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Evidence-Based Practice

Essential for Evidence-Based Practice Response

Hello Meghan, I appreciate the work you did on Evidence-Based Practice in nursing, and I agree with you that deciding to end a person’s life is not easy to both the medical caregivers and the family of the patient. Resuscitation is a process by which patient is brought back or rather restored back to life in case his or her respiration process has come to a stop (Dougherty & Lister, 2015). Medical practitioners use the method to try to save the life of the patient rather than letting him or her die without any extra attempt. Your thought on the brutality of CPR is intelligent, but there would have been a clear explanation as to why CPR is brutal. CPR is considered brutal since it requires the patient to be subjected to pressure especially on the chest to trigger a heartbeat. The method may be uncomfortable for others to watch especially family members (Twibell, Siela, Neal, Waters &Riwitis).

I concur with your argument that EBP is important in hospitals as it helps solve the problems that may be encountered (Pilot & Beck, 2017). However, there could have been an inclusion of the other benefits that health caregivers receive from EBP practice which include; improvement of caregiving and skill development which is essential in health care (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). Upgrading the methods of care giving will generally improve the health conditions and satisfaction of patients (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). However, the barriers of implementing EBP such as lack of time and cooperation from patients should never be ignored.

The PICOT question is thoughtful but would have been framed differently for instance ‘Should the family be involved in the resuscitation process?’ To create room for more discussion, a more open-ended question such as ‘what are the pros and cons of involving family during resuscitation?’ Use of an open-end question will create room for more research to be undertaken.

References

Dougherty, L., & Lister, S. (Eds.). (2015). The Royal Marsden manual of clinical nursing procedures. John Wiley & Sons.

Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (Eds.). (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare: A guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Pilot, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA.: Wolters Kluwer.

Twibell, R., Siela, D., Neal, A., Waters, N., &Riwitis, C. (n.d). A qualitative study of factors in nurses’ and physicians’ decision-making related to family presence during resuscitation. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 27(1-2), E320-E334

 

Literature Review

Literature Review

WRTG 391 Writing Assignment #3 Synthesis Essay (sometimes called a Literature Review)
Writing Assignment #3 will be a synthesis essay, a format that is sometimes referred to as a literature review.
Please click here for a video that briefly describes and outlines this writing assignment.
Organization: Your synthesis essay should be organized in the following manner:
•Introduction: Write one or two paragraphs in which you introduce the reader to your topic.
•Body-the categories into which you are dividing the literature: Divide your sources into a few categories. A suggestion is that you divide them into three to five categories.
•Conclusion: Summarize what the literature says on your topic.
Approach:
This semester, you have constructed a table of research findings of four articles that discussed research studies. You have also critically evaluated several articles in the annotated bibliography. In this assignment you will synthesize the ideas of several authors in a synthesis essay, or literature review.
For your annotated bibliography, you selected a topic based on your interests and, possibly, your major. You constructed a list of 12 references and summarized and critically analyzed them in 150-200 words each.
Through this process, you may have seen patterns in the scholarly literature in the topic on which you conducted research. For example, consider the following examples:
•You may have researched studies in criminal justice and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth.
•You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories.
•You may have researched graphic communications and discovered that the integration of graphics in business report writing has evolved from the 1970s to the present because of advancements in technology.
•You may have researched articles on gerontology and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance.
In the synthesis essay, you will focus your research efforts in a particular area, perhaps as a response to what you found while writing the annotated bibliography. You will then conduct more research and synthesize your findings in this synthesis essay.
Please note that the annotated bibliography was the beginning, not the end, of your research. You might decide to disregard several of the articles you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography because they don’t speak to the specific area on which you have decided to write your synthesis essay. You might select one article that
you analyzed in the critical annotated bibliography, look up the articles cited in that article, and “snowball” your research in that way.
In other words, this process is a recursive one. You might find reasons to hone in on and narrow your topic even further after you have written the annotated bibliography.
How to organize the synthesis essay:
When you have focused on your topic, determine how you will divide the literature. In other words, consider the following examples we described above:
You may have researched studies in criminal justice and found that there are varying opinions on how to respond to criminal behavior among youth.
You might divide the paper as follows:
Introduction
Body
•Category 1: “A” view on responding to criminal behavior.
•Category 2: “B” view on responding to criminal behavior.
•Category 3: “C” view on responding to criminal behavior.
•Category 4: “D” view on responding to criminal behavior.
Conclusion
You may have researched studies in psychology and found that counseling strategies for victims of domestic abuse tend to fall into four categories.
You might divide the paper as follows:
Introduction
Body
•Category 1: “A” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse
•Category 2: “B” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse
•Category 3: “C” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse
•Category 4: “D” counseling strategy for victims of child abuse
Conclusion
You may have researched graphic communications and discovered that the integration of graphics in business report writing has evolved from the 1970s to the present because of advancements in technology.
You might divide the paper as follows:
Introduction
Body
•Category 1: graphics in business report writing in the 1970s
•Category 2: graphics in business report writing in the 1980s
•Category 3: graphics in business report writing in the 1990s
•Category 4: graphics in business report writing from 2000 to the present
Conclusion
You may have researched articles on gerontology and found studies that answered three basic questions on how older adults respond to training for physical performance.
You might divide the paper as follows:
Introduction
Body
•Question 1
•Question 2
•Question 3
Conclusion
In order for you to see this concept with a real-life example, you can access a sample synthesis or literature review from a psychology student by clicking here. The student writes her paper on the following topic: Emotional Eating: The Perpetual Cycle of Mood-Food Influence. She divides her literature into the following categories:
•Influence of Mood on Eating Behavior
•Gender Differences
•Influence of Eating Behavior on Later Moods
•Chronic Stress Response Network
Notice how she synthesizes and integrates the research into the different categories.
Approach and Requirements
Your synthesis essay, or literature review, should be 2000-2500 words, not including your “references” pages at the end of the review. In other words, the text of the paper should be 2000-2500 words.
In addition your synthesis essay should include at least 10 scholarly sources in the “references” section. As stated above, this means that you may decide not to use all 12 sources that you summarized in your annotated bibliography. You are free to use all 12 of them. However, it is possible that your experience in writing summaries of the 12 sources led you to conclude that a few of them will not be as helpful to your topic as you had originally thought. You may decide not to include such sources in the synthesis essay. This is totally up to
you. Moreover, you might find other sources that you would like to include in your synthesis essay that were not included in your annotated bibliography. You may use such sources in your synthesis essay as well.
Some helpful tutorials and guides from UMUC’s Effective Writing Center:
• Click herefor a tutorial that features two short videos on writing a literature review.
• Click here for a tutorial on principles in synthesizing multiple sources.
In synthesizing your research, you are analyzing the topic on which you have conducted research. Click here for a helpful tutorial on analyzing a topic.
Some helpful guides from other universities:
• Some very systematic advice from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill can be accessed by clicking here.
• Some helpful advice from the University of Wisconsin-Madison can be accessed by clicking here

Brittle material characters and property

Brittle materials characters and properties

Brittle materials can be divided into three major categories: amorphous glasses, hard crystals, and advanced ceramics. Among them, advanced ceramics are the some of the hardest and most brittle materials [1]. These advanced ceramics are different from traditional ceramics because of their specialized mechanical properties and corresponding sophisticated manufacturing processes [2].

The entire family of advanced ceramics includes silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride (Si3N4), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2), zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA), boron carbide (B4C), and polycrystalline diamond [2].  Ceramic atoms are bonded with high-energy bonds (covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and the combination of these two types), while metal atoms are typically connected by low-energy metallic bonding. In the case of metal oxide ceramic (Al2O3), the ratio of covalent bonding and ionic bonding is about 4:6. However, this ratio is 9:1 for SiC, which is a typical non-oxide ceramic [3]. Strength of materials which have large ratios of ionic bonding, are considerably affected by temperature. Materials with covalent bonding, on the other hand, are not affected by elevated temperatures. Furthermore, low thermal coefficients of expansion and relatively high thermal conductivity have also been proven to be special features of ceramics with covalent bonding [3].

