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Financial Planning

Financial Planning

Financial Service Guide

Dear Mr. Klein,

This email is addressed to you with information on our Financial Service Guide, which will assist you in deciding upon your usage of our firm’s product, or not. This Financial Service Guide will give you information about the process, which can be followed if clients find our products unsatisfactory, or the client is unhappy with the services of our company. It also explains the procedures we use to handle both internal and external conflicts and how you as our customer can access them. Therefore, it is important for you to go through the Financial Service Guide to get a better understanding of our Company’s policies.

If you feel unsatisfied with our services, we recommend that you follow the appropriate step to submit your complaint as explained by Billingsley, Gitman and Joehnk (2017):

  1. You can contact your advisor and raise your complaint with If the complaint is not resolved within a period of 7 working days, then we recommend that you contact our offices directly by sending a letter to us.
  2. If the offices cannot resolve the matter is a satisfactory manner, then you are advised to raise your concerns to the Financial Department. We believe it is your right to be served and thus the financial team is always available to serve our valued clients.
  3. In the case that the issue involved has some traces of any unethical conducts, then you are advised to raise the concerns with the Financial Planning Association of the Firm. The team will help you deal with the matter at hand in a fashionable manner and ensure your rights are valued.

As your financial planner, it is my responsibility to organize and manage your finances, planning for your retirements and the benefits that you should receive, running of your businesses in case you are not around to conduct them by yourself and analyze your insurance cover and its effectiveness. The planning process usually involves six logical steps where we begin by determining the current situation of the client and develop the goals for their finances. We then find alternative actions and decisions on the use of the finances, and then evaluate the effectiveness of the choices and the risks that are involved. Finally, we implement the financial action plan with the consent of the client and continually re-evaluate the effectiveness of the plan.

Question 2: Understanding the Client’s Objectives and Making Assumptions

The ten best questions that could be asked to Mr. Klein to understand better his situation and provide an SOA would be:

  1. What do you think is the most appropriate way to spend your money?
  2. What can you tell me about saving?
  3. What can you tell me about your finances and how you plan to remunerate them?
  4. Tell me about your relationship with your employees?
  5. What is the challenge that you feel most affect how you spend your money?
  6. Tell me your future plans for the next five years?
  7. What do you think motivates you to work hard?
  8. How can you explain your current financial status?
  9. What is the best way you would wish you, children, to benefit from your income?
  10. Tel me your plan for the business this year?

 

The five assumptions that would be deduced to make recommendations are:

  1. He is a busy business man and may not have enough time to work on his finances.
  2. He is a family man and thus has responsibilities to his family.
  3. Klein has many employees that are under him.
  4. Klein is always on business trips far from his business centers.
  5. He pays taxes for himself as well as for his businesses.

Question 3: Building rapport in the first client Meeting

The first meeting with a client is important since it markets your Company and ensures that you capture the attention of the client. It is important to be presentable while on the first meeting. Potential clients look at the ability of the negotiating party and how the use of their language in explaining themselves. Maintaining eye contact is one of the methods that is best known to ensure good communication is achieved. In addition, it is important to listen keenly to the questions that the client may ask to take the time to provide reasonable and correct responses. This ensures that the communication is effective and there are minimum clarifications that may be needed (Billingsley, Gitman, & Joehnk, 2017).

The use of the appropriate body language is important when developing a rapport with the clients. In addition, it is important to nod and make sounds and gestures that encourage the potential customer that you are actively listening to their comments. Having a soft way of talking, being relaxed, and audible enough will help provide the client with the correct information and thus the communication will be effective.

Question 4: Professional/Ethical Situation

The meaning of “Ethical and Professional” is a phrase that can be used to describe the proficiency of an employee, and employer or a leader. It means that the leaders, employees and employers and other educated persons should conduct themselves with moral principles and should be truthful and have a sense of integrity.

A referral fee is a form of advertisement for MIS but it is unethical, thus I do not advocate for it. The acceptance of such a fee is more like corruption and thus is a negative practice as it violates the code of conduct of professionalism.  The legislative measures that MIS has breached include corruption, which is illegal, and the company has not explained to their clients about the defaulted loans and are still accepting their investments.

Two specific elements of the Financial Planning Association’s Code that apply to this scenario are the analysis of the client’s financial situation and identifying the financial planning strategies and recommendations that are applicable to the client. For the former, John Black has three children and has saved a sum of $50,000 which he wishes to invest for his children in the future. Additionally, the latter is represented in the event that John Black seeks advice on MIS and its accountability for him to invest his funds in.

My advice to Mr. Black would be to avoid working with MIS. This is because they are not fit enough to promise that his investment will have any returns since, at the moment, the scheme is not in a good financial position and there have been cases of defaulters who have failed to pay their debts. As such, I would advise John Black to find an alternative firm to invest in and carry out investigations concerning the same before risking his savings (Sestina, 2016). As their advisors, it would be important to notify them of the issues that are currently affecting MIS and advise them to request for their finances and invest them elsewhere. This would be good advice for them since they can benefit from the services of our organization and we can ensure their funds are not at any risk whatsoever.

References

Billingsley, R., Gitman, L. & Joehnk, M. (2017). Personal financial planning. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Sestina, J. (2016). Planning a successful future: managing to be wealthy for individuals and their advisors. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.

Financial reports

Financial reports

Financial reports provides crucial information for shareholders that are outside a business. The shareholders involving the potential investors are concerned with the observation of the business performance with regard to its monetary gains to facilitate development of informed investment decisions. Managerial reports are used by managers to determine the effectiveness of business’ internal operations with an aim of evaluating, formulating, planning and implementing effective strategies to address issues that arises during the conduct of the business.

Financial reports are detailed and involves objective information that is easily verifiable by the external shareholders. Managerial report on the other hand is more specific and is concerned with addressing structured decisions relating to a particular matter that is identifiable by the decision makers.

