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periodontal disease

Progression of periodontal disease

Many people would be so worried and would rush to a physician if they happened to wash their hands and started bleeding. But most people, however, clean their teeth, and starts bleeding but do not put much consideration to it. This is because it is almost normal to have a bleeding gum, while other people take it to be an injury from the toothbrush they use. This might not always be the case. It could also be an infection or a disease that would lead to more severe losses in future. Periodontal disease or gum disease as most people refer to it is an inflammation of the gum. It is a wide range of conditions related to the inflammatory effects that affect the supporting structures of teeth (Reynolds, Harmony & Ronald, 2016). These structures are the gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligaments. Inflammation of these structures can lead to complete loss of one tooth or many teeth in case the disease has affected a large portion of the gum. I can also lead to systemic inflammation. Traditionally, periodontal disease was commonly prevalent with the aged people, but recently, researchers have shown that periodontal disease can also be present in the children. Chronic incidences of the disease are evident in the adults while aggressive periodontitis may also affect children or adolescents (Reynolds et al., 2016).

The disease manifests itself in three stages from the least severe to the most severe. These stages are gingivitis, periodontitis, and advanced (Ganzetti, Giulia, Anna, Andrea, Valentina & Annamaria, 2014).

Oral hygiene is one of the predisposing factors for this disease. People who maintain a high oral hygiene are less likely to be infected by the disease. This is following increasing evidence from different research on dental fields which indicate that deposits in the mouth contribute a large percentage to the development and maintenance of the disease as well. However, there exist other factors that increase the risk of one contacting the disease. These factors might be controllable while others cannot be controlled. Examples of the controllable factors are smoking and tobacco use. It is believed that the use of tobacco and smoking increases the risk of periodontal disease. The more a person smokes, or the longer one smokes, the higher the chances of getting the disease. In case one smokes when they already have the disease, smoking accelerates it, and it becomes more severe. Stress is another factor that increases the risk. When a person is stressed, the body immune system weakens which in turn makes it hard for the body to fight the disease (Genco, Robert & Wenche, 2013). The decision to smoke or get stressed lies within an individual’s hands hence making the two to be controllable factors.

Some factors are not controllable. Some people are naturally susceptible to the disease because of their genetic composition. However, these people can escape from the disease to an extent by maintaining a good oral health. Misaligned or crowded teeth are another factor as it makes it hard for teeth cleaning process. People having this kind of a problem can contact the dentist closest to them for advice on the appropriate teeth cleaning ways. Fluctuating hormonal levels in the body during puberty or pregnancy can lead to changes in the mouth too which would lead to temporary risk (Socransky, 2013).

Understanding the signs associated with periodontal disease is important. This is because the disease can manifest itself, and the signs are sometimes painless (“Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention,” 2017). The known signs are examples of swollen, red, tender or bleeding gums, loose teeth, and persistent bad odor from the mouth and gums that move away from the tooth.

Traditionally there were theories that were used to explain the progression of the disease. Among these theories is the theory that destructive periodontitis develops at a slow and consistent rate starting with the cumulative tissue loss to the complete loss of a tooth. Another theory stated that there might be different periods of high-peak and lessening in the process of destruction. However, little evidence is available on whether one or both possibilities could occur in two individuals (Charlene, 2012).

Currently, the progression theory that is known is the intermittent theory. It is similar to the traditional as it indicates that there are periods of activity and periods of inactivity during the destruction progression of the disease. It further explains that the tissues destruction takes place sporadically. It is accompanied by short periods of activity which are accompanied by inactivity periods which might take several months. As a result, the whole process of destruction takes a long period before the actual falling off of the tooth. The theory further explains that this tissue destruction occurs at different rates in different parts of the mouth. Destruction does not occur in all corners of the mouth at the same time. Destruction only occurs with only specific tooth surfaces which greatly depend on the type of tooth and the level of hygiene. The theory also explains that susceptibility to the disease varies to a great extent from person to person and it is apparently determined by the host response to the periodontal pathogens.

In the United States of America in the year 2009 and 2010, a survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of the disease which used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The survey concluded that of the individuals aged thirty years and above who were incorporated in the survey, forty-seven percent which represents more than sixty-four million people in the United States had periodontitis which was dispersed as; mild 8.7 percent, moderate 30 percent and 8.5 percent for severe periodontitis. These percentages were further divided to represent age groups. This is where those aged above sixty-five years were reported to have the disease more than other groups. This is evident in that seventy percent of the total periodontitis positive individuals were from this age bracket. Those between the ages of thirty to thirty-four added up to twenty-four percent (Khan, Shahrukh, Khalid & Awan, 2016).

It was also noted that periodontitis was higher in males than in females which would have been as a result of males continued habit of smoking. Females tend to observe general body cleanliness and hygiene which most men do not, and this also happens in the oral hygiene. As a result from this, males have higher incidences of the disease as compared to females. The disease was higher in Mexican Americas as compared to other racial and ethical groups (Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar, Nicole, Jyotika & Renata, 2010). People with low levels of education are most likely to get the disease as compared to those highly educated which results in higher incidences in high poverty levels. In general, the disease prevalence gets more severe with progressing age (Khan et al., 2016).

Presently, micro-organisms are the primary etiology agents of this disease. This can be demonstrated by removal of debris in the mouth or removal of dental plaque by rigorous plaque control procedures. These procedures were first done by Loe and co-workers (Charlene, 2012). These procedures which might also involve the use antiseptic agents could reverse or prevent the cases of clinical gingivitis in humans. The destructive periodontitis could be completely or partially reversed by clinical procedures which involve surgical procedures but have to be followed by professional tooth cleaning twice a month by a dentist and proper oral hygiene observation (Socransky, 2013).

This can completely stop or even the process of deterioration. Since it is now known that micro-organisms are the primary etiology agents of this disease, the question that many researchers remain to ask is which are the specific micro-organisms responsible (Charlene, 2012)?  Many laboratories are continuing with the examination of the micro-organisms. However, these experiments have been experiencing a lot of problems concerning technical difficulties. There have been reported cases that different forms of periodontal disease might have specific microbial etiologies (Shakibaie, Fardad, Laurence & Walsh, 2016).

The relationship between aggressive, destructive periodontal disease and gingivitis is still undergoing the re-evaluation. Gingivitis might be defined as a response to the accumulated levels of micro-organisms but how it causes destructiveness is still unknown, and it is an open area of more research. However, researchers came up with two hypotheses that tried to explain how this might occur. The first suggests that the disease activates the host’s immune pathological process which would lead to an acceleration of the condition leading to the destruction of tissues. The second argues that if the local bacteria component in the body is altered, either by addition of a new species of the pathogen or local overgrowth of the already present pathogen will lead to the initiation of tissue destruction (Socransky, 2013).

For the destructive diseases, most of which are less encountered, there have to be some prerequisites to be met. If one of these conditions is not met, then the destructiveness of the disease will not be manifested. These conditions include; the number of pathogens which have to be at a significant number enough to initiate a disease, these organisms must be situated in a way that either the organism or the products from this organism must reach the target tissue. If nothing reaches the target tissue, no matter how many organisms are available, no disease will be initiated. The host must also be susceptible to illness and the organisms causing the disease. The environment in which these pathogens fall on must allow the development and reproduction of these pathogens, in other words, the environment must be conducive and lastly, there must be an absence of inhibitors either mechanical, biological or chemical inhibitors (Socransky, 2013).

Alteration of any of the five conditions for a disease to manifest itself will inhibit the initiation of the disease. This can be used as a method of completely stopping the disease. For instance, if the number of pathogens is reduced or the distance between the pathogen and the target tissue increased, then the disease will not be initiated. In case this is maintained for a long period then it means that the disease will be eliminated. The same would happen if there were microbial inhibitors in the target tissue (Socransky, 2013).

In the treatment of this disease, other treatment ways should be introduced other than the mechanical debridement which is the continuous removal of dental plaque. These methods could include the use of microbial control of the disease. In this case, we will have to proceed in two distinct phases. Phase one involves targeting the pathogen, establishment of faster identification methods and optimal elimination methods. Phase two involves prevention which can be carried out by rapid removal of dental plaque. Prevention could also be done by; suppressing the potential pathogens before the destructive disease is initiated, the establishment of host-compactible microbiota in individuals which would discourage the establishment of the potential pathogens and finally immunization programs (Socransky, 2013).

Contrary to the previous percentage of forty-seven in the year 2009 and 2010, as of September 2012, findings from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States indicated that in Chicago alone, fifty percent or one out of every two individuals have periodontal disease. This is a significant increase which reflects that soon almost seventy percent of people will have this disease. The type of food and legalization of smoking in most states are some of the predisposing factors to the rise in this disease (Shakibaie et al., 2016).