From an engineering perspective, a brittle material is defined as one that does not exhibit plastic deformation preceding the initiation of a crack. When a brittle material needs to be brought to final dimension by hard grinding, it will not exhibit plastic deformation as the diamond grit plows through it to remove material, nor will it exhibit the residual stress profile of a ductile material [4]. Instead, the material will crack, leaving microcracks that remain as subsurface damage. The key issue of grinding brittle materials is to minimize this subsurface damage by following prescribed grinding parameters that will achieve the desired material removal rates and final dimensional accuracy.

 

Ductile-regime grinding principle

When machined, a brittle material can deform via a variety of mechanisms. If the critical resolved shear stress at any point within the material exceeds the elastic yield stress, the mechanism of deformation will change from one of reversible energy storage via elastic stretching to one of irreversible energy dissipation. Examples of irreversible deformation include macroscopic fracture propagation, microcrack formation, phase transformation, dislocation motion (in crystals), and intermolecular sliding (in amorphous materials) [1] [2]. Irreversible material-removal mechanisms can be divided into two types: brittle and ductile. In brittle mechanisms, material removal is accomplished through the propagation and intersection of cracks, while ductile mechanisms produce plastic flow of material in the form of severely sheared machining chips.

Since advanced precision engineering can allow controlled grinding infeed rates as low as several nm per grinding wheel revolution, it is possible to grind brittle materials with this low rate. Thus, the predominant material-removal mechanism is plastic-flow rather than fracture. This process is known as ductile-regime grinding. When brittle materials are ground through a process of plastic deformation, a working surface similar to those achieved in polishing or lapping are produced [1] [5]. However, unlike polishing or lapping, grinding is a deterministic process which permits finely controlled contour accuracy and complex shapes. Ductile regime machining is an alternative method for polishing brittle materials to obtain a high-quality working surface by a ductile or plastic material removal process.

 

Design of experiment

As expected, ductile-regime grinding will apply to Silicon Carbide (SiC). This study attempts to find out the critical deformation point according to relevant surface morphology.

A total of 6 SiC workpieces were processed in this experiment. The workpieces were divided into two groups with two different table speeds (feed speed). Within each group, the workpieces were assigned with 3 different wheel speeds. The minimum step size of depth for each grinding was 0.0001 inch (2.54 μm). After the grinding wheel first touched the peak of the workpieces, the grinding process was repeated several times to equalize the height of the workpieces. Then, all workpieces were cut to three equal lengths: 18mm*, 4mm*, and 5mm. After polishing all the cutting surfaces, these 3 short workpieces were tightly piled together as shown in Fig.1 and were inserted into a specially designed tilt holder: The workpiece slot length is 60 mm. On the longitudinal direction of this slot, a 10 μm height elevation was designed from the left end (zero point) to the right end. Additionally, there are three points designated A, B, and C. These three points are in the middle of each divided piece. Points A, B, and C are convenient for further calculation and data analysis.

A schematic drawing of this design is displayed in Fig.2 and an actual picture of this system is shown in Fig.3. This design guarantees a good observation of the cutting sections. During the next grinding process with the corresponding parameters shown in table 1, the workpieces on this holder would experience a small grinding edge angle (equation 1). Such small grinding edge angles can lead to various depths of cut on the workpiece with normal force. The left end is set as 0, the first cut section point to left end is 18 mm, from equation 1.  The depth of cut at this point is 18mm*sinα=3 μm.  The second cut section point to left end length is 36 mm, and the depth of cut is 6 μm.

Grinding edge angle α = sin^-1(10μm/60mm)=0.001°

Equation 1

Fig.1

Fig.2

Fig 3

Work material Silicon carbide (SiC)
Grinding wheel Winter D1500 730B
Wheel speed 47.87 m/s, 39.89 m/s, 31.92 m/s
Feed rate 0.0105m/s, 0.0211m/s
Depth of cut 3 μm, 6 μm

 

Table 1: The specifics of the grinding conditions

Experimental Set-up

The SiC workpieces in this experiment were from the Ford development department. Their original application was for grinding tools for the automobile industry.

SiC is the only chemical compound of carbon and silicon. It was originally produced by a high-temperature electro-chemical reaction of sand and carbon. Silicon carbide is an excellent abrasive. Thus, it had been widely used in producing grinding chips and other abrasive products. SiC has been developed into a high quality technical grade ceramic with outstanding mechanical properties. SiC ceramics have not only excellent mechanical properties at room temperature (high flexural strength, excellent oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance, high abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction and high temperature mechanical properties)[6], but they also have adequate high-temperature strength which can be maintained up to 1600℃.

Grinding machine

Fig 2 Thompson Surface Grinding Machine FSH CNC 30/90

Table 3: Grit size of diamond particles

The grinding machine adopted in this study is a CNC grinder from Thompson Industries, Inc. equipped with a 1500 grit diamond wheel, which can make a minimal infeed of 0.0001inch. To provide real-time dynamic balancing, a dynamic balance system was equipped with the wheel spindle. This system eliminates the imbalance of the grinding wheel and minimizes grinding wheel vibration  while maintaining an optimum grinding process.

The computer located on the right side is connected to the dynamometer set on the grinder table [3]. Between computer and grinder is the control area and grinding wheel auto balance monitoring system.

Fig 3 Kistler dynamometer Type 9257B

 

Results and discussions

Grinding force

 

 

 

Fig 12 grinding Normal force DADisp 6.7

 

Fig.13

 

Fig.14

 

Fig.15

 

Fig.16

 

Fig.17

From Fig.12 we can determine that the normal force kept ascending with longer grinding times. This trend is in consistent with our workpiece holder design: as the barrier (workpiece) height increases across the longitudinal direction from left to right, the grinding wheel experienced an increasing counterforce, proportional to the normal force.

A comprehensive analysis of grinding factors on surface roughness was displayed from Fig.13 to Fig.15. Several issues could be inferred from those results: First, the surface roughness became greater with faster feeding speed. Since higher feeding speed leads to insufficient contact between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. Similarly, the increased wheel speed could enlarge the contact efficiency between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. Therefore, as shown in Fig.15, the surface roughness decreased with increasing wheel speed. Moreover, as the depth of cut increases, the surface roughness also increases. These effects are independent of each other.

From Fig.16, it is clear that the increased depth of cut would enlarge the normal force. Since the depth of cut is proportional to material removal rate (MRR), according to the force model established by Fan et al. [11], the normal force can be divided into vertical and horizontal components:

,

Here, kz, kx, mz and mx are constants while Fz0 and Fx0 are the corresponding rubbing component, respectively. Based on this model, it is clear that higher material removal rate would lead to a higher normal force.

Fig.17 showed that the normal force is reduced with higher wheel speed. This phenomenon can be explained according to our previous discussion; a higher wheel speed reduces  surface roughness. Therefore, the horizontal counter force, which is one component of the total normal force, was reduced due to reduced  friction.

SEM analysis

The aim of the SEM analysis was to estimate the grinding ductility by observing the microstructure of a ground workpiece. Fig.18 and Fig.19 display the surface morphology between point A and B. From Fig 18, the localized micro-plastic deformation has been observed and Fig.19 gave a better estimation that such deformation only happened within several micrometers from the surface of workpiece. Under this region, few structural defects could be observed, indicating that lower depth of cut has less impact of the internal tissues. Moreover, this change on the shoulder edge of a grinding surface could be identified as  plastic flow on lower depths of the cut workpiece. Therefore, a shallow ductile-regime has been demonstrated on the shoulder edge of the grinding surface under lower depths of cut, i,e. lower material removal rates.