Financial reports are necessary for provision of reality in financial situation of an institution and its accuracy is quintessence.  Managerial reports however requires to be prepared in a timely manner to facilitate managers to make proactive decisions necessary for problem resolution (ATRILL & MCLANEY, 2011). Since financial reports are used by external stakeholders, the information contained in them is a summary of events an organization has been involved in within a given period of time. On the other hand, managerial reports are specific and impacts an individual department and well as other parties involved such as employees and customers.

Cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis is a powerful tool involved in the management and monitoring of how profit of a business responds to changes in sales, product prices and operation cost (MCGRUFF, 2017). Information contained in a CVP analysis enable managers to plan organizations operations through determination of products and services needed to be prioritized to assist in the achievement of the targeted goals. CVP helps in guiding businesses through consideration of products that requires to be sold or manufactured and at what price. The analysis also helps managers to make decisions through reporting organizations success without losses. CVP also assists in provision of guidance on expenditure to prevent high expenses and high risks in consideration of fixed cost.

The potential problems associated with CVP involves the assumption that selling prices, cost and fixed cost are static. This aspect is impacted by outside impacts relating to political and economic influences making it dynamic. In most nations, industries are forced to adjust their prices due to unpredictable operational cost such as electricity and fuel (ATRILL & MCLANEY, 2011).. Thus, to ensure profit is maintained, organizations has to inevitably adjust their sales prices to prevent losses. It is observed that most fixed cost are flexible over all volumes of activity. This implies that great care has to be taken while assuming that operation costs are fixed.

As an advice to a friend, taking accountants advice is crucial to ensure that all managerial reports are considered to help in development of proactive decision making as well as incorporation of the CVP analysis. The cost incurred from the fees charged by accountants is valuable as they facilitate in guiding business’ financial direction to ensure profitability based on identification of areas that requires consideration (BORNSTEIN, 2014). Also, the use CVP analysis facilitates establishment of profitable opportunities as well as development of profit margins that are attainable in a month to facilitate profit maximization. Further, to ensure tax reduction, it is crucial for accountants to provide financial guidance to ensure budget is considered to prevent overspending. Moreover, maintenance of a good relationship with stakeholders such as suppliers guarantee high credit facility in case of shortages in cash flow.

 

REFRENCES

ATRILL, P. & MCLANEY, E. (2011). Finance and accounting for managers. Laureate Online Education custom ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson Custom Publishing.

MCGRUFF. (2017). Evolving with technology. Chapel Lake Drive.

BORNSTEIN, M. (2014). Comparative economic systems: Models and cases. Burr Ridge [etc.: Irwin.

 

Factors Associated with Falls in Hospitalized Adults

Factors Associated with Falls in Hospitalized Adults

Background Study

The purpose of carrying out this study is to investigate the intrinsic or extrinsic variables associated with fall in the elderly hospitalized adults. Fall, being the most common form of safety incident within the hospital environment of hospitalized adult in patients is an issue that brings much concern to the caregivers, doctors, nurses, family members and the affected patients (Sarofim, 2012). The study will aim at finding answers to the following questions:

  1. What factors affect and influence patient’s fall?
  2. How does patient fall influence their economy?
  3. How can patient fall be prevented?

The research is designed to answering the above-stated questions and finding the relation of the same to the statement of the study.

Method of Study

The learning was carried out in a hospital. The methods of data collection emphasized were qualitative. Questionnaires were used to collect information from random patients. The team involved recorded data about the hospital’s facilities and staff number. The quantitative methods included data collection from the count of medical equipment, number of stairways and their hand rail conditions, number of served patients and the number of nurses available to tend to the patient’s needs. The qualitative methods included analysis of the hospital’s facilities and how the equipment may be directly related to posing risks of falling of patients (Sherrington, Tiedemann, Fairhall, Hopewell, Michaleff, Howard, Clemson & Lamb, 2016). The study included finding out what type of light is used, how luminous it is, the steepness of the stairs, wideness of doors, how far above the patient’s beds are raised and the type and quality of medicine the hospital offered.

Results of Study

According to the research carried out, two main factors influence the fall of the elderly patients. The fall of the patients was found to affect their financial needs since they had to pay for treatments of injuries incurred during the risk (Sherrington et al., 2016). The two major factors are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

Intrinsic Factor

Intrinsic factors are the variables that arise within the patient’s body. The variables may be brought about due to the existence of a specific ailment or disease within the patient’s body. The major and most dangerous cause of intrinsic factors is medication. According to DK and Kiely (2012), sedated patients tend to be dizzy and may lose balance easily and fall. Cardiovascular medication needed in the treatment of structural heart diseases tend to contribute to falling of patients too (Sherrington et al., 2016). Visual impairment is another factor that affects falling of elderly patients. As the patient are at an older age, their bifocals and trifocals can lower the range of site to about 18 inches, which would increase the risk of falling. Howe, Rochester, Neil, Skelton & Ballinger (2011) claim that balance and posture of the patient can well affect the fall of the patient, especially if the patient is known to suffer from diseases such as stroke, neuropathy, or neuromuscular diseases. The outcome of the named illnesses might cause unbalance and result in falling off of the patients.

Extrinsic Factors

Extrinsic factors are the variables that are outside the patient’s body. The factors are more environmentally related but do affect the balance and falling of patients in hospitals (Howe et al., 2011).

Related researches show that poor lighting is one of the external factors that could lead to patient’s fall. The low luminance of existing light sources can prevent patients from identifying hazardous areas and therefore pausing the risk directly to the patient. As the elderly eyesight is not strong, low lit areas within the hospital pose a great danger as it may cause their falling (DK & Kiely, 2012). Slippery stairs with inadequate handrails pose a high risk to elderly patients. As the cleint are old the patients are weaker and could tumble down the stairs due to its slipperiness. This is a threat to their life. The steep stairs also stance a significant risk to patients since they are not able to take substantial steps easily. According to Sarofim (2012), the lack of walking sticks and grab bars within the hospital’s vicinity is another cause of patient fall. The required and recommended equipment for walking is good since it can help improve stability but if they are not well distributed or they are not distributed at all, the risk of fall of patients becomes high.