The articles provided shows that there is a very big similarity between them and the present findings of the disease. This is evident in some theories like the one explaining the progression of the disease as an intermittent process. However, there are some notable differences in the two, for instance, it states that the only method of prevention is the removal of the dental plaque while in the present, and there are other ways for prevention which include the microbial methods.

Age of the articles brings about a high percentage of variation. However, most of the research being carried out today is out of suggestions for further research made from previous articles. During the year 2009 and 2010, the percentage of children under the age of thirty were not commonly affected by the disease. In the recent, most children have adopted ways of living that resembles that of the adults. These ways of living have contributed to the increasing instances of aggressive periodontal disease among children (Shakibaie et al., 2016).  Some of the previously published articles conducted their research using different parts of the mouth. This leads to errors as periodontal diseases does not manifest itself evenly in all corners of the mouth. Recent research should include all corners of the mouth during their research.

Periodontal disease or the gum disease should be taken with much weight as it may lead to more severe infections these infections could result in using a lot of funds to treat or even cause death. Periodontal disease is associated with other conditions like diabetes (Bandyopadhyay et al., 2010), heart disease and plaque and tartar. People also should regularly visit their dentists to check for any signs of periodontal disease. Some controllable causes of periodontal disease should be avoid smoking and stress are only but a few examples of these causes. Proper nutrition, diseases screening, and prevention minimized the use of medicine and observing the general hygiene in the mouth are other examples of the measures that should be taken to minimize periodontal disease incidences. Avoid clenching of teeth to live healthy, have fresh breath and appealing gum.

Works Cited

Shakibaie, Fardad, and Laurence J. Walsh. “Dental calculus detection using the VistaCam.” Clinical and Experimental Dental Research 2.3 (2016): 226-229. Print.

Socransky, S. S. “Microbiology of Periodontal Disease—Present Status and Future Considerations.” Journal of Periodontology 48.9 (2013): 497-504. Print.

Charlene W.J. “The Microbial Aetiology of Periodontal Diseases.” Periodontal Diseases – A Clinician’s Guide (2012): n. pag. Print.

Ganzetti, Giulia, Anna Campanati, Andrea Santarelli, Valentina Pozzi, and Annamaria Offidani. “Periodontal Disease: An Oral Manifestation of Psoriasis or an Occasional Finding?” Drug Development Research 75 (2014): S46-S49. Print.

Khan, Shahrukh, Taimur Khalid, and Kamran Awan. “Chronic periodontitis and smoking. Prevalence and dose-response relationship.” Saudi Medical Journal 37.8 (2016): 889-894. Print.

Reynolds, Harmony R., and Ronald G. Craig. “Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease and Periodontal Disease.” A Clinician’s Guide to Systemic Effects of Periodontal Diseases (2016): 39-51. Print.

Genco, Robert J., and Wenche S. Borgnakke. “Risk factors for periodontal disease.” Periodontology 2000 62.1 (2013): 59-94. Print.

“Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention.” Oral Health and Dental Care | Colgate® Oral Care. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2017.

Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar, Nicole M. Marlow, Jyotika K. Fernandes, and Renata S. Leite. “Periodontal disease progression and glycemic control among Gullah African Americans with type-2 diabetes.” Journal of Clinical Periodontology 37.6 (2010): 501-509. Print.

Attitudes and Perceptions

Attitudes and Perceptions

Attitude is a settled way the one thinks or feels about someone or something, and it typically reflected in a person’s behavior and Perception, on the other hand, is the way of regarding, understanding or interpreting something (Giuliani & Roberts, 2004). Peoples attitude greatly influence how they take or relate to things, and this can also affect how other people can relate to them especially in the work environment. It is important to be able to link or understand how people perceive things or their attitude towards some issues and therefore have an approach that is not likely to affect their performance.

What, according to you, did that person do to create negative situations? Was the individual bossy, rude, or interfering, or did the person make disparaging remarks or speak negatively about the people who were not present?

I once worked at a pharmaceutical company where the manager happened to be the owner of the pharmaceutical company. The relationship between the employees and the other subordinate workers on my level was good, and therefore this led to the promotion of both social and professional affiliation in the work environment. The managing director however made the situation and the relationship between us the workers hard as every time there was a small mistake by one of us the first step was stopping the salary without notice and shifting all the blame on employees later followed by firing an employee. The led to everyone to be always in fear of losing their job and therefore leading to low effectiveness as this inflicted fear and made us hold back from being fully committed and participatory in building the business.

What was your or the subordinate’s attitude toward the person in that particular situation and in general?

My perception and the perception of my fellow workers was that the situation that the managing director had put us in was rather uncalled for as there was a need to follow protocol and investigate a situation before being quick to take action. Most of the employees were frustrated, and every time someone found a new place to work left without notice. The situation has gone to the worst such that the workers could strike and decide not to work thinking they would be given a chance to air their views but all was in vain.

Based on your observations of that person, as you reflect on the work situation, was your or the subordinate’s attitude the right one? Why or why not? Would you show a different attitude given a second chance or if you were in the same situation? Why?

The attitude of my fellow workers and me was right as the judgment was not fair and the director was in a way taking advantage and employing bad leadership strategies. For a business to grow there is always that need to have time to interact with the workers and share with them the ideas and therefore able to implement them well (Torrington, Hall, Atkinson & Taylor, 2017). Given the same chance, I would show the same attitude because I feel that for a proper management and job performance process the managers should be in a position to respect their workers and give them a chance to prove themselves and not just accuse them of something that is not proven only to end up sucking them.

How does a negative management attitude affect trust among the employees? When a manager is not trustworthy, does this information spread to other departments, who may also form a negative opinion of the manager?

It is upon the manager to know how to win the trust of the workers as this drive towards commitment and increased performance in the organization. Negative attitude by the management affects the performance of the employees in different ways. First, if the management doesn’t trust you and your work, it becomes hard for you to prove that you can deliver and every time you strive and do your best they always criticize your work. This ends up lowering the morale and motivation and therefore making it hard even to become innovative. If a managed is untrustworthy, the information spreads to other workers very fast as they feel let down and disappointed by their leader. This, therefore, leads to change their perception and also their view towards him. This lowers the trust and the dedication that the other employees or the other departments have towards the organization and therefore making it hard to streamline and restore the spirit.

Suggest at least two ways you would solve the problems if you were the manager. Why would you adopt such measures?

If I was a manager, the first thing would introduce is an all-inclusive decision-making process. This is the first step towards showing the workers that you trust them and that you have faith in their work. This boosts their morale and dedication towards work and therefore making it even more advantageous in building the business. I would also ensure that the workers have a representative or a leader who is to present all their grievances or suggestions to my office to ensure that their views are heard as early as possible to reduce chances of them feeling neglected.

How do you describe your feelings and attitude when working for a leader who is positive and supportive versus a negative manager? How does a positive, supportive leader affect trust among team members?

I am currently working with a boss, who is very considerate, and he doesn’t even consider himself as a boss but a colleague. He always tells us that he is a staff like us and we should never fear to face him in case we feel that something is not going on the right way. Working for a leader who is positive keeps the motivation going and also makes me feel that my work is valued and appreciated. I also feel that I have a chance of growing my career and therefore dedicating my efforts toward work. A trustworthy leader makes people build trust on him as there is the feeling that they have his support and therefore being submissive. It also helps them build trust among themselves as the work environment favorable to become innovative.

How influential are perceptions of certain employees either in your team or other departments? Does your perception of a manager or a team member carry weight, even though there may not be a personal encounter with the person and the perception is based on someone else’s comments?

Perceptions of social people or interactive employees are likely to influence the other people’s perceptions as they interact more often. The perceptions of the people in my work place are positive, and they always interact and consult before coming up into conclusion. The perceptions of people towards our manager shape the trend and set the environment in the work organization, and this sets the motion towards working (Torrington, Hall, Atkinson & Taylor, 2017). People’s comments or views towards the manager also affect their perceptions towards him even if they have not met him. If more than two people talk about someone in a positive or a negative way, then there is a degree of truth in their statement and therefore calling for considerations of their statements and therefore comments about the manager’s influence how people view him in our organization.

References

Giuliani, R. W., & Roberts, T. (2004). Leadership in business organizations. New York: Hyperion Audiobooks.

Torrington, D., Hall, L., Atkinson, C., & Taylor, S. (2017). Human resource management and collaboration with other departments.

 

Passive Surveillance

Passive Surveillance

Has the focus on disease prevention and health promotion shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases? Why or why not?