 

 

 

 

Fig. 20 displays the surface morphology between point B and C. Here we find fracture cracks due to a higher depth of cutting. The occurrence of cracking pits on the cutting section surface proves the transition of the material removal mechanism from ductile deformation to brittle fracture in the grinding process. This stage can be defined as the critical parameter. Relative to the grinding depth, brittle material removal can be classified into three types: ductile regime grinding, ductile-brittle regime grinding, and brittle regime grinding. The critical depth of cut exists between our experiment range. As point B stood for a depth of cut of 4.5 μm, it can be inferred that the 4.5 μm depth of cut might be the critical point.

Conclusion

This project aimed at a deeper understanding of the grinding process for brittle materials such as SiC. In this project, we focused on the effects of several vital factors (feed speed, depth of cut and wheel speed) on the normal force and processed surface roughness. During our investigation, it was observed that the surface roughness after grinding was enhanced by higher feed speed, higher depth of cut and lower wheel speed. Additionally, normal force increased with an increasing depth of cut or by  reduced wheel speeds. Moreover, surface morphology was assessed to estimate a range for proper grinding. Through the SEM analysis, it is concluded that within a shallow depth of cut (less than 4.5 μm), the workpiece would display a ductile-regime with a plastic flow only until several micrometers from the top surface, leaving the internal tissue unchanged. However, as the depth of cut continues increasing, fracture cracking is triggered at both shallow surface and bulk areas of the workpiece, which indicates  the occurrence of an unwanted brittle-regime. It can be further inferred that as depth of cut increases, the brittle-regime is enhanced and might replace the ductile-regime. Based on our experimental design, it is suggested that a 4.5 μm depth of cut might be the critical point for grinding on an SiC workpiece.

References:

 

  1. Bifano, T. G., 1988, “Ductile-Regime Grinding of Brittle Materials,” Ph.D. Thesis, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.
  2. Chen J, Shen J, Huang H, Xu X. Grinding characteristics in high speed grinding of engineering ceramics with brazed diamond wheels. J Mater Process Technol 2010;210:899–906.
  3. Shearer, Thomas R., “Diamond Wheel Grinding 101,” Ceramic Industry magazine, June 2006, pp. 17-20.
  4. S., andSathyanarayanan.G., 1987, “An Investigation into the Mechanics of Diamond Grinding of Brittle Materials,” 15th North American Manufacturing Research Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, Manufacturing Technology Review, pp. 499-505
  5. Chen M, Zhao Q, Dong S, Li D. The critical conditions of brittle–ductile transition and the factors influencing the surface quality of brittle materials in ultra-precision grinding. J Mater Process Technol 2005;168:75–82.
  6. Huerta, M., and Malkin, S., 1976, “Grinding of Glass: The Mechanics of the Process,” ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR INDUSTRY, May, pp. 459-467
  7. Krauskopf, B. Diamond Turning: Reflecting Demands for Precision, Manuf Engng, 92 (5), 1984, 90-100
  8. Blake, P. N. Ductile-Regime Diamond Turning of Germanium and Silicon, PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, 1988
  9. Blake, P. N. and Scattergood, R. O. Ductile Regime Machining of Germanium and Silicon, J Amer Ceram Soc 73 (4) 1990
  10. Cheng, J., Gong, Y.D., 2013. Experimental study on ductile-regime micro-grinding character of soda-lime glass with diamond tool. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 69,147–160.
  11. Xiaorui, F,. and Michele H. M., 2007, “Force Analysis for Grinding with Segmental Wheels,” Machine Science and Technology, Vol. 10, pp. 435-455 

g

Introduction

Brittle material characters and property

Brittle materials can be divided into three major categories: amorphous glasses, hard crystals, and advanced ceramics. Among them, advanced ceramics are the some of the hardest and most brittle materials [1]. These advanced ceramics are different from traditional ceramics because of their specialized mechanical properties and corresponding sophisticated manufacturing processes [2].

The entire family of advanced ceramics includes silicon carbide (SiC), silicon nitride (Si3N4), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), zirconia (ZrO2), zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA), boron carbide (B4C), and polycrystalline diamond [2].  Ceramic atoms are bonded with high-energy bonds (covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and the combination of these two types), while metal atoms are typically connected by low-energy metallic bonding. In the case of metal oxide ceramic (Al2O3), the ratio of covalent bonding and ionic bonding is about 4:6. However, this ratio is 9:1 for SiC, which is a typical non-oxide ceramic [3]. Strength of materials which have large ratios of ionic bonding, are considerably affected by temperature. Materials with covalent bonding, on the other hand, are not affected by elevated temperatures. Furthermore, low thermal coefficients of expansion and relatively high thermal conductivity have also been proven to be special features of ceramics with covalent bonding [3].

From an engineering perspective, a brittle material is defined as one that does not exhibit plastic deformation preceding the initiation of a crack. When a brittle material needs to be brought to final dimension by hard grinding, it will not exhibit plastic deformation as the diamond grit plows through it to remove material, nor will it exhibit the residual stress profile of a ductile material [4]. Instead, the material will crack, leaving microcracks that remain as subsurface damage. The key issue of grinding brittle materials is to minimize this subsurface damage by following prescribed grinding parameters that will achieve the desired material removal rates and final dimensional accuracy.

 

Ductile-regime grinding principle

When machined, a brittle material can deform via a variety of mechanisms. If the critical resolved shear stress at any point within the material exceeds the elastic yield stress, the mechanism of deformation will change from one of reversible energy storage via elastic stretching to one of irreversible energy dissipation. Examples of irreversible deformation include macroscopic fracture propagation, microcrack formation, phase transformation, dislocation motion (in crystals), and intermolecular sliding (in amorphous materials) [1] [2]. Irreversible material-removal mechanisms can be divided into two types: brittle and ductile. In brittle mechanisms, material removal is accomplished through the propagation and intersection of cracks, while ductile mechanisms produce plastic flow of material in the form of severely sheared machining chips.

Since advanced precision engineering can allow controlled grinding infeed rates as low as several nm per grinding wheel revolution, it is possible to grind brittle materials with this low rate. Thus, the predominant material-removal mechanism is plastic-flow rather than fracture. This process is known as ductile-regime grinding. When brittle materials are ground through a process of plastic deformation, a working surface similar to those achieved in polishing or lapping are produced [1] [5]. However, unlike polishing or lapping, grinding is a deterministic process which permits finely controlled contour accuracy and complex shapes. Ductile regime machining is an alternative method for polishing brittle materials to obtain a high-quality working surface by a ductile or plastic material removal process.

 

Design of experiment

As expected, ductile-regime grinding will apply to Silicon Carbide (SiC). This study attempts to find out the critical deformation point according to relevant surface morphology.

A total of 6 SiC workpieces were processed in this experiment. The workpieces were divided into two groups with two different table speeds (feed speed). Within each group, the workpieces were assigned with 3 different wheel speeds. The minimum step size of depth for each grinding was 0.0001 inch (2.54 μm). After the grinding wheel first touched the peak of the workpieces, the grinding process was repeated several times to equalize the height of the workpieces. Then, all workpieces were cut to three equal lengths: 18mm*, 4mm*, and 5mm. After polishing all the cutting surfaces, these 3 short workpieces were tightly piled together as shown in Fig.1 and were inserted into a specially designed tilt holder: The workpiece slot length is 60 mm. On the longitudinal direction of this slot, a 10 μm height elevation was designed from the left end (zero point) to the right end. Additionally, there are three points designated A, B, and C. These three points are in the middle of each divided piece. Points A, B, and C are convenient for further calculation and data analysis.

A schematic drawing of this design is displayed in Fig.2 and an actual picture of this system is shown in Fig.3. This design guarantees a good observation of the cutting sections. During the next grinding process with the corresponding parameters shown in table 1, the workpieces on this holder would experience a small grinding edge angle (equation 1). Such small grinding edge angles can lead to various depths of cut on the workpiece with normal force. The left end is set as 0, the first cut section point to left end is 18 mm, from equation 1.  The depth of cut at this point is 18mm*sinα=3 μm.  The second cut section point to left end length is 36 mm, and the depth of cut is 6 μm.