Ways in which the Findings might be used in Nursing Practice

The results of the research is useful in the study and practice of nursing. It is important to understand the factors that may affect falling of patient. The involved nurses scheme ways in which they can prevent the risks of falling from occurring (Sarofim, 2012). The knowledge of which kind of medicine can cause dizziness and loss of balance such as sedatives will help the prescribing nurse to include bed rest for the patient in the prescription to preclude the risk of falling from occurring (Howe et al., 2011). According to American Geriatrics Society (AGS), all the elderly patients should be screened for previous events of falling. The same continues to add that subsequent falls can be directly linked to the history of falling and should be a factor that should be considered by nurses in their practices and even during their education curriculum.

 

 

Ethical Considerations

The America Nurses Association approved the study. It was carried out in their presence. The research considered the privacy of its respondents to the asked questions and their identity remained anonymous. The respondents provided information regarding the treatment within the institution. It was noted that there is no lack of medication or treatment within the hospital. The medications and treatment provided by the institution were found to be of high quality. The respondents did not mention any cases of issues arising with the lack of therapeutic drugs.

Conclusion

There is a substantial need to understand the factors associated with falls in hospitalized patients by nurses. The nurse’s work is to play the role of providing medical care services. The practitioners must be knowledgeable of the named factors and how to prevent the risk occurence. The knowledge obtained from the research can be freely applied to avoid the risk of falling from occurring. The same will significantly reduce the number of patient falls annually and eventually trim the costs incurred by the patients and their families during the treatment of incurred injuries from the occurred risks. Conclusively, there is a significant amount of knowledge that can be deduced from this study including the medication precautions, improvement of hospital facilities and screening patients to prevent falling off of the old patients.

 Reference

Sarofim M (2012). “Predicting falls in the elderly: do dual-task tests offer any added value? A systematic review.

Howe, T. E.; Rochester, L; Neil, F; Skelton, D. A.; Ballinger, C (2011). “Exercise for improving balance in older people.”

DK & Kiely (2012). “Identifying nursing home residents at risk of falling.”

Sherrington C, Tiedemann A, Fairhall NJ, Hopewell S, Michaleff ZA, Howard K, Clemson L, Lamb SE (2016). “Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community.”

Exploration Of humanities

Exploration Of humanities

Introduction

The following essay talks about one of Leonardo da Vinci’s most revered works, the Annunciation. It is a prestige painting that was done during the 15th century by the famous Leonardo da Vinci. It was undetaken during the renaissance period which spanned from the 14th to the 17th century.

Initial Thoughts

Upon first looking at the painting, I was marveled by its exquisite detail in human depiction. The illustration is that of two individuals, one with wings and the other with a bright radiant halo above her head. I immediately classified the painting to be that of Greek origin since the Greek legends and myths featured interactions between different mythical creatures, my assumption was however very wrong.

The detail portrayed in the painting made me to assume it to be of much more recent origin, my guess was the early eighteenth century. One thing that I was sure of, however, was that the message contained in the painting itself was universal (applicable to everyone). My first impressions of the work of art was purely positive as each and every inch of it was drawn to perfection. This was the aspect of the painting that intrigued me the most. It was as if the painter was in possession of the geometrical apparatus used today. It was truly a masterpiece.

Leonardo’s works of art mostly featured the style that can be found in the painting (Cookson, 2010). Most were depictions of many people, e.g. the last supper, while some were of single individuals e.g. La Mona Lisa (Cookson, 2010).

 

 

  1. Analysis of the Work

Analysis of the painting revolves around digging deep into what makes it unique and outstanding among the many others (MindEdge, Inc. 2014). It also grosses around some of the unique aspects that correlate it to the historical period in which it was made (Renaissance).

Historical Context

The renaissance period as stated above, spanned the 14th century to the 17th century. It traces its origins back to Italy beginning as a cultural movement, during the late medieval period (Martin & Philo, 2010). A particular point of interest for this period was the fact that it was based on humanism. Humanism is the concept of putting human beings at the center of everything. Greek philosophy summarized it as “Man being the Measure of all things.” This belief became manifested in various forms of art, science literature and topic (Martin & Philo, 2010).

The art pieces that are of the renaissance period are usually some form of religious depiction mostly that of the Catholic and Christian religion (Kuligowski, 2013). Da Vinci’s art piece which is under question, ‘the Annunciation’ depicts the Angel Gabriel ( a character with wings) who was sent to deliver the news of the birth of Jesus Christ, who was the prophesized messiah. This is a Christian biblical teaching and is one of the most important events in the Christian faith. Therefore, the name ‘annunciation’ which means that the angel Gabriel came to announce the birth of Christ (Kuligowski, 2013).

Insight from Authors Biography

According to Leonardo da Vinci’s biography, he was born at a place called Anchiano in present day Italy. At the age of 15, he began an apprenticeship under the noted artist Andrea del Verrochio with whom he gained a multitude of skills including painting, sculpting, leather works, carpentry among others which he used later on to build many masterpieces such as the Annunciation (Kuligowski, 2013).

His biography also states that he became enrolled as a master artist at the age of 20 at Florence’s Guild of Saint Luke and established workshop there. This must have marked his ascent into the religious world, more so Christianity hence his later works mostly featured the theme of Christianity. This includes the one in question (annunciation) and various others such as the famous Last supper which depicts Jesus and his disciples sharing the last supper. The insight gained from the biography has shown why the author has taken a keen interest in works of the renaissance period, the one in question being one of them.