A chronic disease is not the one that lasts for more than three months and cannot be cured by medication or prevented through vaccination nor does it just disappear. Chronic diseases in the United States have been the greatest contributors to increased deaths from cancer, heart attack and other major chronic diseases have increased. The focus of disease prevention and health promotion has shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases because they are the greatest contributors to mortality rate. The chronic diseases have become the most expensive condition to maintain in the health sector consuming the greatest sector of the health budget in the United Stated health sector. According to Kennamer (2007), Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. In 2012 about half of the adult population in the United States that is approximately 117 million people had one or more chronic conditions according to a report by World Health Assembly (2006) one in every two adults had two or more health conditions. In the analysis done by WHO the seven out of the ten causes of death in 2004 were chronic conditions. Cancer and heart conditions accounted for 46% of all the death in the United States (Kennamer, 2007). This, therefore, led to the need to switch and direct the resources to try and create aware

Will a diversion in focus from infectious to chronic diseases leave the United States and other parts of the world at greater risk for pandemics or bioterrorism? Why or why not?

The diversion from infectious diseases could have a major effect on the spread of pandemics and bioterrorism. This is because the chronic diseases and the have taken a greater subset of the health budget and therefore leaving the other conditions unchartered for. The focus of the eyes of the nation has also shifted on chronic conditions as the conditions have had dangerous effects on their family and friends. The terrorists could take advantage of the shift of the resources and the attention of the health sector and the allocation of the health budget to effectively pushing for their strategies and therefore having an easy way through the peoples. This also means that the research and development that was previously directed to bioterrorism and pandemics have not been developed or rather are not active and therefore this means that there are no strategies developed to deal with situations once they arise and therefore puts the nation at risk.

How do risk factors and prevention strategies differ from infectious and chronic diseases?

The chronic conditions are not treatable and can only be managed, and therefore the strongest and the most important prevention strategy is the creation of awareness and pushing people towards adoption of strategies that reduce spread of the chronic conditions. The infectious diseases can be controlled through quarantine and secretion of the infected people and therefore spreading the spread of the disease, unlike the chronic conditions where they cannot be transferred to other patients through contact. This, therefore, makes infectious diseases predictable and controllable through physical mean and therefore making them easily manageable.

When thinking about chronic diseases, how do you perceive the purpose and utility of passive surveillance as an epidemiological tool? Explain with an example of a chronic disease surveillance system. Would you advocate the reporting of select chronic conditions? Why? Give reasons for your answer.

The utility of passive surveillance as an epidemiology tool cannot be effective as the disease is not transferred from one person to another through physical means. This also is not effective as it captures the data of the patients that have been affected by the condition and the trend regarding the locations here it is mostly registered. The surveillance can also not provide the effective ways to control the disease and therefore not to be fully conclusive or having a full coverage on the chronic diseases. For example collecting data of the patients that are affected by cancer in a certain location can only present us with the numbers but does not go further or give the preventive measures that can be implemented or the situation that acts as predisposing factors towards the condition and therefore not being an effective way to handle the condition.

References

Kennamer, M. (2007). Basic diseases control for health care providers. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

World Health Assembly. (2006). International health regulations (2005). Geneva: World Health Organization.

 

 

Diversity Journals

Diversity Journals

Chapter One Journal Topic

There are things that I have been told while I was younger by my parents. First, they always told me am beautiful. As I grow up since I always remember these words and nothing can deter my confidence. I tell myself daily that I was born for a reason since it’s what my parents always told me. It has helped me gain more confidence in everything I do since I know I am special.

Negative thoughts always change my perspective about a person. When I meet a person with different characteristics from mine, I tend to compare them to myself and this has been bad since making friends is not easy. Moreover, negativity shows me how incompetent I might be compared to that other person. I, therefore, try to avoid such thoughts to build on self-confidence.

Chapter Two Journal Topic

I have learnt to embrace people of all kinds regardless of their culture, sexuality, race or physical appearance. This has been motivated by my ability to think positively in all situations. I push away all negative thoughts that I may have in mind concerning a particular person and embrace positivity.

From lessons I have gotten from my parents, teachers and religious leaders, I always have a mindset that everyone is special in his or her way. With this in mind, I am therefore able to interact freely with everyone and also love reading books that help me embrace all types of people as I gain more knowledge on capabilities of different people.

Chapter Three Journal Topic

If I discovered that I am of the wrong gender, I would find someone to talk to first which may be my parent, counselor or religious leader. I would explain my feelings to them in a way that they will appreciate my openness and self-acceptance.

I would then embrace the gender I feel more comfortable with. If I am supposedly male and don’t feel comfortable, I would do things that are more girly, wear the girl clothes I always wanted and act like a girl since that way I can fully express myself without straining to impress anyone. I would not give myself room for accepting judgment from anyone at all.

Chapter Four Journal Topic

In a free country, there should be freedom of speech and expression. Loyalty does not hence mean we cannot ask questions where we feel uncomfortable with the running of the country. To be a good citizen means looking out for the country and pointing out the areas that one do not feel comfortable with.

As good citizens, we should show our patriotism and loyalty by exercising our freedoms and rights effectively. Therefore, when we find a gap in the running of the country we live in. This will ensure that we are also incorporated into the decision-making process in our state. We ought not to be silent in matters that can affect us in the long run. This is what patriots do; speak up.

Chapter Five Journal Topic

Women face a lot of challenges in the workplace such as sexism. Often, women are not given high positions in the organization and are mostly given administration jobs. I feel that both men and women can perform equally in the workplace. First, women are good at multitasking and can manage both homes and their workplace.

Also, women are also educated nowadays and are capable of managing big positions in organizations. Discrimination by gender in the workplace should be addressed and put to a stop because every human being deserves an opportunity to express themselves regardless of their gender. Women are as powerful and committed as men and employment shouldn’t be biased.

Chapter Eight Journal Topic

The lack of equality especially in the provision of opportunities is inhuman. Laws should be put to protect every other person in a particular country regardless of their race. The non-white immigrants were also human beings that deserve equality as much as the whites.

Nowadays, immigrants are still facing difficulties while trying to settle in a foreign country especially relates to the non-whites who have migrated to a country where the whites are natives. In offers of jobs, the non-whites are mostly allocated with the jobs that are incompetent no matter how much they are learned. Some get killed in their quest to secure a future for their families in these countries which is not fair.

Chapter Ten Journal Topic

If I learned that I am HIV positive, emotionally it would drain me, but I would not consider getting special treatment from others. This is because being positive does not mean I am weak and about to die the next minute. I would be my usual self in everything I do because I would not want anyone to look down on me.

At work, I work perform my duties with diligence to ensure that my colleagues become aware that HIV is not a disability and would ask my supervisor not to relieve me of any duties allocated earlier. When there are chances in the organization, I will make sure to fight for them as my colleagues are doing and would only ask for assistance only when am in dire need to avoid feeling as if am a burden to others.

Chapter Eleven Journal Topic

Racism can be a disorder and may affect a person to the extreme if not well addressed from the start. Patients with racism can develop illnesses such as depression and even hate themselves. This is because they feel unappreciated compared to their peers and cannot stand up to defend themselves when need be. Racism should be treated with as much concern as other psychological diseases.

Therefore, psychiatrists can help address this issue since the patients will be open to them. Talking to a professional such as a psychiatrist will help relieve the stress that person may have held in the heart. Those that do not open up may end up committing suicide, and it’s hence important to arrange therapy sessions with these patients.

Interviewing Project Report

Interviewing Project Report

There are different views given by different managers depending on the focus of their careers and achievements. The report summarizes all the responses derived from the managers. Manager A is a Project Manager; Manager B is a Human Resource Manager while Manager C is a Marketing Manager.  Regarding the start of their careers, Manager A explained that he had a rough time finding a job once he was out of college and had to start as a supervisor in another small firm. He later applied for a job vacancy as an assistant manager in his current organization in which he was later promoted. Manager B agreed that it is not easy to rise to the position of a manager and also had to start as a subordinate staff before she was promoted. On the other hand, Manager C stated that he inherited the position from his father who is now Chief Executive Officer and therefore it was not a rough ride for him after college.

When asked how they define the success of a manager, Manager A stated that he considers high profits earned in an organization as his success since he had coordinated all the activities in a particular project, Manager B, however, said that she defines success using employee satisfaction. She explains that a manager cannot be said to be successful if his or her employees are dissatisfied. On the other hand, Manager C agreed with Manager A that a manager is said to be successful if his or her department can draw high returns.