Grinding edge angle α = sin^-1(10μm/60mm)=0.001°

Equation 1

Fig.1

Fig.2

Fig 3

Work material Silicon carbide (SiC)
Grinding wheel Winter D1500 730B
Wheel speed 47.87 m/s, 39.89 m/s, 31.92 m/s
Feed rate 0.0105m/s, 0.0211m/s
Depth of cut 3 μm, 6 μm

 

Table 1: The specifics of the grinding conditions

Experimental Set-up

The SiC workpieces in this experiment were from the Ford development department. Their original application was for grinding tools for the automobile industry.

SiC is the only chemical compound of carbon and silicon. It was originally produced by a high-temperature electro-chemical reaction of sand and carbon. Silicon carbide is an excellent abrasive. Thus, it had been widely used in producing grinding chips and other abrasive products. SiC has been developed into a high quality technical grade ceramic with outstanding mechanical properties. SiC ceramics have not only excellent mechanical properties at room temperature (high flexural strength, excellent oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance, high abrasion resistance and low coefficient of friction and high temperature mechanical properties)[6], but they also have adequate high-temperature strength which can be maintained up to 1600℃.

Grinding machine

Fig 2 Thompson Surface Grinding Machine FSH CNC 30/90

Table 3: Grit size of diamond particles

The grinding machine adopted in this study is a CNC grinder from Thompson Industries, Inc. equipped with a 1500 grit diamond wheel, which can make a minimal infeed of 0.0001inch. To provide real-time dynamic balancing, a dynamic balance system was equipped with the wheel spindle. This system eliminates the imbalance of the grinding wheel and minimizes grinding wheel vibration  while maintaining an optimum grinding process.

The computer located on the right side is connected to the dynamometer set on the grinder table [3]. Between computer and grinder is the control area and grinding wheel auto balance monitoring system.

Fig 3 Kistler dynamometer Type 9257B

 

Results and discussions

Grinding force

 

 

 

Fig 12 grinding Normal force DADisp 6.7

 

Fig.13

 

Fig.14

 

Fig.15

 

Fig.16

 

Fig.17

From Fig.12 we can determine that the normal force kept ascending with longer grinding times. This trend is in consistent with our workpiece holder design: as the barrier (workpiece) height increases across the longitudinal direction from left to right, the grinding wheel experienced an increasing counterforce, proportional to the normal force.

A comprehensive analysis of grinding factors on surface roughness was displayed from Fig.13 to Fig.15. Several issues could be inferred from those results: First, the surface roughness became greater with faster feeding speed. Since higher feeding speed leads to insufficient contact between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. Similarly, the increased wheel speed could enlarge the contact efficiency between the grinding wheel and the workpiece. Therefore, as shown in Fig.15, the surface roughness decreased with increasing wheel speed. Moreover, as the depth of cut increases, the surface roughness also increases. These effects are independent of each other.

From Fig.16, it is clear that the increased depth of cut would enlarge the normal force. Since the depth of cut is proportional to material removal rate (MRR), according to the force model established by Fan et al. [11], the normal force can be divided into vertical and horizontal components:

,

Here, kz, kx, mz and mx are constants while Fz0 and Fx0 are the corresponding rubbing component, respectively. Based on this model, it is clear that higher material removal rate would lead to a higher normal force.

Fig.17 showed that the normal force is reduced with higher wheel speed. This phenomenon can be explained according to our previous discussion; a higher wheel speed reduces  surface roughness. Therefore, the horizontal counter force, which is one component of the total normal force, was reduced due to reduced  friction.

SEM analysis

The aim of the SEM analysis was to estimate the grinding ductility by observing the microstructure of a ground workpiece. Fig.18 and Fig.19 display the surface morphology between point A and B. From Fig 18, the localized micro-plastic deformation has been observed and Fig.19 gave a better estimation that such deformation only happened within several micrometers from the surface of workpiece. Under this region, few structural defects could be observed, indicating that lower depth of cut has less impact of the internal tissues. Moreover, this change on the shoulder edge of a grinding surface could be identified as  plastic flow on lower depths of the cut workpiece. Therefore, a shallow ductile-regime has been demonstrated on the shoulder edge of the grinding surface under lower depths of cut, i,e. lower material removal rates.

 

 

 

 

Fig. 20 displays the surface morphology between point B and C. Here we find fracture cracks due to a higher depth of cutting. The occurrence of cracking pits on the cutting section surface proves the transition of the material removal mechanism from ductile deformation to brittle fracture in the grinding process. This stage can be defined as the critical parameter. Relative to the grinding depth, brittle material removal can be classified into three types: ductile regime grinding, ductile-brittle regime grinding, and brittle regime grinding. The critical depth of cut exists between our experiment range. As point B stood for a depth of cut of 4.5 μm, it can be inferred that the 4.5 μm depth of cut might be the critical point.

Conclusion

This project aimed at a deeper understanding of the grinding process for brittle materials such as SiC. In this project, we focused on the effects of several vital factors (feed speed, depth of cut and wheel speed) on the normal force and processed surface roughness. During our investigation, it was observed that the surface roughness after grinding was enhanced by higher feed speed, higher depth of cut and lower wheel speed. Additionally, normal force increased with an increasing depth of cut or by  reduced wheel speeds. Moreover, surface morphology was assessed to estimate a range for proper grinding. Through the SEM analysis, it is concluded that within a shallow depth of cut (less than 4.5 μm), the workpiece would display a ductile-regime with a plastic flow only until several micrometers from the top surface, leaving the internal tissue unchanged. However, as the depth of cut continues increasing, fracture cracking is triggered at both shallow surface and bulk areas of the workpiece, which indicates  the occurrence of an unwanted brittle-regime. It can be further inferred that as depth of cut increases, the brittle-regime is enhanced and might replace the ductile-regime. Based on our experimental design, it is suggested that a 4.5 μm depth of cut might be the critical point for grinding on an SiC workpiece.

References:

  1. Bifano, T. G., 1988, “Ductile-Regime Grinding of Brittle Materials,” Ph.D. Thesis, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.
  2. Chen J, Shen J, Huang H, Xu X. Grinding characteristics in high speed grinding of engineering ceramics with brazed diamond wheels. J Mater Process Technol 2010;210:899–906.
  3. Shearer, Thomas R., “Diamond Wheel Grinding 101,” Ceramic Industry magazine, June 2006, pp. 17-20.
  4. S., andSathyanarayanan.G., 1987, “An Investigation into the Mechanics of Diamond Grinding of Brittle Materials,” 15th North American Manufacturing Research Conference Proceedings, Vol. 2, Manufacturing Technology Review, pp. 499-505
  5. Chen M, Zhao Q, Dong S, Li D. The critical conditions of brittle–ductile transition and the factors influencing the surface quality of brittle materials in ultra-precision grinding. J Mater Process Technol 2005;168:75–82.
  6. Huerta, M., and Malkin, S., 1976, “Grinding of Glass: The Mechanics of the Process,” ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR INDUSTRY, May, pp. 459-467
  7. Krauskopf, B. Diamond Turning: Reflecting Demands for Precision, Manuf Engng, 92 (5), 1984, 90-100
  8. Blake, P. N. Ductile-Regime Diamond Turning of Germanium and Silicon, PhD Thesis, North Carolina State University, 1988
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  10. Cheng, J., Gong, Y.D., 2013. Experimental study on ductile-regime micro-grinding character of soda-lime glass with diamond tool. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 69,147–160.
  11. Xiaorui, F,. and Michele H. M., 2007, “Force Analysis for Grinding with Segmental Wheels,” Machine Science and Technology, Vol. 10, pp. 435-455
Classifying and Representing Information in Health Care

Classifying and Representing Information in Health Care

 

Ad hoc classification

Ad hoc representation is used in an instance where an individual seeks to group a huge amount of paperwork into nonstandardized groups. The representation is performed at only specified times. Presently in clinical and other medical institutions, achievements are evaluated continuously by excellence level and health care costs. A good example of an object used in assessing achievement is evaluating patient medical files, analyzing relationships involving differences in treatments and results.  The data in medical files is derived from the health professional’s outlaid writings or by direct inputs by the professionals. For instance in radiology, the data is derived from transcribed dictations of mammogram analysis.