Analyze how this work explores a particular theme and/or stylistic characteristic from its period

As stated above, the renaissance period was characterized by a large degree of allusion to works related to religion (Martin & Philo, 2010). The art piece under discussion is no different. It depicts an event that is most recognized in the Christian faith, the annunciation. Since the messiah who was announced by the angel Gabriel was to guide the world from its sinful ways, the painting can be seen as a depiction of hope. The prophesized messiah was hence a pillar of hope. To summarize, the painting is a depiction of hope hence it well portrays the theme of hope. It is however tied down to the Christian faith as other religions that are very farfetched may have a hard time actually depicting the meaning unless it is explained to them hand in hand. To summarize all of the above-shared insight, the painting had a theme of hope since it portrays an event in the Christian faith that restored hope to all of the world, that is, the annunciation of the birth of the messiah.

 

  1. Explain the relevance of this work for today’s audiences

The work, as stated above, carries the theme of hope. It is especially relevant to today’s audiences moreso those of the Christian faith. It reminds them that God does not forsake and He is always ready to intervene (Martin & Philo, 2010). Other non-Christian religion can use the work to analyze how works were portrayed in the renaissance era. They can also learn Da Vinci’s styles as studies of the past. This work of art is hence very relevant to today’s world given that it was done by one of the most famous and revered artists (Martin & Philo, 2010).

  1. Discuss how the deeper knowledge you gained through your analysis has informed or altered your thoughts and/or feelings about the work (suggested length of 1 paragraph or half a page).
    The analysis has allowed me to view the painting at a different angle than I initially had, first of all, the painting is not that of mythical Greek creatures as I had initially imagined, secondly, it was done much earlier than what I had imagined and finally, its message was pinpointed to the Christian faith although I had previously imagined otherwise. I now believe that the above art piece is a pillar of hope not only to the Christian faith but to everyone in general. Da Vinci had meant to communicate to the entire world through the Christian faith. This is my new deeper understanding of the work.

References

Kuligowski, S. (2013). Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance artist and inventor. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=n0Z_gY25Nm8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Leonardo+da+Vinci:+Renaissance+artist+and+inventor&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Leonardo%20da%20Vinci%3A%20Renaissance%20artist%20and%20inventor&f=false

Martin, C. & Philo, R. (2010). Leonardo da Vinci: the mechanics of man. London Los Angeles: Royal Collection Enterprises J. Paul Getty Museum. https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=6L528hx3ogC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Leonardo+da+Vinci:+the+mechanics+of+man&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Leonardo%20da%20Vinci%3A%20the%20mechanics%20of%20man&f=false

MindEdge, Inc. (2014). Introduction to the humanities. Waltham, MA: MindEdge, Inc.             http://www.mindedge.com/page/humanities

Cookson, B. (2010). At the dawn of a new consciousness: art, philosophy and the birth of the modern world. Forest Road East Sussex, England: Temple Lodge Pub.

https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=KLDgjjbZC1YC&printsec=frontcover&dq=At+the+dawn+of+a+new+consciousness:+art,+philosophy+and+the+birth+of+the+modern+world&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=At%20the%20dawn%20of%20a%20new%20consciousness%3A%20art%2C%20philosophy%20and%20the%20birth%20of%20the%20modern%20world&f=false

Existentialism

Existentialism

Existential Viewpoint in Modern World

Gravil (20017) defines existentialism as a study that recognizes that individual persons exists in a real and free world and are responsible and capable of making self-choice of the course of action they wish to undertake. An education system in the modern world is learner-centered, whereby the student is given full freedom to study a course of his choice. This is important because the students make choices based on their capabilities and interest.

Relation Between Existential and Liberation and Equality

A Sartre & Barnes (1996) claim there is a common concept for human equality. Existentialism advocates for struggle for free human existence in the society against any form of oppression and discrimination on the basis of race, class, religion and gender.

Perceptive Power to Choose for Oneself and Deep Responsibility for Others

When individuals are free to make their own choice they become more responsible because of self-awareness and this encourages acceptance and growth in their line of action (Gravil 2017). However, they are more committed to self-success and actualization compared to others. Therefore in order to achieve personal and community goals, one must make such choices that marries both oneself and community goals.

People Power to Choose the Life they Want and Relationship with Road to Freedom

Human beings are at liberty to choose their own life. They should first acknowledge the fact about their present life and then realize that they are indeed free to make a change they want in their lives. Sartre & Barne (1996) people have a responsibility to define the meaning and purpose for their lives in this world. This means people choices in their own life are underpinned in their own hands and not in the environment in which they live. Therefore, people should not allow their surroundings to define their life.

References

Gravil, R. (2007). Existentialism. Penrith: Humanities-Ebooks.

Sartre, J.-P, & Barnes, H. E. (1996). Existential psychoanalysis. Washington, DC: Regnery Pub.

 

Executive Orders

Executive Orders

An executive order is an ordinance given by the president to a branch of the government aiming at enforcing a given law. Therefore, the president of the state who has the mandate to pass a law usually signs the executive orders. President Obama, during his reign, gave several executive orders one of which included the Gun Control order that is responsible of ensuring that the access of guns is limited to people either the sellers or the users (United States & United States, 2010). The paper will focus on President Obama’s Executive law on gun control, enacted on 5th July 2016. The study will provide details of how the order has affected the United States of America and how the same will impact the state in the future as well as how people’s constitutional rights would be impacted.

The bureaus of Tobacco, Alcohol, Explosives and Firearms were urged by the law to re-define their policy on who is supposed to engage in the business of vending firearms (Hames & Ekern, 2015). The law would ensure that all the persons who engage in the business of selling firearms have a license and their backgrounds are not linked with any prior criminal records. The background checks were to be intensive covering violent criminals who may hide behind cooperation and trusts to obtain dangerous firearms illegally (Olson, 2015). In addition, the law aimed at ensuring that the technology of gun safety was vastly improved to provide safety for the people of the United States. According to Victor (2016), the law would advocate for improved treatment for the persons who are mentally ill and reduce the risk of people illegally terminated by individuals who own guns and are not mentally fit thereby safeguarding citizen’s constitutional rights. The health records of the people who are interested in the business of guns would have to be verified along with background checks to ascertain their mental health status before verifying their business terms (Mansfield & Hairston, 2015).