Regarding challenges they have encountered in their career, Manager A argued that being in a high position it is not easy to satisfy the desires of everyone, for instance, family members require favors such as offering them job opportunities which are not possible without right qualifications. Both Manager B and C agreed with Manager A on this with Manager C adding that in his case family members expect him to give them jobs since he was also given an opportunity by his father and should, therefore, return the favor.

On skills that a successful manager should have, Manager A argued that a manager should have focus, determination, and desire to achieve. Manager B stated that a manager should always be ready to learn from others, sociable and easy to talk to so that employees can air their views efficiently without fear and thus managers can identify the areas they should work on. Manager C agreed with Manager B and added that a manager should avoid discrimination. Relating to the questions if they think they are suitable for their current job and what makes them successful, all managers stated that they are highly qualified and their job is as a result of their qualifications and success is as a result of their determination.

When asked where they see themselves in a period of ten years, Manager A said that he could see himself as the Chief Executive Officer of the organization where he is currently a project manager, Manager B stated that she sees herself working in a non-governmental organization still as a human resource manager as it is her passion to associate with people from all over the world while Manager C also aims to be the Chief Executive Officer of the family company where he is currently working. Manager A encouraged the young people to take up challenges without fear; Manager B urged females to be more open to change since no position belongs to a particular gender and Manager C concluded with the quote “success is a journey.”

Obesity

Obesity

Obesity is one of the most prevalent diseases which are rapidly growing in the United States. I have focused on two articles that enumerate the problem and utilized distinct rhetorical strategies to persuade on the sources of the disease and also the distinct angles of the epidemic that should be prioritized carrying out research for the cure. Analyzing the distinct rhetorical strategies utilized in the posts show that logos statements are an effective option of convincing the reader or listeners on the points. Using ethos and pathos statements is a more efficient form of convincing the reader or listeners to do something about the issue.

The article by Peggy Ward Smith on the obesity issue in the United States outlines the abnormal weight gain disease in the United States. Peggy emphasizes on the significance of conceding the impacts of behavioral treatment on the obese state and improved financial welfare outlining that therapy on behaviour encompasses dynamism on dieting and exercising to promote healthy living. (Ward-Smith 244). Apart from benefiting the obese individuals, the article lays out that for every amount one invests in the treatment, the return is significantly higher indicating a potential increment in the economic benefits.

Peggy continues to elaborate how administration of medicine and operations has proven successful and effective in dealing with obesity. the main aim of the article is to enumerate the effort and strategy the united states needs to take in order to battle the epidemic, not only for the welfare of the obese individuals but also to combat the economic pressure the disease has laid upon the nation. The article by Levitan and Davis: emotions and eating behaviors bears discussions on obesity but takes a distinct approach on the topic and style.

Levitan and Davis start by utilizing an analysis of Jane who has been diagnosed with obesity as a result of eating disorder. The condition erupted as a result of her excessive consumption. The authors enumerate on the causes and initiators of the epidemic. They lay out that having an emotional relationship with foodstuff has a great contribution to obesity development. They describe how some foods are habit forming and thus initiators of the epidemic (Levitan and Davis 784).

They further lay out that presence of brain chemical imbalance has a certain relationship with obesity and further analysis on the issue is significant. The two articles enumerate the issues on obesity in the United States and how it has impacted the states. The two articles however have a conflicting approach on solving the issue and how they convince the readers and listeners on what they believe. The article by Peggy prioritizes on the logos statements and also encompasses hard to grasp ethos and pathos statements.

The article starts by utilizing tabulations in calculating the BMI to aid identify obesity. Her article argues by utilizing rates outlining that in the year two thousand and three, the rates significantly increased (Ward-Smith 242). The article is a significant logos argument as an argument cannot be solely based on statistics and numerical manipulations. Peggy adds more information on the large amounts of capital spending on obesity in the past. The article outlines how the obese individuals utilize a huge amount of the economies funds. It addresses the feeling of nationalism in combating obesity which is enticing an economic downfall in the country.

Peggy also continues to add a pathos argument debating on the adverse judgments and discrimination on the obese individuals. She states that discrimination was not only based on religion and sexuality but also on weight where obese people were highly discriminated (Ward-Smith 242). Peggy enumerates that obesity has been highly associated with biasness and discrimination. The pathos argument utilized connects the reader emotionally to the problem by a small margin. In as much as combination of all the three classes is considered as an influential method to deliver a message, I did not find it necessary to include it as it made the article seem unreliable and not consistent. A large percentage of the article consists of elaborate arguments deduced logically on logos, with details of number of people affected by diseases linked to obesity and the approaches suitable to be a solution to these illnesses for example exercising, dieting and surgery.

Even though the reasoning was to a certain extent persuading, there was limited emotional power to attract the reader’s interest in a way that he or she would regard it seriously and attempt to solve the problem even if they are not exactly victims of obesity. Levitan and Davis’ article differentiate its rhetorical strategy from others in order to have a greater impact on the reader. The use of an association of logos, ethos and pathos reasoning helps the reader come to terms with the problem of obesity hence giving the reader motivation to make a change. The use of a case study at the beginning of the article draws attention to the reader by use of ethos and logos rhetorical strategies. The case study used acts as an example of appealing to ethos since credibility levels are heightened in regard to the reasoning and additionally captures the attention of the reader through pathos since he or she gets into deep awareness of the suffering brought about by obesity which makes the reader want to know more about Jane and try find a solution to her suffering.

It therefore raise awareness using a story rather than percentages, graphs or tables which makes the reader understand the topic of concern better. Instead of drawing all attention to the medical aspect of obesity for instance in Ward-Smith article, Levitan and Davis outlines the addictive nature and relationship with foodstuff likely to initiate obesity (Levitan and Davis 784). It therefore, leads to development of obesity issues. A much detailed pathos point of view is given which relate obesity with state of mind and how it affects ones standard of living (Levitan and Davis 785). The reasoning is added weight by inclusion of a logos argument that obesity treatment poses a challenge as food deserts have prevalently developed making fast food more preferable (Levitan and Davis 785).

The association of obesity to genetic variations is a strong argument which is important in pathos since the reader can comprehend that obesity can be as a result of incontrollable factors. The shedding of light on obesity supports the pathos argument outlines that the mind gets addicted to foodstuffs just as it does with drugs (Levitan and Davis 789). Both articles however present powerful arguments on the issue of obesity hence giving the reader more details on the problem.

Works Cited

Ward-Smith, Peggy. “Obesity-America’s health crisis.” Urologic nursing 30.4 (2010): 242.

Levitan, Robert D., and Caroline Davis. “Emotions and eating behaviour: Implications for the current obesity epidemic.” University of Toronto Quarterly 79.2 (2010): 783-799.

 

Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies

Week IV, Question 4: Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies

 

Donald Steury posted Feb 17, 2018 7:33 PM

 

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Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies

Read: Week 4 Learning Resources

Compare the responses to the Great Depression by the Western European democracies to those of the United States and Nazi Germany. What resulted from the application of classical economic policies to the problems brought about by the Great Depression? What policies obtained better results?

 

healthcare organizations

healthcare organizations

Executive summary

The role of healthcare organizations in implementing the long-term nutritional program is to reduce inequalities in health caused by interrelated factors; external and internal to the health-care realm, such as ethnicity, education, geography, and socioeconomic status. This paper evaluates internal and external environments of a nutritional program, incorporates various strategic planning developments, and proposes strategic planning to adapt to the changing environments. The paper further applies analytical models and decision making methods to evaluate challenges and demonstrates ethical practices that lead to sound decisions making.

Introduction

Changes in hospital market conditions, environment, and the aging population are bringing changes in management strategies(Hyun, Kang & Lee, 2015). Nutrition is a challenge in nursing homes as evidenced by up to 80% of elders suffering from malnutrition, and more than 30% child deaths and a fifth of total disease burden attributed to maternal and child under-nutrition(Hyun et al., 2015). The nutritional deficiencies are rarely recognized and form the base of major clinical outcomes despite the availability of opportunities to control undernutrition.  According toGodamunne, Zamroziewicz, Luo & Hegazi, (2016), any form of malnutrition threatens human health and development, and a lot of it is characterized by persistent under-nutrition, overweight, and obesity.

The role of healthcare organizations in implementing the long-term nutritional program is to reduce inequalities in health caused by interrelated factors; external and internal to the health-care realm, such as ethnicity, education, geography, and socioeconomic status.There is a necessity to review and develop programs and strategies in efforts to improve availability and access to nutritionally adequate diet to the needy, using the best approach. The program has to be by the current international recommendations of nutrient composition and implement integrated and continuous educative and social communication strategies to promote general well-being. This paper aims at discussing the strategic planning and management of a nutritional improvement project, and key decisions needed to improve performance in the long run.