The medical output data evaluation for a huge number of individuals is derived from analytical evaluation of sets among people grouped about availability, unavailability or degree of importance of the set medical characteristics. The data is constantly evaluated to enhance exactness (Moorhead, 2014). Ad hoc representation system limits reduce the number of files the medical professionals require to evaluate in full. The obstacle is to aid the individual evaluating the data to illustrate the interested units and evaluate the files requiring evaluation manually.

The representation system in radiology thus needs to illustrate if data falls in a specific unit, not an associate of the class or an associate. Associates go through a manual evaluation by the medical official. Those that are not associates will not go through a manual evaluation. The importance of ad hoc representation is to group a huge amount of paperwork into unstandardized groupings decided by an individual. Systems for retrieving data for ad hoc groupings of transcribed mammographic data. Information retrieval systems on the other hand rates documentations about probability of relating to a certain unit rather than grouping by association or non-association to a specific unit. In the field of medicine, priority is placed on groupings of medical files than the rating. This is attributed to the importance of identifying the medical status of the patients rather than identifying the most convenient file locale in a grouping (Moorhead, 2014).

Reference

Moorhead, S., Johnson, M., Maas, M. L., & Swanson, E. (2014). Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)-E-Book: Measurement of Health Outcomes. Elsevier Health Sciences.

 

 

   Type 1 diabetes

       Type 1 diabetes

Introduction

Type 1 diabetes or diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease that is commonly found in children caused by failure of beta cells of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas to produce enough insulin. The beta cells may also fail to produce insulin hormone due to pathogenic infection where certain viruses destroy the beta cells in the pancreas (In Dyson &In Goff, 2016). It is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia accompanied by disrupted fat, protein and starch metabolism which is caused by inadequate secretion of insulin molecules. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is known to be caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys the beta cells of islets of Langerhans leading to production of inadequate or no insulin.

High blood glucose level

Type 1 diabetes is an increase in the glucose level in the body of a child. The beta cells in the pancreas fail to secrete enough insulin and the glucose is prevented to enter the body tissues. The body breaks down fats and proteins to release energy instead of the glucose and therefore the glucose increases in the blood (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). Beta cells of islets of Langerhans in Briana’s pancreas had been destroyed by autoimmune reaction hence insulin hormone was produced in low quantities. This made the cells to prevent glucose from entering the muscle and other tissues and it accumulated in her blood. The osmotic pressure of the blood raised and thus Briana felt thirsty and drunk water frequently. The blood sugar in Briana’s blood had risen beyond the normal levels, hence her body responded by a negative feedback to remove the excess glucose from the blood using the kidneys. In the process, her kidneys filtered out plenty of water hence Brianna passed out urine frequently and even wet the bed.  After being reviewed for two hours in the emergency department, Briana was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type one which may have been passed on to her by the mother as the medical history showed. To raise the insulin level in the blood, Briana was prescribed an injection of Aspart insulin through a Flex pen.

Glucose in the urine

The glucose presence in the urine is known as glycosuria. When the blood glucose is high than normal levels in children, the condition is known as diabetes mellitus type 1. It occurs when the glomerular filters much glucose than the amount the distal and proximal tubules of the kidney can absorb. If the renal threshold for sugars is reached, then glucose is filtered out with urine (In Dyson &In Goff, 2016). The renal threshold for glucose is raised by conditions such as persistent hyperglycemia. Briana’s renal threshold for glucose and after the glycosuria test was done, the doctor found there were glucose molecules in her urine. The accelerated amount of glucose present in the renal tubules made her kidneys unable to prevent all the glucose from being excreted in the urine. The glucose level in Briana’s urine was high than it may be expected hence the doctor suspected she might be suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 and was immediately sent to emergency department for an insulin molecule injection.

Increased urination

This condition is known as polyuria. Briana experienced frequent passing out urine to an extent of wetting the bed for two nights. The blood sugar level was high and caused a lot of dehydration to her body. (Bhansali, Aggarwal, Parthan, &Gogate, 2016). Briana was drinking large amounts of water as her parents had noticed. This urinary frequency was due to taking in a lot of fluids especially water and drinks that consisted of caffeine. Since Briana’s blood contained a lot of glucose molecules, the glucose molecules were forced to diffuse in the urine. As the urine contained glucose molecules, solvent, which is the water in the blood moved through osmosis into the urine and caused Briana’s urinary bladder to fill fast and urinated frequently.

Increased thirst

This condition is known as polydipsia. It is a primary symptom of diabetes. Briana’s parents noticed that she was becoming thirsty frequently. This condition was caused by hyper concentration of glucose molecules in Briana’s bloodstream. Her kidneys were unable to prevent glucose monomers from diffusing into the urine across the walls of the renal tubules. As a result, water was drained from the blood through osmosis and hence she felt thirsty faster than usual.

Increased appetite

This condition is known as polyphagia. It is used to refer to the increased feeling of hunger in diabetic people. It can be brought about by anxiety, bulimia, stress and depression. The sugar levels in Briana’s bloodstream were excessively high as the beta cells of the pancreas were unable to secrete enough insulin molecules due to autoimmune annihilation of the beta cells. Her cells prevented the glucose to enter them because of inadequate insulin hormone in the blood to make them permeable to glucose molecules (Greydanus& Merrick, 2016). The cells were deprived of a food substrate to break down to release energy hence she felt hunger as her body was weak as glucose monomers were not metabolized to release energy.

Ketones

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition where high levels of ketones are produced by the body. The beta cells in the pancreas of Briana had been damaged and hence they secreted no or inadequate insulin hormone which make the muscles and other tissues permeable to glucose molecules. Her tissues therefore produced acids called ketones which accumulated in the blood as they metabolized fats instead of glucose monomers to release energy in form of adenosine triphosphate. Due to hyper concentration of glucose solutes in Briana’s bloodstream, accumulation of high level of ketones was also established by her doctor.

Weight loss

This is a condition whereby the body loses weight drastically in a way that cannot be explained. It is one the symptoms that someone is developing diabetes. From the medical history, Briana had lost five kilograms since she was reviewed for a cold a month ago which was a symptom of Diabetes mellitus type 1. Secretion of inadequate insulin by the cells of the pancreas inhibited the glucose molecules from the digested food from entering the cells (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk, & Wilson, 2014). This caused her cells to be deprived of the source of energy. To generate energy, the body begun to breakdown the fat stored in tissues and muscles through respiration to release energy. This caused her body to use the reserved fats to produce energy and hence she lost weight drastically.

Discuss the nursing responsibilities and supporting rationales related to the administration of Aspart (Novo Rapid) insulin to Briana via a Flex Pen

Prior to administration

Before administering the insulin on Briana, the nurse carries out the five medication administration rights. He/she identifies the patient, that is, who is Briana (her age, gender and physical and physiological characteristics). The nurse ensures that the right drug is given (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). The label of the insulin and its order are checked. The route of the administration is also considered. In Briana’s case, the effect of the drug was required instantly and hence injection of the insulin through the vein was the most appropriate route. The timing of the medication is also important. The nurse checks twice if the insulin given was the ordered one and is given at the right time. Correct documentation of the time, route and the devices used in the administration of the medication is kept (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). The medical profile of the patient is very crucial to the nurse. The nurse determines if the Aspart insulin might result in unexpected results due to differences in specific drug metabolism caused by genetic variations in different people. The nurse examines the height and weight of Briana to calculate the doses of the insulin to be administered accurately.

During administration

The nurse carries out the dosage calculations accurately to avoid errors that may result in adverse effects on Briana. The nurse injects the insulin he/she has prepared or has been prepared by a pharmacist who is licensed. The nurse also injects the insulin appropriately and safely to ensure that it has been injected in the right site for it to be effective in its action and to cause little discomfort to the patient.