The expected positive impact regarding law was that it could reduce the number of private persons who sell firearms, thus reducing the risk of the weapons ending up in the hands of criminals. The undertaking would narrow down the private industry that trades and has access to guns thereby reducing the risk of criminals and individuals getting the access to guns for illicit use. In addition, the quality and number of background checks would increase due to the requirement that the checks should be conducted prior to handling the firearms business (Harvard Law Review Association, et al., 2015). By closing the loopholes in the United States in checking the background checks, the government will have helped in ensuring that the criminals have a limited access to the guns and other dangerous firearms. This would ensure that the government easily notices criminals’ thereby mitigating criminal rates.

Another important section is that the executive order would focus on combating the violence caused by guns thereby upholding standards of intellectual health care and ensuring that the people who may suffer from any serious mental illnesses have no access to guns. The initiative would help reduce mass shooting since criminals will not have access to guns

References

Hames, J. B., & Ekern, Y. (2015). Legal research, analysis, and writing (5th ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Harvard Law Review Association, et al. (Eds.). (2015). The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (20th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Author.

Mansfield, J.W., & Hairston, P. (2015). Researching Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Resources for Congressional Staff. Retrieved from
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33895.pdf

Olson, K. C. (2015). Principles of legal research (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West.

United States & United States. (2010). Compilation of homeland security related executive orders: (E.O. 4601 through E.O. 13528) (1927-2009) : prepared for the use of the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.

Victor, H. (2016). Gun Control in the United States. Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.esciencecentral.org/journals/gun-control-in-the-united-states-2332-0761-1000206.php?aid=74881

Evidence-based clinical intervention

Evidence-based clinical intervention

  1. The medical problem/diagnosis/disease

Evidence-based psychological intervention is a cognitive behavioral clinical therapy that is usually based on all cognitive influences on behaviors and feelings. Subsequently, these emotions and behaviors tend to influence cognitions (Bailes, 1998). Clinicians such as therapists focus on helping individuals to identify unhelpful emotions, thoughts and behaviors. Thus, evidence based clinical interventions on psychological disorders deals with cognitive therapy as well as behavior therapy (Thyer, 2000).  In this respect, behavior therapy is mainly guided by the theory that behavior can be changed since it is learned.

Therapists use effective techniques such as activity scheduling, exposure, behavior modification and relaxation. On the other hand cognitive therapy understands that maladaptive behaviors and distressing emotions are caused by faulty patterns of thinking. In this case, therapeutic interventions are necessary to help replace dysfunctional thoughts through self-instructional training and cognitive restructuring. This aims to help alleviate psychological problems of emotions, thoughts and behaviors (Thyer, 2000).

  1. Typical presenting signs and symptoms

 

Individuals suffering from psychological disorders tend to need a number of therapeutic strategies that will help offset various signs and symptoms. Among such symptoms are challenges in accepting a full range of experiences that are subjective. Typical signs in this respect are distressed sensations, beliefs, thoughts and feelings. In case such signs and symptoms are observed in certain individuals, they are diagnosed with psychological disorders (Bailes, 1998). In addition, these individuals normally suffer from unwanted subjective behaviors ineffective anxiety that increases their levels of distress. Consequently, they require therapeutic efforts aimed at improving their lives through embracing desired behavioral changes that will ultimately lead to an improved quality of life.

  1. The path-physiology of the problem.

 

There exists a psychodynamic psychotherapy that has been identified as a transference-based therapeutic advancement that has been found to be effective towards helping individuals facing psychological challenges. This is by exploring as well as working through interpersonal and intra-psychic conflicts that are specific. This normally achieved by way of identifying a particular focus by both the individual and the therapist (Bailes, 1998). It consists of information or materials form past and current intra-psychic and interpersonal conflicts. In essence it is a process where the therapist engages in a process of ensuring and creating a particular focus that is time-limited.

 

  1. Three differential diagnoses and the usual presenting signs and symptoms in priority sequence with rationales.

The onset of psychological disorder is the dialectical behavior that typically requires therapy that aims at serving the purposes of improving an individual’s motivation, enhance capabilities as well as generalize such an individual with the natural environment. Moreover such individuals need to identify a structured environment as well as help the therapist’s levels of motivation and capabilities (Thyer, 2000). The main goal in this case is to drastically reduce an individual’s ineffective tendencies.  These differential diagnoses are followed by challenges in interpersonal skills where these individuals tend to experience the challenge of establishing relationship with other people. A therapist also aims to improve patient’s third differential diagnosis in skills such in such areas like distress tolerance, mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness as well as emotion regulations (Thyer, 2000).

  1. The expected outcomes of the intervention

The expected outcome of this type of intervention aims at creating awareness on psychological disorders through education. This can be achieved through explanation of information that is provided to the clients suffering from such disorders. The most critical of such information is about the characteristics involved in their particular diagnosis (Bailes, 1998). It is important to note that clients require specific information such as the meaning of certain symptoms as well as any other information on causes and effects. Moreover, such an intervention is important in reducing the number of suicide cases by providing information on the implications of whatever symptoms that they may be showing or feeling.

References

Bailes, G. (1998). Review: a brief psychological intervention (debriefing) is ineffective in preventing post-traumatic stress disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 1(4), 118-118. doi:10.1136/ebmh.1.4.118

Thyer, B. A. (2000). Review: individual applied relaxation and cognitive behavioural therapy are effective psychological treatments for generalised anxiety disorder. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 3(3), 76-76. doi:10.1136/ebmh.3.3.76

 

In-service training on HIPAA and the Privacy RulePRI

In-service training on HIPAA and the Privacy RulePRI

According to Nass, Levit and Gostin (2009), HIPAA in-service training entails coaching of practitioners on the job on compliance of various aspects of HIPAA such as what HIPAA require. Nurses receive in-house training on the legislation that avails data privacy. Beaver and Herold (2004) explain that the privacy rule, which was christened the Standards for privacy of Individual Identifiable Information, creates a platform for national standards to safeguard patient’s confidential health information.