Factors Affecting Healthcare organizations

Healthcare industry is a unique environment faced with many challenges (Abdul Aziz & Idris, 2012). Leadership and teamwork in the organization are keys in meeting the challenges, with a constant evaluation process to identify factors affecting the performance of the organization.  Various influences affect the performance of a healthcare program, categorized into internal and external environments. External factors causing distress in healthcare organizations are well recognized, but less is known about the adverse impacts of internal factors (Kotzian, 2016).

Internal Factors

Leadership and Management

Effective healthcare management improves quality from the perspective of provider, managers, payers, and policymakers. According to Prince, (2017), treatment performance is affected by the management; people with a good idea for quality improvement fail to deliver satisfaction when management is poor. Public hospitals do not give their managers the ultimate power to make decisions, with extremely prescriptive national policies with limited considerations to local factors. The ministry of health should define indicators that are not dictated and ask their doctors to achieve them so that they can have more authority and execute decisions easily.

Resources and Facilities

The quality of healthcare services depends on the availability of resources, with limited facilities affecting the quality of overall work. Patient history record should be obtained, especially for evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment at all time. High productivity requires high-quality inputs, and a reduced employee’s job stress to perform duties at higher speed.

Managers and policymakers give priority to financial resources because they are the most vital factors influencing healthcare quality. Employees who are paid well and on time produce quality and organizations’ differences in financial resources affect their quality of service (Waheed, 2018).

Provider competence

Practitioner’s knowledge and technical skills determine the quality of a healthcare service. Factors that influence the quality of work are mainly knowledge, expertise, commitment, and the ability to examine patients properly. Education institutions are responsible for providing professional development opportunities for healthcare workforce. According to Knodel, (2013), medical professionals do not believe educational institutes are equipping their graduates fully since they tend to be practically incompetent and depend on hospitals to provide additional education and treatment to meet educational requirements.

Healthcare providers should have a character and personality that improves the quality of service. There should be a link between provider’s attitude and communication with patients, and their problems should not interfere with their output.

External Factors

Political factors

Political factors affect nutritional improvement programs when it comes to funding, affecting organizations that depend on government financial assistance. Changes in government policies are sometimes well notified and discussed, but can be changed without warning. Political factors lead to strong labor movements that directly improve work conditions. According to Jankovic, Mihajlovic & Cvetkovic, (2016), the environment of work and outcome of services are directly proportional; malnutrition, traditional-occupational diseases, accidents at work, and lifestyle factors at work have a role in good health. Policies ensure low socioeconomic and income inequalities. Income inequalities affect health as they interfere with psychological perceptions of a workplace, and improvement is vital for positive culture shifts and improved business ethics.

Technology

Technological advancements create healthcare prospects both in terms advanced therapy systems, and provision of services. The most improved internet services improve information network and ease in evaluation when it comes to acquisitions and actionable factors. Online technology has contributed to direct patient communication, patient advertising, customized treatments, and social media healthcare.

Social factors

Social factors include the aging population that offers a wide range of opportunities and threats to the nutritional improvement program. There is also the risk of obesity amongst the population and its associated risks. The current culture has improved patients and caregiver’s knowledge and awareness, changing their expectations to become more demanding. Public activism is also increasing through social media technologies, a challenge to healthcare organizations to meet consumer’s need without overstepping the regulatory boundaries.

Economic Factors

Economic environment deals with issues like the global economic crisis that create reluctance of consumers to spend on healthcare programs. The increased growth in nutrition healthcare is a clear demonstration of how nursing services have been privatized to become a key business offering. Countries that use part-payment health insurance models have greatly been impacted by a reduction in consumer disposable income (Kallianiotis, 2015). Pricing becomes highly pressurized, although the market continues to grow to the aging population. The economic status of a healthcare organization leads to increased pressure from stakeholders causing consolidation of the industry, causing more mergers and acquisitions in future to add value.

Legislative restrictions

The performance of the program is also affected by the many regulatory and legislative restrictions. Many countries have a litigation culture; therefore a company must focus on producing quality. Moreover, internet evolution is increasingly stretching legislative boundaries with consumers demanding more satisfactory rights in their healthcare programs.

The growing environmental degradation issues require key organization stakeholders to improve their awareness for their business to be more proactive. A comprehensive environmental scanning should be done to see how business and marketing plans are compatible with environmental issues. The program implementation should conduct an environmental impact assessment, to consider ways of preventing or minimizing environmental impact (Conservancy, 2015).

Strategic planning development, implementation, and evaluation systems

Strategic planning as a management tool is not greatly deployed in healthcare programs especially in third world countries. This is because of lack of appropriate internal incentives needed to formulate and implement strategies meeting the legal requirements of health ministry. Nutritional improvement program evaluation goes through planning, implementation, completion, dissemination, and reporting.

The phase of planning demands managers to determine feasibilities of evaluation, stakeholder identification, and goals specification. Stakeholder inclusion in planning increases reliability by creating a room for participation by the public, stakeholders, and policymakers. Once stakeholders are identified, a strategy is put in place to ensure their engagement in all evaluation stages. A two-way communication should be maintained between the evaluator and stakeholders to create room for ideas and suggestions. Communication establishes an advisory committee to run programs and evaluate activities in the community. Stakeholder involvement creates the need to understand and embrace cultural diversity.

The implementation phase is the formative and process evaluation examining whether the program recruits and retains the intended participants. It also ensures effective training materials are used and meet standards for accuracy and clarity.

Completion phase involves evaluation based to do an examination of outcomes in the short run or long-term impacts of the general performance. It provides summative, outcome, and impact evaluation; determining the degree to which changes in outcome can be ascribed to the program.

Dissemination and reporting phase ensure distribution and reporting of results to all available audiences comprehensively. The plan includes guidelines for the party presenting results, audiences, and those who record. This phase requires adequate resources and is time-consuming making community participation hard.

Strategic planning and administrative methods and strategies to cope with internal and external environmental factors

Organizations should respond appropriately to changes occurring in their respective environments to succeed effectively. Any organization that fails to take actions to align itself with the environment fails to survive and is forced out of the market.

The manager is required to have great attention to the many rapid changes that take place in an external environment containing resources the company depends on. An external analysis is performed to examine opportunities and threats that exist in the environment. This analyzes customers, competition, market, and environment with the aim of identifying external opportunities, threats, trends, and strategic uncertainties, customers, employees, and suppliers. Firms depend on suppliers for materials, labor and always take advantage of competition among suppliers to obtain lower prices, quality, and efficient deliveries. Healthcare organizations react to increase in competition by cutting services; cost, offering improved quality services and spending more on promotion cut costs such as employee’s redundancy.

Patients are the customers in healthcare, and managers must monitor the effectiveness of their services now and in the future. The must utilize the media to improve communication with both internal and external audiences and uphold a good reputation.

Employees agree to work for certain hours in return for wages and salaries. They should be

timely and fairly paid to uphold the good name of the institution and improve their morale.

Macro environment deals with factors like the economy and government policies controlled by the firm indirectly. Factors most likely to change and those with greatest impacts must be identified. Planning is said to be significant when there is a high probability that change will occur with greater impact. Managers develop strategies using strengths of the firm to exploit existing opportunities. They identify relevant factors and their importance then put in place strategies that provide a great combination of opportunities and strengths to implement the plan.

Environmental impacts are countered by reducing the number of forces to reduce uncertainty. Examples include waste reduction, moves of competitors by middle managers, or availability of new strategies by top management. Organization structures are created to define roles, changing environments, and overlap of roles. Moreover, boundary spinning is crucial to gain access to information necessary to forecast future issues.

Seven Steps for Effective Problem Solving

Analytical models require analytical skills to collect and analyze information, solve problems, and make key decisions in the workplace. Managers recruit employees with the ability to investigate problems and find solutions in timely and efficient manner. They must exhibit the ability to communicate effectively, be creative, have skills in data analysis, think critically, and be able to conduct research.

Conflicts in the workplace occur all the times and are opportunities to improve system and relationships. The seven-step model was formulated by Tim Hicks to help solve problems in the workplace as illustrated below.

Identify the issue: Managers need to be clear on the issue, putting in mind that different people have different views regarding the situation. A list of the issues is made defining why they are problematic, and problem identification should focus on behavior instead of personality.

Understand everyone’s interests: The interest that satisfies the interests of all should be selected. All the members should engage actively and respect opinions of others while putting down all individual differences to understand the intentions. The naming of interests is then separated from the listing of solutions.