After administration

The nurse is to educate Briana and her family about the side effects of the insulin and also explain to them of the expectations after the administration of the medication. This would enable Briana and her family to adhere to correct medication and monitoring the effects of the medication. The nurse makes a follow up of Briana after administering the insulin. The nurse checks blood glucose level after administering the medication and keep a record. Any unwanted results from the insulin injected are checked and accounted for by the nurse. This enables the nurse to keep track of the progress of Briana’s condition.

Discuss the effects of diabetes type 1 on Briana and her family

Emotional impacts

Briana faces so many emotional issues due to her illness. She is scared as her condition makes her feel weak and unable to effectively concentrate on her work for instance studies, dancing classes and some house chores. She becomes shy as she wets the bed hence lowering her self-confidence. She feels sad as her lifestyle changes regarding having to take a special diet, and injecting of insulin to control the blood sugar level. She also may her friends as they may see her as having a special case hence lowering her self-esteem.

Her siblings may feel powerless as they cannot be able to help their sister to get well. Loss of joy due to the sickness of their sister and they cannot play well as they used to before Briana fell sick. The parents may become stressed due to financial constraints resulting from the cost of medication of their daughter.

Physical impacts

Briana develops physical problems in her body due to the illness. Some of the problems include: delayed healing of wounds, frequent urination, blurred vision and high appetite.

The parents may experience sleeplessness as they look after their daughter. The mother develops exhaustion as she looks after the sick daughter, the husband who has a mild intellectual disability and the rest of the family.

Explain how you would adapt your nursing care of Briana and her family to accommodate Tom’s intellectual disability

I would be visiting Tom’s home frequently to have closer contact with the family. While at their home I would sit with Tom and spend some hours talking to him as a friend and even make some jokes. Then little by a little talk with him the condition of his daughter and try to help him understand the kind of medication and care that their daughter requires. I would also provide Tom with some brochures giving information on diabetes. Since people with intellectual disability have low cognitive abilities, I would help him read through the information on the brochure and help him understand the condition of their daughter in a better way. I would help him understand that their daughter requires regular injections of insulin to lower blood sugar level, regular exercise and a special diet.

References

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014 report: New South Wales.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.(2015). Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Australian children 2000-2013.

Bhansali, A., Aggarwal, A., Parthan, G., &Gogate, Y. (2016). Clinical rounds in endocrinology: Volume II.

Greydanus, D. E., & Merrick, J. (2016). Diabetes Mellitus. Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

In Dyson, P., & In Goff, L. (2016). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in diabetes.

Perry, S. E., Hockenberry, M. J., Lowdermilk, D. L., & Wilson, D. (2014). Maternal child nursing care

Community Health Plan

Community Health Plan

Health Concerns

Obesity is a health risk concern for the community in Fresno. Quite a large number of children within the region are affected by obesity and are overweight. According to Babey, Wolstein, Diamant, Bloom, and Goldstein, (2012), obesity refers to the condition of being overweight and having too much fat in the body. With the increasing rates of obesity in children, heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some various types of cancer can result and affect these individuals. Statistics show that about 37% of the total population of children in Fresno are affected by cases of diabetes and obesity. More specifically, among the 5th graders, 40% of the total children are obese and overweight.

Goals of the Community Health Plan

The primary purpose of the health plan will be developed to help the children with diabetes and obesity to become healthier and live better lives within their community. The main goals will be to reduce the weight of the children through exercises and medication and improve the lifestyles of these children by providing them with proper and healthy meals that would increase their life stability. The plan will also be responsible for sensitizing the people within Fresno Ca about diabetes, its effects and causes as well as obesity and the underlying adverse effects of children.

Required Resources

The Community Health Plan will involve some activities designed specifically for reducing the weight of the children over time and monitoring the overall health of the children to treat and manage diabetes among them. According to Schwarte, Samuels, Capitman, Ruwe, Boyle, and Flores, (2010), materials such as bouncing castles, racing gears, footballs, bicycles, gymnastic levers and other resources that can be used to reduce weight. These resources would be useful since the majority of the children who are obese do not exercise much, thus with the resources available, they would have the chance to undertake training activities.

On the other hand, medical resources may be required for the treatment and management of diabetes among these children. Materials for educating the children about diabetes, its effects and management plans would be necessary in the event of treating and managing diabetes. Finances will be necessary to help in purchasing the necessary medication and resources to use with the obesity mediation program. Through obtaining these funds, the plan would be successful.

Integrated Activities

The resources that are required for the community health plan to sensitize and treat the children with diabetes and overweight will involve some activities. These activities are helpful not only in cutting the weight of the children but also in engaging these kids with each other to understand and learn about the impacts of the same. According to Babey, et al., (2012), riding bicycles, racing, jogging, playing soccer, and any other activity that would help in reducing the obesity in these kids would be used. Moreover, these activities would, in some ways, contribute to manage and maintain better status for the children affected by diabetes.

Education to the children as well as the parents of these kids is also of vital importance and thus must be integrated into the course of the plan. The community must be sensitized about diabetes and obesity and the link existing between the two conditions. Through the education process, the community will be in a better position to help the children in preventing the cases of diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the community health plan must ensure to sensitize the community about healthy meals that would help to reduce the chances of obesity and overweight in children, thereby mitigating and reducing the likelihood of diabetes affecting them. Moreover, the sensitization program would also help to ensure the children and the community earn about the best exercise events which the kids must undertake over time.

Barriers to The Effective Community Health Plan

The community health plan may be faced with some obstacles which would otherwise reduce its effectiveness. One of the obstacles that the community plan may face is the lack of enough resources for the program. The financial perspective of the scheme may not be sufficient and thus may be a barrier to the effective community health plan. On the other hand, the parents may not let their children be engaged in the community health plan due to risks that would be involved. The exercises included may result in risks such as injuries to the children and thus

Evaluation of the Plan

It is important to evaluate the plan and examine how effective the program has been. The feedback from parents can be obtained describing the progress that they have noted from the children. With the children reducing their weight and having healthier lifestyles, then it is evident that the plan has been successful and helped the children in reducing their weight. Moreover, the overall practices that the children will adapt to regarding exercises designed to reduce the cases of obesity would mean the plan was successful

References

Babey, S. H., Wolstein, J., Diamant, A. L., Bloom, A., & Goldstein, H. (2012). Overweight and obesity among children by California cities–2010. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and California Center for Public Health Advocacy. From http://healthpolicy.ucla.edu/publications/Documents/PDF/children2010fs-jun2012.PDF

Schwarte, L., Samuels, S. E., Capitman, J., Ruwe, M., Boyle, M., & Flores, G. (2010). The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: changing nutrition and physical activity environments in California’s heartland. American journal of public health100(11), 2124-2128. From https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951953/pdf/2124.pdf

 

Collaborative Decision Making Through Shared Governance

Collaborative Decision Making Through Shared Governance

Functions of the Committee

Tim Porter-O’Grady, a health system consultant with 44 yeas of experience, defines the concept of shared governance as a model of professional preparation. Tim further aatributes some characterisics to shared governence such as accountability, ownership and collaboration. The cornerstone principles enable sustainable and responsible decisions and a cross-disciple design for worldcalss patient care (Twyfords, 2012). The primary functions the committee has are:

Assesment

The committee is responsible for ensuring that nurses have a good relationship with the patients, a fair level of understanding and respect for the same that the nurses commit to the stated plan of care.

Planning

            As the nurses will be responsible for the patient care plan, the committee has to develop and organize a problem-oriented approach plan that will aid the nurses during their practice and provide measurable outcomes (Coolin, 2013).

Evaluation

The nursing performance should be evaluated to ascertain that the set goals are reached and check if the nurses are improving in their field of work (Coolin, 2013).

Research and Recommendations

The committee studies about trending and new ways of curing patients, the best way they can improve the services offered by nurses, how the working environment should be upgraded and other relevant information. Ansell and Gash (2011) assert that it also recommends the same to the team of nurses and staff.

