurring. Employee surveillance has been an issue in the workplace that has grown as a result of the uptake of modern technologies that present employers’ new techniques and ideas in the monitoring of the employees and most cases without their consent.

The employers could monitor the internet users to make sure that workers do not use much of their time doing personal jobs when online while at work. Telephone monitoring, monitoring of the location, and video surveillance all offer an employer some valuable information regarding employee actions, but could, on the other hand, seem like an invasion of the worker’s privacy. A bright, better and consistent policy on surveillance that the workers will be aware of will prevent this issue from creating a rift between the workers and management.

The employer policies can help address gender equality as another controversial workplace issue. Gender inequality, pay and assignment decisions still exist in the workplace despite laws that have been passed that require employers to treat women equally and this affects the employee productivity. The employers should adequately let workers know the reasons as to why they fail to get promoted. This eliminates the notion of gender inequality motivating the decision of the respective employers (McNeese-Smith, 2012).

Paying for incentives and rewarding sure workers for achieving the targets or exceeding the companies has been adopted by many employers. This has come handy with improving the levels of productivity. However, these incentives could cause the workers to work and focus on personal achievements goals rather than solely directing their efforts on the objectives of the organization. Workers that tend to get less could feel inferior to those that get paid more, whereas most pay systems pay off managers and team leaders. This could lead to controversy and unfair treatment claims. On the case of personal differences at the workplace, the employers have to create an ample environment that is respectful of the dissenting viewpoints in case they arise.

Conclusion

Employee productivity, therefore, should be improved and despite the different arguments that arise, they should be manipulated to free any doubts of controversies. Several things have been seen to influence employee productivity, and the companies or employees can control most of the above factors whereas others are at an individual level. These factors could include the work environment, suitability of the worker’s skills to the tasks provided, personal issues, and interaction with the coworkers or bosses (McNeese-Smith, 2012).

References

Cushman, F., Knobe, J., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2015). Moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Cognition, 108(1), 281-289.

Dundon, T., & Rollinson, D. (2014). Employment relations with non-union firms. Routledge.

Koopman, C., Pelletier, K. R., Murray, J. F., Sharda, C. E., Berger, M. L., Turpin, R. S., … & Bendel, T. (2012 ). Stanford presenteeism scale: health status and employee productivity. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 44(1), 14-20.

McNeese-Smith, D. (2012 ). Increasing employee productivity, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Journal of Healthcare Management, 41(2), 160.

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