List the possible solutions: This phase demands a lot of creativity and brainstorming. A possibility of ways to counter the problem is explored keenly to prevent offering solutions to problems that do not even exist. All ideas are noted no matter how absurd they are, and a variety of solution alternatives to particular problems identified.

Evaluation of options: This is the phase of determining advantages and disadvantages of options, and separating the evaluation of options from the selection of options. The pros and cons of every option identified in previous steps should be weighed.

Selection of an option or options: All the options are weighed, and the best is selected, and find possibilities of putting some options together to provide a more satisfactory solution. The manager thinks of the options that highlight positive impacts to the organization, and the solution that would produce the mildest impact. This phase demands the creation of a timeline intended to achieve the organization’s ultimate goal before deciding on the solution.

Documentation of agreement(s): The selected option should be written down to help think through all details and implications. Memory should not be relied on.

Agreement on contingencies, monitoring, and evaluation: Contingency agreement should be prepared based on near future, in case of conditions change.  The phase requires ways of monitoring compliance and follow-ups to be put in place. Opportunities should be created at this stage to evaluate agreements and their implementation. The seventh phase evaluates success and makes managers appreciate their decision-making skills while offering a learning opportunity to those who fail.

According to Uzonwanne, (2014), the model can be applied by one person, individuals, and even larger groups when faced with difficulties in making decisions. Decision-making maxims help reinforce the seven-step process regardless of whether they are related to problem-solving or not.

Exemplary ethical principles

In examining the manner correlating to conducting the nutritional healthcare program and individually ascribed values, workers are impacted by their respective upbringing, social environment, and academic influence. According to Rao ( 2017), values are who we are, and they get us out of bed every morning, enable us to choose our jobs daily, the company we keep, groups we lead, and the relations we keep.

Managers should work to recognize, understand, and articulate their values because of the vital role they play in the workplace in decision making. This will assist in determining employees’ allegiance and performance by creating a powerful connection that creates vast opportunities for individual and organization growth.

Building loyalty and respect as a fusion of personal and organization’s values results in the development of a team that respects the firm. Firm’s resources are utilized effectively when workers have respect and are loyal to stand by the firm when need be. The current attrition crisis in the workplace creates the essence of generating employees’ enthusiasm and dedication to services offered to retain them and infuse passion. Employees believing in the work they do for their employers are driven to construct an environment that is safer, and valuable services with dedication, pleasure, and respect to purpose.

Managers should focus on demonstrating a history of fair dealing by performing certain due diligence to emphasize on worker appreciation and contribution. The company should create clean historical records on service delivery by providing desirable and necessary assistance to clients. Managers should ensure employees’ prospect of fair play and equity in treatment is upheld, and business reputation held high to meet the goals of the program. The company’s goals should be accomplished in manners that meet the required expectations by stakeholders, public, and environmental concerns realistically.

The organization should build trust, imperative, especially with new legislation to counter corruption and demand accountability in financial accounting standards. The managers should operate all the programs in an indisputable manner infusing trust to all business stakeholders and beneficiaries. They should manage labor concerns, stakeholder and public expectations, desirable products, and environmental preservation, and government scrutiny.

Decisions in the organization should be based on values rather than beliefs. Beliefs should be used to formulate responses and not to make decisions because they reflect history in dealing with similar conditions (Franklin, 2016). Beliefs are believed to be steeped in humans’ past histories, habits, and traditions, therefore, not adaptable to new situations and are not equipped to handle complexities of emerging issues. Decisions based on values align with future expectations and engage both contexts and experiences favorable to make tough decisions in complex situations.

Organizations produce quality services when they gain team member and customer commitment. Organizations working in unity with employees and all stakeholders under a shared set of values are less bureaucratic, more flexible, and less hierarchical. The company’s performance is great when all the personnel share a similar vision and core values increasing reliability. Trust in a business entity is a core foundation for establishing relationships with customers and team members.

The management at all level should stimulate vision and inspire others. Leaders should inspire the workforce so that they can get passionate about their performance, and possess the great energy to spark excitement crucial in achieving results.

Value-based leadership should be upheld in the organization to achieve great heights in our competitive global economy. Values offer support in environments where change can be bewildering, and connect with powerful forces to dictate our actions. The instilling of value in firms deeply dictates existence by preserving principles, and every decision generates respect from others and preserves the integrity of the firm.

Conclusion

Programs in healthcare need to make enough capital to cover their expenses and stay in business long enough to provide sufficient care to patients. Leadership and management are not well taught in medical schools. Thus managers need to apply strategic management to retain and attract physicians in competitive environments. The paper has identified some of the factors that influence achievement in decision making among organization leaders because decisions are the most dynamic challenging and ongoing concept in every organization. Decision making is an ongoing process in every organization and requires future research on leadership decision making in response to organization success.

Reference

Abdul Aziz, S., & Idris, K. (2012). E-Government Application: The Challenges in Malaysia. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2184632

Conservancy, L. (2015). The Conservator.

Franklin, J. (2016). P-values and decision-making: discussion of ‘Limitations of empirical calibration of p-values using observational data’. Statistics in Medicine, 35(22), 3889-3891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.6984

Godamunne, K., Zamroziewicz, M., Luo, M., & Hegazi, R. (2016). Malnutrition and healthcare-acquired infections: the need for policy change in an evolving healthcare landscape. Journal of hospital Infection, 93(1), 9-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2016.02.003

Hyun, K., Kang, S. and Lee, S. (2015). Population Aging and Healthcare Expenditure in Korea. Health Economics, 25(10), pp.1239-1251.

Kallianiotis, I. (2015). The European Economic Crisis in a Global Context and its Originator. Archives of Business Research, 3(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/abr.34.1407

Khalatbari-Soltani, S., & Marques-Vidal, P. (2015). SUN-PP245: Malnutrition Almost Doubles the Risk of In-Hospital Death in a Swiss University Hospital. Clinical Nutrition, 34, S114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0261-5614(15)30396-4

Knodel, L. (2013). Practitioner Application: Healthcare Employers Policies on Nurse Education. Journal of Healthcare Management, 58(6), 410-411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00115514-201311000-00006

Kotzian, P. (2016). External Drivers, Internal Agents. On the Role of Environmental Factors and Agents for the Integration of Business Reporting. SSRN Electronic Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2831461

Prince, T. (2017). Behavioral Finance and the Business Cycle. Business Ethics And Leadership, 1(4), 28-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.21272/bel.1(4).28-48.2017

Rao, M. (2017). Values-Based Leadership. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 10(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.22543/0733.102.1185

Uzonwanne, F. (2014). Leadership styles and decision-making models among corporate leaders in non-profit organizations in North America. Journal of Public Affairs, 15(3), 287-299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pa.1530

Waheed, Z. (2018). Facilities management and the business of managing assets. Facilities, 00-00. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/f-08-2017-00

APPLE’S ETHICAL PROBLEM

APPLE’S ETHICAL PROBLEM

Introduction

The interdependence of the contemporary global economy has made international business to operate in a market influenced by national political and cultural diversities (Kline,         2010). Over the recent years, foreign enterprises have grown enormously, spurring debates over the normative standards that should be enacted to guide business decisions.  For local and international businesses to operate efficiently and effectively, there is a need for a societal foundation of ethical values. Ethical values are concerned with the nature and justification of the right actions meaning that businesses need to identify values for guiding actions in the present and the future (Kline 2010). There is a need for firms to embrace international business ethics which simply refers to the comparing various business practices as well as their consequent ethical evaluation in different nation-states (De George 1994).

International business ethics investigates the ethical norms commonly recognised in all countries which should govern the operations of various international businesses and economic transactions. It looks at the variations in ethical standards and assesses whether global firms are bound by social and business norms of either their home country or the host country (De George 1994). One major role of international business ethics is to ensure that all multinationals embrace corporate social responsibility as they interact with various stakeholders in different levels including governments, suppliers, subcontractors and individual employees. This essay aims at assessing ethics in international business by drawing from the case of Apple in Foxconn factories and applying the Kantian deontological theory.

The case of Apple in Foxconn factories

International business often impacts on other people and cultures given that companies do not operate in a vacuum and most international management decision making usually involves interaction with local politics and stakeholders. All businesses have a potential of impacting either directly or indirectly local and national communities. Many at times, firms engage in activities aimed at maximising short time strategies which end up severely clashing with ethical dimensions governing the moral norms and well-being of the society.