 

Interactions of Members of the Committee

            The committee involves representatives of all the service area including emergency services, surgical services, clinical services and nursing administrators, among others. Being professionals in their fields of work, the committee members have a lot of respect for each other’s field of practice, and, therefore, their language is modest with a proper level of politeness when one needs to speak (Twyfords, 2012). For instance, when one of the committee members want’s to voice his or her opinions, he or she asks for permission first before moving on to speaking. The board members work in different fields but, at times, the cohorts must work together, and develop some level of friendship. Their interaction now becomes more friendly, and the members involved feel responsible for voicing out their views and opinions more freely (Ansell & Gash, 2011).

Decision Making

The committee arrives at its decision at the end of the meeting, having weighed all the options available. The decision made is influenced by some factors within the meeting (Twyfords, 2012). The committee listened to all the input from impacted stakeholders and the members attending the meeting and weigh the importance and urgency of the matter before giving the final decision. The practice is one of the preeminent ways to ensure that shared governance has been achieved (Twyfords, 2012). The committee members have plans aiming for the consensus of how the nurses can have better working environments.However, what shows that they have collaborative decision making is a backup plan which defines the strategy that should be used in case the agreement is not reached.

The board has a shared accountability for the nurses and patients receiving treatment in their hospital. The committee established that it is their duty to examine the services offered by the nurses as well as the patient’s response on the same so that they know what improvements they should implement to improve the image of the hospital. The decision shows that the members make their decision through shared governance.

References

Twyfords (2012). The Smart Leader’s Guide to Collaborative Governance

Coolin, H. (2013). Top 10 Strategic Issues for Boards, 2013–2014, from

http://www.agb.org/store/top-10-strategic-issues-boards-2013-2014

Ansell, C., & Gash, A. (2011). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice

from http://sites.duke.edu

Children’s Literature and Gender Identity

Children’s Literature and Gender Identity

Introduction

Stereotype in terms of gender is bound in any cultural setting. One of the most effective methods used by societies to differentiate themselves from one another is by making generalizations intended to categorize individuals into differing groups (Giordano, 2014). It is imperative to note that while some stereotypes are assumed good, others are negative. However, whether one assumes stereotypes positive or negative, they all play a crucial role in the development of prejudice in the society. This paper will discuss gender identity among young children while comparing with Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban book.

Analysis and Comparison with Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

In rare books such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the author has depicted Harry Potter as the protagonists and the hero (Rowling, 1999). While compared to other female characters, Harry is somewhat characterized by messy hair and odd glasses who only became widely famous after surviving the powerful wizard’s curse. This particular book does not use female characters to represent strong and positive role models in the society; instead, they are represented as weak or oddly strong individuals who are guided with negative agenda. As a twelve-old boy, Harry frequently finds himself in dangerous situations together with his two friends. There is a girl who does not possess any type of skills or knowledge that could help her survive dangerous adventures among his two friends. As a result, she often relies on the help of Harry and his friend to save her from such situations (Rowling, 1999). In this case, it is plausible to note the weak representation of female characters in the book that is supposed to highlight children’s fantasies, innocence and intentions.

According to research studies conducted by early childhood educators, it is particularly critical for the society to be aware of gender stereotypes (Fuller, 2015). This is mainly because the concept of gender identity frequently placed on younger children even before they are born such as by the process of selecting the color of the nursery. Despite this fact, children tend to develop concepts revolving the issue of gender identity when they turn two (2) years of age. In fact, they realize their own gender identities in regards to being either a boy or girl when they turn the age of three (3).  The development process regarding their gender identity when they reach between the ages of three (3) and five (5) follows this (Fuller, 2015). This means that it is during these particular ages that they begin to create an understanding of what it really means to be either female or male.

Immediately minors become gender aware, they tend to develop stereotype patterns that they not only begin to apply to themselves but also to others (Fuller, 2015). This is usually in an attempt to providing meaning as well as gaining a deeper understanding about their own identity.  Such stereotypes are faintly developed by the time these children reach the age of five (5) years. This often becomes rigidly defined by the time they reach between the ages of five (5) and seven (7), therefore rendering their preschool years a critical period through which they are expected to deal with not only gender identity but also gender stereotypes (Fuller, 2015).

In this context, it is worth noting that sexism and stereotyping play critical roles in limiting children’s potential development and growth (Ogden, 2017). This is mainly backed by research studies that indicate that the process of internalizing stereotypes that are negative, ultimately affects self-esteem negatively including their academic performance. During adolescent stages, long-term gender bias tends to become more evident. In this case, educators in preschools are particularly important as they have the ability of helping children develop sense of their own gender identity that is positive (Ogden, 2017). This means that teachers can effectively neutralize or counteract gender bias only if they are familiar with critical elements or factors that come to play during the process of gender stereotyping and identity development. They also need to accurately understand a specific child’s active role when it comes to the process of formation of gender identity (Ogden, 2017). This can be effectively achieved in classrooms, which are an ideal setting for preventing the formation or development of children’s gender stereotyping.

Theories Regarding Gender Bias Formation

Kohlberg was a famous theorist who developed a theory seeking to address the issue of gender both as a cognitive and learned concept (Oldfield, 2013). This theory was influenced by his understanding that children are normally active learners who frequently use their interactions with the kind of the environmental setting they live to develop an individualized understanding of the world around them. This means that during their critical early years, they develop their own world perspective or view. Consequently, their particular cognitive understanding is a crucial element in the process of influencing their behavior.

This theory was supported by a research study that involved children not above the ages of five (5) years (Oldfield, 2013). During this particular research, they were asked questions regarding non-traditional and traditional images of women normally portrayed in books. Findings in this particular research study indicated that children younger than five (5) years drew outside assumptions as well as knowledge to reconcile opinions that seemed to conflict with their world view. In most cases, these participating children used words such as probably in an attempt to explain how they came to their conclusions. This is non-withstanding whether they were using stereotypes or not (Oldfield, 2013).

It is important to note that such type of research study supported Gender-Schema Theory that suggests that the development of organized structures as far as knowledge is concerned eventually plays a critical role in influencing not only behavior but also way of thinking (Oldfield, 2013). However, this theory supplements the perspective of gender development arguing that gender and gender identity is a social construct. This essentially means that children are able to discover, explore and understand gender through imaginative plays. In regards to the popular culture and media, gender stereotypes are seen to be pervasive. In this case, most consumer products inundates children with messages that are gender-typed such as in towels, bed sheets, clothes, school supplies, bandages as well as in furniture and toys. In this respect, it is important to note that not only are they marketed to be used for specific genders but are also merchandised by various popular stores by gender (Oldfield, 2013). This way, consumers are able to easily identify them by noticing the blue and pink aisles for shopping.

Media generally plays a critical role in reinforcing stereotypes among young children (Giordano, 2014). For instance, some advertisements regarding products such as computers may depict both boys and men as the most competent users when compared to girls and women. In this case, they normally depict male individuals engaged in highly active professional or active roles. On the other hand, girls and women are normally depicted as passive observers or merely posed close or next to such products. This is while looking provocative or pretty depending on the age status. For this reason, this type of advertisement to children has been seen to be harmful towards the growth and development of children and has thus, been banned in various European countries.

Harry and the Prisoner of Azkaban often depicts women as ill centered and incompetent individuals when compared to men. For instance, Sibyll Trelalawney, who despite being the divination professor, has been represented as a dramatic and insect-like individual who loves to predict death. However, according to the film, most of her predictions are often false. On the other hand, although Hermione Granger is a well-read and clever student who is always at the top of her class, she is often depicted as a villain who seems to spoil fun and adventure in the book (Rowling, 1999). This is because she is depicted as a loyal principle follower and thus, alienates both Ron and Harry by reporting them or threatening to report them to the harsh and strict professor McGonagall.