Why is HIPAA important, and why is the Privacy Rule important?

HIPAA act ensures that patient protection is guaranteed. Moreover, HIPAA covers individuals with pre-existing conditions (Nass et al., 2009). Privacy of patient’s medical and billing records is ensured courtesy of the HIPAA. The privacy rule is imperative because it stipulates national standards that all medical institutions should adhere to, to ensure safeguarding of patient medical data.

Is HIPAA the only set of rules or laws that govern client privacy issues, and is it more powerful than state laws?

Patient privacy is not the only set of rules governing client privacy. There is also state law, which are also enacted to ensure protection of patient’s privacy.  Nass et al., (2009)  claim that in most cases state laws are more powerful relative to HIPAA. Nass et al., (2009) explain that state laws takes precedence and are not pre-empted by HIPAA. The state law avails more protection to clients making it take precedence over HIPAA.

 

What responsibilities do chemical dependency counsellors have to their clients as a result of HIPAA? Include minimum necessary information

Chemical dependency counsellors are bound by HIPAA act to undertake maintenance of confidential accurate and organized medical files for each client (Opus Communications & HCPro, 2001). The practitioners should maintain the files private. Moreover, the counsellors are required to comply with HIPAA documentation requirement policies and procedures.

What are the exceptions to client confidentiality?

According to Opus Communications and HCPro (2001), the following are the exceptions of client confidentiality:

  • Express authorization by the client to disclose
  • When the solicitor has permission or is persuaded by law to disclose
  • Disclosure of information to the solicitor insurer, associated body or law practice
  • Disclosure of information by the solicitor to avoid commission of a serious felony

What is informed consent?

It is a scenario where medical practitioners such as doctors provide information to a client regarding a particular treatment to allow the client make a decision on whether he or she will undergo the treatment or the test (Beaver & Herold, 2004). The HIPAA act underscore on the need to inform a patient to make a client understand the benefits as well as the risks of treatment.

References

Beaver, K., & Herold, R. (2004). The practical guide to HIPAA privacy and security compliance. Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications.

Nass, S., Levit, L., & Gostin, L. (2009). Beyond the Hipaa Privacy Rule: Enhancing Privacy, Improving Health Through Research. National Academies P.

Opus Communications & HCPro (Firm). (2001). Briefings on HIPAA. Marblehead, MA: Opus Communications.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)

Introduction

The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is currently exploring the alternative of moving some of of its member staff from the London headquarters. This is part of the new efficiency drive that was launched in the recent past. The bank is further considering to deliver various proposals as well as recommendations to its 65 shareholders as well as the government in the se3cond half of this year (EBRD, 2016). This paper will assess and discuss various projects that are being undertaken by EBRD.

Current Projects

EBRD is currently providing equity investments, loans as well as guarantees for both public and private sector projects. This is in various areas such as infrastructure, finance, commerce as well as in various industries The EBRD is working closely with corporation withy other international fiancé institutions such as the World Bank as well as the European Investment Bank (EBRD, 2016). The EBRD has been able to finance various socially harmful and environmental friendly projects. However, it is important to note that although there have been increased investments in regards to energy efficiency projects in the recent past, there has been diminishing impacts in regards to these finances (EBRD, 2016). This is as far as carbon-intensive development projects covering various energy-renewable such as gas, oil and coal production. This is besides generation, transportation as well as airports and motorways

According to the recent policies that have been developed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the bank is committed towards the environment friendly including sustainable and sound development projects (EBRD, 2016). This is in the full range of various support technical cooperation as well as investments activities. The bank believes that social sustainability coupled with environmental issues is a fundamental aspect towards the process of achieving outcomes that are consistent with the bank’s transition mandate (EBRD, 2016). The bank is also recognizing various projects that enhance environmental and social sustainability. These projects rank among the bank’s top priority when compared with other activities.

Currently, all projects, which are financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, are structured in such a way that the bank is able to meet particular performance requirements (EBRD, 2016). For instance, the bank is financing projects under community health, security and safety. In this context, it is important to note that EBRD is a signatory among the European principles that support sustainable environment by initiating projects that counteract pollution, prevention and the abetment issues (EBRD, 2016). The bank is further committed towards the adoption and implementation of practices, principles as well as substantive standards. In addition, EBRD normally finances projects at different levels regardless of the host country’s geographic location. However, in instances where the regulations of the host country tend to differ from the European Union’s substantive environmental standards, EBRD’s projects will then be expected to meet more stringent rules (EBRD, 2016).

Conclusion

In the recent past, concerns have been raised regarding EBRD’s function of financing various projects, which in their arguments are capable of getting financing options from other sources. This is when considering cases such as ArcelorMittal Termirtau or those other companies that have not demonstrated clear commitment towards the process of improving environmental as well as social governance such as Dundee Precious Metals. Moreover, several of EBRD’s financed projects or contracts have been seen to be involved in undue rewards in the private sector.

References

EBRD. (2016). Project Finance. Retrieved from> http://www.ebrd.com/work-with-us/project-finance.html. Date Accessed. August 11, 2017

 

Ethics and leadership

Ethics and leadership

Introduction

The ethics concept defines the acceptable morally upright way in a society. In essence, ethics deals with all the values that define an individual’s sense of purity including his or her particular intentions (Prince, 2008). This means that ethics plays a critical role of providing guidelines needed for analyzing what is right or wrong in particular scenarios. The study analyzes three articles that correlate ethics with leadership. The most common idea reflected in the three articles is the fact that ethics defines a leader’s specific identity as well as his or her role. For this reason, ethical theories mainly tend to discuss two main items. The main issues and themes discussed in the three articles are ethics, behavior and action of leaders followed by a leader’s character or personality. This paper will analyze these three articles, exploring how ethics are essential towards leadership or the role of leadership.