The case of Apple reflects an ethical clash as a result of its international operations in the company’s Foxconn iPhone factories in China and around the globe (Barboza2018). Apple is known to be one of the most influential, profitable and successful global enterprises in the world. There is no doubt that the company’s power and profitability came about in the last decade partly due to its ability to master the global manufacturing and strategic choice of suppliers in China and other parts of the world (Barboza2018). However, Apple’s success in the global supply chain has been faced with severe ethical challenges mainly due to the often reported violent riots, workers suicides and other considerable issues including the substantial adoption of robots and massive employee layoffs. Apple has always denied involvement in unethical business by often arguing that its suppliers entirely run the factories it outsources from and therefore, it does not bear any ethical responsibility.   Moreover, Apple claims that its direct employees are always thriving and prospering under good working conditions (Barboza2018).

The Kantian Deontology

The case of Apple can be argued through the Kantian deontological perspective which denotes that the highest good is goodwill. Kant argued that acting from goodwill is acting from duty, and therefore,  it is the intention behind an action that makes an action good and not its consequences (Bowie, 2002). The Kantian morality distinguishes between two particular duties and imperatives. One type of imperative is the hypothetical imperative whereby we do something so that we may achieve something else. The other duty which Kant advocates for is the categorical imperative that is based on the requirements of reason. Kant entirely advocates for the ethics of duty as opposed to the ethics of consequences (Bowie, 2002). An ethical individual is, therefore, one acting while having the right intentions in mind and through free will.

The application of the Kantian deontology in the case of Apple

The Kantian approach is mainly concerned with the rationality of a company and the notion that companies should make right decisions for the right reasons. According to Kant, a company ought to be moral for the right reason and not for the sake of self-interest (Bowie, 2002). By drawing from the Kantian theory, it is clear that Apple’s practices are unethical given that it uses factories in China for self-interest without caring about the poor working conditions and illegal overtime. Apple violates Kant’s belief that a business needs to exercise good deeds not only for its employees but also customers by having the right motivation for its actions. This can be explained by Kant’s formula of humanity which denotes that we should treat humanity as an end and not just as the means (Bowie, 2002). This implies that Apple should care about the manner in which its products are being manufactured by the Foxconn factories in China and other suppliers all over the world.

The outsourcing of products from factories with unfair working conditions in order to maximize profits is highly unethical by reason of not only the Kantian theory but also the utilitarian theory and Aristotle’s virtue theory. The deontological theory emphasizes on three major precepts which Apple seems to be violating; treating stakeholders as persons, treating a business firm as a moral community and ensuring purity of motive (Bowie, 2002).

 

Treating Stakeholders as Persons

According to Kant, all human beings have free will, can act by the laws of reason and have dignity or a value that is beyond money (Bowie, 2002). Therefore, it is wrong for an individual to use another person to just satisfy their own personal interests (Bowie, 2002). It should be noted that the principle of having respect for other people is not meant to prohibit financial transactions just because, in voluntary economic exchange, no one is used as a mere means as both parties benefit. This particular formulation plays a significant role in constraining the nature and manner of undertaking economic transactions. To fully understand why Apple’s position demonstrates an apparent weakness in serving the common good and exercising ethics in its international business, it is critical to draw from Kant’s negative and positive freedom.

In this case, contrary freedom implies discharge from both coercion and deception. Drawing from the formula of humanity, we can describe coercion and deception as the most basic forms of an unethical conductor, in other words, the roots of all evil (Bowie, 2002). The use of coercion and deception is against ethical business principles and conditions of assent. Physical coercion treats an individual as a mere tool while lying undermines an individual’s reason for treating it as a tool. Apple depicts the use of coercion and deception through its suppliers by being a highly demanding client without caring about the employees’ working conditions. While negotiating contracts, Apple allows the suppliers only the slimmest of profits thereby forcing them to take harmful shortcuts by using less costly chemicals as opposed to expensive alternatives and coercing workers to work for long hours rapidly. The company’s suppliers denote that, “the only way one can make money while working for Apple is by looking for ways to increase efficiency or doing things cheaply” (Barboza2018).

 

The Kantian deontology denotes that respecting the humanity in a person goes beyond desisting from coercive and deceptive acts (Bowie, 2002). There is a need for additional requirements as stipulated by Kant’s perspective on positive freedom which refers to the freedom of developing an individual’s human capacities. This implies merely the development of rational and human capacities and not doing anything that can diminish them. Therefore, treating humanity not as a mere means but an end, in the case of Apple requires two significant things. Firstly, it needs Apple not to use people in its business relationship by refraining from deception and coercion. Secondly, it implies that Apple should arrange its business practices to contribute to rational and moral capacities instead of inhibiting these capacities. The use of a poisonous chemical namely, N-Hexane at one of Apple’s major manufacturing partner, Wintek is a good example of how Apple has failed to treat its stakeholders as persons (Myers and Fellow 2014). Wintek began using n-hexane in early 2009 to speed up production at its East China LCD plant after acquiring a large order. N-hexane which was used as a cleaning agent of the touchscreens was found to be a narcotic that attacks the nervous system of individuals exposed to it (Barboza2018). Despite activism from workers and the fact that Apple was aware of the inhumane situation at Wintek factories, the company failed to appropriately and promptly react to the matter. Rumours about the use of n-hexane began spreading in 2009, but Apple was slow to take action against its manufacturing partner Wintek. The company only mentioned this situation in 2011 at its annual review of the labour conditions in its global suppliers (Myers and Fellow 2014).

There has also been a significant concern regarding the heavy use of robots and massive layoffs in Foxconn’s iPhone factories in China, an aspect which raises questions about the immorality of Apple. From a Kantian perspective, the layoffs can be labelled as immoral since the factory workers are merely used as a means for enhancing Apple’s wealth (Bowie 2002). A critical assessment of the employer/employee relationship as well as various contractual agreements reveals an aspect of deception and coercion from Apple thereby making the layoffs unethical and immoral. The requirement of Kant’s deontology that business practices should be able to support positive freedom implies promoting meaningful work. From a deontological perspective, useful work can be defined as one that is chosen freely and gives the workers an opportunity to exercise job autonomy (Bowie2002). It should support the rationality of human beings by enabling workers to develop rational capacities and morality. Meaningful work also ought to provide sufficient salary that can give employees an opportunity to exercise dependence, provide for their physical well-being as well as satisfy their desires.

Treating a Business Firm as a Moral Community

Drawing from Kant’s third categorical imperative, individuals should act as if they are members of an ideal kingdom (Bowie 2002). Companies such as Apple and Foxconn comprise of persons who must be treated with dignity and respect. Additionally, the rules governing an organisation need to be ones that can be supported by every individual in the company. Kant draws from this universal endorsement to denote that every person is both a sovereign and subject with regard to the rules (Bowie 2002). A Kantian approach to organisational design advocates for various principles. One major principle is that a business firm needs to take into consideration the interests of all the impacted stakeholders in making any decisions. This implies that in making contractual choices with suppliers such as Foxconn, Apple should consider all the affected stakeholders including Foxconn employees’ working conditions. Another principle is that a firm needs to have all the individuals affected by its rules and policies participate in their determination before their actual implementation. However, this is not the case in Apple whereby only the interests of one stakeholder are prioritised. In a given situation where the interests of different stakeholders need to be subordinated, the decision should not be merely because one group of stakeholder is supreme than the other. It should also be known that every profit-making business is equipped with a duty of beneficence and procedures must be established to ensure the relationship between various stakeholders is governed by rules of justice (Bowie 2002). The beneficence factor here implies that since Apple benefits from its suppliers, it has a duty of beneficence to these particular suppliers. It also implies that since the Apple benefits from the society which provides the necessary means for enforcing business contracts and the required infrastructure and perhaps, most importantly, a skilled workforce, it should reciprocate through corporate social responsibility. Apple has failed to reciprocate CSR through its supply chains since it does not care about the employees’ working conditions and continuous to outsource products from manufacturers practising unethical business practices such as child labour. In 2012, Foxconn admitted to the use of child labour at one of its facilities through internships that were targeted at students below the legal working age in China (Myers and Fellow 2014). The fact that Apple was aware of the practice of child labour by its supplier and failed to promptly take action reveals that it is an irresponsible global firm.

The Kantian deontology sees an organisation as a moral community with each member of such an organisation standing in a moral relationship to all other members (Bowie 2002). The managers of an organisation have a moral obligation to respect the humanity of all individuals in the organisation. On the other hand, each employee also needs to view the organization other than a mere means of accomplishing personal goals. The organisations are a means of the accomplishment of goals, and therefore, a person who views them as purely instrumental in nature is not in line with the “respect for persons” principle. The principles of a moral firm as stipulated by Kant advocate for the adoption of a theory Y in organisations instead of theory X (Bowie 2002). Theory X denotes that employees inherently dislike work and tend to avoid it if possible. Theory Y, on the other hand, stipulates that workers prefer to act creatively and are willing to take responsibility. Kant’s ethics tends to act as a moral critique of the authoritarian hierarchical organisational structures (Bowie 2002). It calls for the involvement of all stakeholders as well as the vast democratization of the workplace. According to Kant’s moral philosophy, all individuals in a given firm need to be represented by a stakeholder group as a minimum condition for democratisation. These stakeholder groups also need to agree to the various rules and policies governing the firm (Bowie 2002).