Conclusion

Families or communities usually communicate most gender-based prejudice by either word of mouth or by actions, even to younger children. Typically, children’s attitude as well as their beliefs are shaped by gender bias experiences that they encounter in their younger days. This is in addition to their intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships, access to quality health equality and education, participating in the corporate environment as well as stifling their psychological or physical well-being.

Bibliography

Fuller, K. (2015). Gender, identity, and educational leadership. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Giordano, S. (2014). Children with gender identity disorder: A clinical, ethical, and legal analysis.

Rowling J. (1999). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. London. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ogden, C. (2017). Identity and gender.

Oldfield, E. F. (2013). Transgressing boundaries: Gender, identity, culture, and the ‘other’ in postcolonial women’s. Place of publication not identified: Editions Rodopi B V.

Analyzing data

Analyzing data

Introduction

Research studies involve collecting all the necessary data that pertains to a particular problem of study. An individual may employ either inferential or descriptive statistics during the process of analysis. Ordinarily both inferential and descriptive statistics analyze research studies when drawing conclusions when a group of people conducts a research. The paper will analyze existing types of statistics and investigate how they are employed in the research study that aims at determining some of the problems affecting Airtel Company.

Types of Descriptive Statistics that might be best for summarizing the Data

Researchers employ descriptive statistics when describing some of the basic features of data in a particular study for example the research on problems affecting Airtel Company (Zikmund, Babin, Carr, Griffin, 2013). They supply simple summaries on measures as well as sample. Descriptive statistics are used with graphic analysis in forming basis of each quantitative data that has to be analyzed. This means that the statistics are used to describe what a particular data shows or what it is like in the given study on problems affecting Airtel Company. It is however important to note that descriptive statistics are useful tools in presenting quantitative data in a manageable structure that are descriptive in nature (Zikmund et al., 2013). This means that when a sample of data is collected, one is able to measure a large number of samples. Therefore, it is plausible to indicate that descriptive statistics is an effective method of simplifying voluminous data in sensible manner. This is by reducing excess sample data to achieve a simpler summary.

It is worth noting that every time a researcher try to describe a voluminous set of observations as in the case of the above baseball sports to find a single indicator, he or she always runs the risks of getting original data distorted. In addition, there is always a chance of losing some important details in such a particular study. However, it is important to note that descriptive statistics are an ideal way of providing powerful summary that researchers can use when comparing with other relevant information elsewhere (Bhattacharya & Michael, 2008).

Types of Inferential Statistics that might be best for analyzing the Data

The type of statistics is normally used when a researcher is trying to achieve summaries or conclusions that extend available data collected or sampled (Anderson, Sweeney, Williams, 2011). Inferential statistics are useful tools when individuals want to infer using the available data. This means that this type of statistics makes it possible to make accurate judgments as far as the probability is concerned. Collected data or samples normally have different features that make it possible for a person to categorize them into different groups. In this case, inferential statistics enable researchers in the process of making inferences from available data to more generalized conditions (Anderson et al, 2011). This is contrast to descriptive statistics used to describe what is presented by collected data. It is therefore important to note that inferential statistics is a useful tool during quasi-experimental and experimental programs or research design as far as outcome evaluation process is concerned.

Moreover, a simplest inferential investigation is employed when researchers want to compare two or more groups’ performances usually on a simple measure with the main goal of determining whether there is any difference (Brooks & Weatherston, 2000). Major inferential statistics are generally developed from a statistical models identified as the General Linear Models. The elements include analysis of variance, t-test, regression analysis as well as various multivariate methods. The types are better suited when conducting such a research on problems affecting Airtel Company. The multivariate methods include; multidimensional scaling, analysis, discriminate function and cluster analysis (Anderson et al, 2011). Therefore, due to the significance and popularity of the General Linear Model it would be an ideal decision to be able to understand its working and hence employ it during research processes.

It is therefore important for any researcher to learn how to analyze program outcome evaluations by way of comparisons between the non-program and the program group of outcome variables or a distinct variable. This normally depends on the type of research design that a researcher uses. However, research designs are mainly divided into two main broad types and they include; quasi-experimental and experimental designs (Bryman & Bell, 2015). The two designs normally differ from each other and therefore researchers are forced to present inferred data separately during presentations. For instance, inferential statistics are applicable when one may want to find out if eight-grade girls and boys differ from each other in a particular test such as math. It is also used when determining any existing differences on program group as far as the outcome measures from a specific control group is concerned. During such studies, a researcher may have to consider using the t-test because it is effective in measuring average performance between two categories or classes of available data.

The role of Trend analysis or Probability

Trend analysis is the process adopted by researchers when comparing any available business data over a specified period of time (Gwinner, Gremler, Bitner, 2013). It will enables identification of any steady trends or results in the study to determine problems affecting Airtel Company. The process is significant to businesses as it helps business managers in Airtel company to develop effective strategies that can respond to observable trends in line with particular business goals. Therefore, it is accurate to state that trend analysis or probabilities will help the company understand business performance over a certain period and be able to predict current business practices or business operations and their impacts. Therefore, it will be a useful tool in giving ideas on how Airtel business managers can change business practices or operations to achieve the set goals or objectives (Gwinner et al., 2013).

In this regard, trend analysis or probabilities are vital to the company’s business environment as they are effective in the process of improving business performance. This is done by identifying specific areas of the business that are performing through the collected data over a period and be able to duplicate success through improving certain their performance (Zikmund et al., 2013). On the other hand, if the collected data indicate some under-performing areas in the business environment, business individuals would employ new tactics or processes that will improve their performance. Moreover, it is worth noting that trend analysis or probabilities will be critical tools that help Airtel business managers to make informed decisions on business activities such as in the identified business problem on challenges affecting Airtel Company.

References

Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., & Williams, T. A. (2011). Fundamentals of business statistics. Cengage Learning.

Bhattacharya, A. K., & Michael, D. C. (2008). How local companies keep multinationals at bay. Harvard Business Review86(3), 20-33.

Brooks, I., & Weatherston, J. (2000). The business environment: Challenges and Changes. Ft Press.

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2015). Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA.

Gwinner, K. P., Gremler, D. D., & Bitner, M. J. (2013). Relational benefits in services industries: the customer’s perspective. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 26(2), 101-114.

Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., & Griffin, M. (2013). Business research methods. Cengage Learning.

Andrey Rublyov Art and Style

Andrey Rublyov Art and Style

Russian art goes hand in hand with the art of the Byzantine empire. Artistic traditions regarding church architecture and icon painting originated in Byzantine. Andrey Rublyov is considered the best-known painter of frescoes and Russian icons. Rublyov art has arguably different influences such as Greek Christian art and Byzantine influence. Theophanes, the Greek also through the legacy of senior Russian icon painter, has considerably made Rublyov art shine. Andrey Rublyov through his best-known icon, the Old Testament Trinity that expresses the core ideas of the church and Orthodox Christianity is an excellent example borrowed from Byzantium.

            Characteristics of Andrey Rublyov Art

Rublyov art and style corresponded not only on the Byzantium influences but also on the religious philosophy portrayed during the XVth century. Rublyov work transpires a luxurious feeling, luminosity, poetry, and purity that attracts to contemplation. His work has a quality of transparency. Rubylov art, for instance, Christ in the Dormition brings evidently his character traits such as kind and compassion.

Andrey art and style relate to the naturalism and idealization of the ancient Greeks with individualized portraits which balance both divine and human. Andrey was a pupil of The Greek Theophane whose icons were tragic and tense though Rubylov differed significantly as his images had a harmonious light which incarnated the epoch of liberation (Lindsay,2006).

The austerity characteristic and discipline of Byzantine art is seen in Rubylov art especially the stylistic abstraction, tranquility, delineated contours and clarity observed on the saint’s faces. Also, Rubylov was not only an icon painter influenced by Byzantine iconography but also a monk. Rubylov is a great artist whose work expressed faith, hope, and love.

Reference

Lindsay, H. (2006) “Art and Liturgy in Russia: Rublev and his successors,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity, vol. 5, Eastern Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 287.

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