A critical role played by a leader is influencing or driving subordinates towards all processes that ultimately achieve common goals (Hassan, Mahsud, Yukl & Prussia, 2013). This is in various cases that include organizational quest, teamwork or a specific project. This means that a leader has the ethical duty of treating his subordinates with respect as every individual has unique personality and character. In addition, the ethical environment in a particular organization is established and built by leaders since they possess an influential role or responsibility in their specific organization. Besides, leaders are known to have an influential responsibility in the process of developing organizational values (Hassan et al., 2013).

In most organizations, the immediate supervisors to organizational employees are assumed the organization’s primary representatives. In this regard, such leaders tend to provide important roles such as feedback, daily direction, information regarding job descriptions, work groups as well as evaluation processes to organizational employees (Kotlke & Pelletier, 2013). Research studies have indicated several occasions where differences emerge in regards to the level of satisfaction or trust with immediate top executives or supervisors. This means that organizational employees tend to evaluate their leaders based on their ethical tendencies. Such differences are then indicated in specific organizationally relevant outcomes that are personal such as in both organizational citizenship and commitment.

Themes addressed in all of the Articles

The articles suggest that leaders’ level of integrity, honesty as well as trustworthiness are critical factors in predicting leadership effectiveness. Conceptualized ethical leadership is a demonstration to every normal and appropriate factor critical in conducting interpersonal relationships and personal actions (Kotlke & Pelletier, 2013). In addition, they play leading roles in promoting effective conducts in relevant followers through an established two-way communication, decision-making as well as reinforcement. The articles have also established the fact that ethical leadership is a composition of certain behaviors and traits.

In this regard, morally upright leaders are assumed sincere and principle based individuals who are able to care about their subordinates’, society’s and followers’ wellbeing.

Proactively, ethical leaders tend try to establish transformative processes in their subordinates through effective communication strategies as far as their ethical standards are concerned (Ciulla, 2004). This is modeling ethical behaviors that suggest that their subordinates or followers ought to be held accountable for their ethical actions or behaviors.

These articles also suggest that organization’s success is primarily based on the leader’s ability to foster an ethical culture in his or her organization. This is mainly achieved by the ability of articulating organizational values in an effective manner with the main aim of developing the subordinate’s moral culture by effectively implementing the strategies as well as tactics that are morally appropriate. Moreover, effective ethical leadership entails offering any support systems or mechanisms to employees when they are faced with challenges besides ethical dilemmas. The process is complemented by a leader’s ability to respond to any ethical misconduct in a timely fashion. This means that ethical leadership is composed with implementations of any processes that make ethics to be an organization’s top priority (Pelletier, 2013). Previous studies established that ethical leadership was a potential condition in regards to the effectiveness of an ethical program.

Ethical use of Power, Authority, Persuasion, and/or Motivation

It is important to note that differentiated perceptions normally vary from one employee to the other. Moreover, they may have significant implications on how ethical lapses may be avoided or eliminated in an organization. For instance, there have been suggestions that lower levels organizations face situation and abstract ethical dilemmas. This means that universal ethical codes may result to an impediment towards any good ethical decisions at such levels of an organization (Ciulla, 2004). Organizational employees at lower levels may also hold their supervisors or leaders to a universal code of ethics. However, they may also recognize that their own leaders or supervisors possess an ambiguous situation that is unique and which they have to cope with. In addition, any form of education or training in regards to ethical awareness, decision-making and knowledge may be found to be fundamentally different at lower employee levels relative to top leadership levels.

Empowering and ethical leader behaviors are mainly associated with relationships found to be high-quality leader affiliate exchange (LMX) (Hassan et al., 2013). There is increased likelihood that such relationships are founded on mutual liking, trust and respect. Various research studies based on LMX have been able to establish that most leaders possessing favourable exchange relationships and have the likelihood to be assumed more effective stimulate efficient sub-ordinate commitment. This is as opposed to leaders with exchange relationships that are negative or unfavorable. However, it is worth noting that previous studies did not seek to explore or investigate ethical or empowering leadership as a form of behavioral practice that is distinct and related to LMX (Hassan et al., 2013). This is despite the fact that such a relationship has a direct impact towards effective subordinate commitment as well as perceptions in regards to specific leader effectiveness in a variety of ways.

Most organizations tended to consider ethics programs as effective only when leaders were able to promote the culture of ethical dialog. This is because such a process resulted to the creation of a working environment of trust as well as the provision to resources that enabled the development of ethical decisions in an organization (Prince, 2008). The articles indicate that the process of seeking a social legitimacy is closely followed by the ability of organizational leaders to enhance an ethical culture. This is mainly when such organizations are faced with ethical misconducts at any level of leadership. In essence, ethical leadership is a critical tool towards the process of complementing decision-making processes, ethical codes as well as in obtaining organizational resources, which are essential to the process of achieving an ethical organizational culture.

References

Ciulla B. J. (2004). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. London. Greenwood Publishing Inc.

Hassan S.,  Mahsud R.,  Yukl G. &  Prussia E. G. , (2013),”Ethical and empoweringleadership and leader effectiveness”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 28 Iss 2 pp. 133 – 146Permanent link to this document:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683941311300252

Pelletier K. (2013). Measuring and Differentiating Perceptions of Supervisor and Top Leader Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. March 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Prince. L. T. (2008). Leadership Ethics: An Introduction. London. Cambridge University Press.

Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8S

Introduction

The ethics concept defines the acceptable morally upright way in a society. In essence, ethics deals with all the values that define an individual’s sense of purity including his or her particular intentions (Prince, 2008). This means that ethics plays a critical role of providing guidelines needed for analyzing what is right or wrong in particular scenarios. The study analyzes three articles that correlate ethics with leadership. The most common idea reflected in the three articles is the fact that ethics defines a leader’s specific identity as well as his or her role. For this reason, ethical theories mainly tend to discuss two main items. The main issues and themes discussed in the three articles are ethics, behavior and action of leaders followed by a leader’s character or personality. This paper will analyze these three articles, exploring how ethics are essential towards leadership or the role of leadership.

A critical role played by a leader is influencing or driving subordinates towards all processes that ultimately achieve common goals (Hassan, Mahsud, Yukl & Prussia, 2013). This is in various cases that include organizational quest, teamwork or a specific project. This means that a leader has the ethical duty of treating his subordinates with respect as every individual has unique personality and character. In addition, the ethical environment in a particular organization is established and built by leaders since they possess an influential role or responsibility in their specific organization. Besides, leaders are known to have an influential responsibility in the process of developing organizational values (Hassan et al., 2013).

In most organizations, the immediate supervisors to organizational employees are assumed the organization’s primary representatives. In this regard, such leaders tend to provide important roles such as feedback, daily direction, information regarding job descriptions, work groups as well as evaluation processes to organizational employees (Kotlke & Pelletier, 2013). Research studies have indicated several occasions where differences emerge in regards to the level of satisfaction or trust with immediate top executives or supervisors. This means that organizational employees tend to evaluate their leaders based on their ethical tendencies. Such differences are then indicated in specific organizationally relevant outcomes that are personal such as in both organizational citizenship and commitment.

Themes addressed in all of the Articles

The articles suggest that leaders’ level of integrity, honesty as well as trustworthiness are critical factors in predicting leadership effectiveness. Conceptualized ethical leadership is a demonstration to every normal and appropriate factor critical in conducting interpersonal relationships and personal actions (Kotlke & Pelletier, 2013). In addition, they play leading roles in promoting effective conducts in relevant followers through an established two-way communication, decision-making as well as reinforcement. The articles have also established the fact that ethical leadership is a composition of certain behaviors and traits.

In this regard, morally upright leaders are assumed sincere and principle based individuals who are able to care about their subordinates’, society’s and followers’ wellbeing.

Proactively, ethical leaders tend try to establish transformative processes in their subordinates through effective communication strategies as far as their ethical standards are concerned (Ciulla, 2004). This is modeling ethical behaviors that suggest that their subordinates or followers ought to be held accountable for their ethical actions or behaviors.

These articles also suggest that organization’s success is primarily based on the leader’s ability to foster an ethical culture in his or her organization. This is mainly achieved by the ability of articulating organizational values in an effective manner with the main aim of developing the subordinate’s moral culture by effectively implementing the strategies as well as tactics that are morally appropriate. Moreover, effective ethical leadership entails offering any support systems or mechanisms to employees when they are faced with challenges besides ethical dilemmas. The process is complemented by a leader’s ability to respond to any ethical misconduct in a timely fashion. This means that ethical leadership is composed with implementations of any processes that make ethics to be an organization’s top priority (Pelletier, 2013). Previous studies established that ethical leadership was a potential condition in regards to the effectiveness of an ethical program.

Ethical use of Power, Authority, Persuasion, and/or Motivation

It is important to note that differentiated perceptions normally vary from one employee to the other. Moreover, they may have significant implications on how ethical lapses may be avoided or eliminated in an organization. For instance, there have been suggestions that lower levels organizations face situation and abstract ethical dilemmas. This means that universal ethical codes may result to an impediment towards any good ethical decisions at such levels of an organization (Ciulla, 2004). Organizational employees at lower levels may also hold their supervisors or leaders to a universal code of ethics. However, they may also recognize that their own leaders or supervisors possess an ambiguous situation that is unique and which they have to cope with. In addition, any form of education or training in regards to ethical awareness, decision-making and knowledge may be found to be fundamentally different at lower employee levels relative to top leadership levels.

Empowering and ethical leader behaviors are mainly associated with relationships found to be high-quality leader affiliate exchange (LMX) (Hassan et al., 2013). There is increased likelihood that such relationships are founded on mutual liking, trust and respect. Various research studies based on LMX have been able to establish that most leaders possessing favourable exchange relationships and have the likelihood to be assumed more effective stimulate efficient sub-ordinate commitment. This is as opposed to leaders with exchange relationships that are negative or unfavorable. However, it is worth noting that previous studies did not seek to explore or investigate ethical or empowering leadership as a form of behavioral practice that is distinct and related to LMX (Hassan et al., 2013). This is despite the fact that such a relationship has a direct impact towards effective subordinate commitment as well as perceptions in regards to specific leader effectiveness in a variety of ways.

Most organizations tended to consider ethics programs as effective only when leaders were able to promote the culture of ethical dialog. This is because such a process resulted to the creation of a working environment of trust as well as the provision to resources that enabled the development of ethical decisions in an organization (Prince, 2008). The articles indicate that the process of seeking a social legitimacy is closely followed by the ability of organizational leaders to enhance an ethical culture. This is mainly when such organizations are faced with ethical misconducts at any level of leadership. In essence, ethical leadership is a critical tool towards the process of complementing decision-making processes, ethical codes as well as in obtaining organizational resources, which are essential to the process of achieving an ethical organizational culture.

 

References

Ciulla B. J. (2004). Ethics, the Heart of Leadership. London. Greenwood Publishing Inc.

Hassan S.,  Mahsud R.,  Yukl G. &  Prussia E. G. , (2013),”Ethical and empoweringleadership and leader effectiveness”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 28 Iss 2 pp. 133 – 146Permanent link to this document:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683941311300252

Pelletier K. (2013). Measuring and Differentiating Perceptions of Supervisor and Top Leader Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. March 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Prince. L. T. (2008). Leadership Ethics: An Introduction. London. Cambridge University Press.

Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8S

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