Ensuring Purity of Motive

One major tenet of Kant’s moral philosophy is that an action can only be treated as truly moral if it is morally motivated (Bowie 2002). The self-interest morals cannot pollute those actions that are truly moral. In this sense, Kant is implying that business actions need purity of motive. Looking deeper into this issue, individuals usually assume that those actions which are likely to enhance the bottom line are pure acts of self-interest for the firm. However, this is not entirely true for those companies that are publicly held since they are obliged to make profits, fulfil legal obligations to shareholders as well as satisfy their implied contract to the general public. Therefore, it is not totally unethical for managers of Apple to strive for profits. In this case, the aspect of Apple striving for profits can be seen as a moral one even for the strictest Kantian. In doing this, the company is purely honouring its obligation to its stakeholders of realising profits. Therefore, Kant’s notion should not undercut the acts of corporate beneficence which make an important contribution to the bottom line (Bowie 2002). Perhaps, one way through which Apple has failed to ensure purity of motive is by allowing its major supplier Foxconn to act unethically. For instance, Apple has received several reports of forced overtime at Foxconn’s Shenzen plants, but it has failed to take action. Foxconn has been continuously under the spotlight from various media sources mainly for lousy working conditions such as overworking its employees to even a point where some of them have ended up committing suicide.

For example, in 2010, 17 Foxconn employees attempted suicide out of which 13 were successful (Myers and Fellow 2014). This alarming rate of deaths raised questions on the working conditions of Foxconn employees and later on, there were demonstrations against Foxconn and Apple which led to ritual burnings of iPhone pictures. An investigation found out that the suicide incidences were as a result of bad working conditions and overwhelming overtime hours forced into the employees. China’s labour laws allow maximum overtime of 36 hours per month, but Foxconn employees reported being forced to work up to 80-100 hours per month, sometimes without even being paid (Myers and Fellow 2014). Surprisingly, Apple is aware of the inhumane working conditions of Foxconn’s workers since most of these reports have been publicised but has failed to act in line with Kant’s purity of motive.

Kant’s focus on the purity of the moral motive has a positive impact on business ethics, and it is not just merely a barrier that needs to be overcome (Bowie 2002). To enhance the bottom line, Apple, perhaps, needs to focus on various aspects other than small profits such as increasing employees’ working conditions, ensuring a democratic workplace as well as formulating non-deceptive and non-coercive relationships with its suppliers. A majority of management theorists always encourage business organisations to focus on the bottom line. However, a Kantian approach stipulates that profits can still be enhanced without exclusively focussing on the bottom line (Bowie 2002). In the case of Apple, this implies that profits can even be increased if the company starts concentrating on respect for the humanity of all persons and stakeholders. Profits should be viewed as an outcome of ethical business practices and not as the goal that must be achieved by all means.

Conclusion

In summary, there is a need for global firms to embrace international business ethics by engaging in corporate social responsibility as they interact with different stakeholders such as the suppliers, subcontractors and individual employees. The case of Apple, which is one of the most valued companies in the technology industry, reveals the need for companies to act ethically and exercise care for all stakeholders. Apple has been using suppliers in China such as Foxconn to produce some of its products at reduced costs. However, the working conditions in these supply chains have not been conducive, an aspect that has often led to violent riots and employee suicides.  Apple has always denied moral obligation about its role in overseeing its suppliers’ activities.

Drawing from the Kantian deontology, the company’s position depicts a weakness and lack of care for serving the employees’ common good and being a global ethical firm.  The Kantian perspective on businesses is that they need to do good not only for their customers but also other stakeholders including suppliers and employees. This is about the formula of humanity which denotes that humanity should be treated as an end and not just as a means. By this theory, Apple is acting unethically since it is only concerned about massive profits while ignoring the poor working conditions of its suppliers’ employees.

References

Barboza, C. 2018. Apple’s iPad and the Human Costs for Workers in China. [online] Nytimes.com. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-ipad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all [Accessed 5 Feb. 2018].

Bowie, N.E., 2002. A Kantian approach to business ethics. A companion to business ethics, pp.3-16.

De George, R.T., 1994. International business ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly4(1), pp.1-9.

Kline, J., 2010. Ethics for International Business: Decision-making in a global political economy. Routledge.

Myers, C. and Fellow, K., 2014. Corporate Social Responsibility in the consumer electronics industry: A case study of Apple Inc. Resource document. Georgetown University, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service. http://lwp. georgetown. edu/wp-content/uploads/Connor-Myers. pdf. Accessed10.

Ethics

Ethics

INTRODUCTION

Ethics is defined as the philosophy that deals with concepts of right and wrong conduct for people in various situations. In this era of globalisation, the business practices have defined that the decision-making process is based on both financial and ethical elements, thus conceiving the concept of business ethics (Gangone, 2010). Also known as “corporate ethics”, it examines the ethical problems arising in a business domain. Business ethics surfaced in 1970s but due to increase in international trade, there was a need for a wider ethical outlook for international business domain. This resulted in development of international business ethics in late 1990s (Carpenter & Dunung, 2011).

International business ethics is becoming more crucial due to globalisation. Development of technologies led to the feasibility of international business and many companies are expanding into new markets. Domestically the business ethics have developed in accordance to major businesses, as a result of which it becomes vital for the international business ethics to take over and set its guidelines in the business realm.

THE CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF ETHICS AND MORALS

In simple terms, ethics is defined as a system of moral principles. It is derived from the Greek word “ethos” which means habit or disposition. Ethics and morality have slight variation while defining them and are not always related. Ethics is more of professional codes of conduct, while morality is based on an individual’s conduct. However, they can be used interchangeably to define how humans ought to act in any situation.

In this modern world where many ethical situations arise, ethics provide a moral map to tackle such problems. But ethics doesn’t necessarily provide the right answer to a given moral problem. There is no right or wrong defined in its framework. Its principles are applied to a moral problem to get a clear understanding of the situation; after which each individual derive their own outcome.

The ethical principles are not limited to just one area of ethics. Different cultures have their own moral values. What seem to be right in one culture, maybe wrong in another. There is no specific area where all these ethical theories converge. Ethical and social morals are culture bond. Similarly the psychological principles of ethics vary from person to person. The thought process of a person is based on his/her virtues and the external stimuli. The course of moral actions in a particular ethical situation depends on the disposition of an individual. A person’s moral values and character plays an important role in tackling a moral problem. There can be clashes between the moral values between two people while encountering an ethical situation. This leads to more confusion and inability to resolve the problem. Thus, it is advisable to have a broader spectrum of reasoning based on moral ethics to get a solution.

When it comes to international business, the ethical conduct is considered to be above the legal conduct. Both ethical and social conducts are desirable in the business activities. However, the expectations arising from these conducts differ in cultures of different countries (Godiwalla & Damanpour, 2006). Businesses should follow social conduct and rise above the economic motives, and be socially responsible.

TAMBOGRANDE MINING CASE – OVERVIEW

Tambogrande is a Peruvian town in Piura province of San Lorenzo Valley. This was an arid area which was made economical by the development of irrigation systems. It depends on its agricultural lands to generate income. Mangoes, lemons, rice, cotton, potted marigolds and corn are produced, making Tambogrande the most extensive agricultural production in the country (Echave, 2005). Mango and lemon are the main productions of this town, where a part of mango produce is sent for export, and the lemons are used for a Peruvian delicacy known as “ceviche”. The inhabitants of this area have access to running water and electricity which is an advantage over its neighbours. Due to agriculture, the town is completely employed. This town sits over thick deposits of valuable metal, where above the rich copper and zinc deposits are the gold and silver present (Wilson, 2002). This attracted the Canadian mining company “Manhattan Minerals” in 1996. It sought to extract US$1billion worth of minerals. The company formally proposed a mining project to the Peruvian government, which was refused by the local community.

ETHICAL ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN TAMBOGRANDE CASE

Tambogrande was one such town that successfully opposed the mining operations. Initially when Manhattan Minerals proposed the project it received a lot of flak from the locals, leading to various ethical issues for the business and its stakeholders. Manhattan Minerals had invested around $350million in an estimated $1billion project (Kline, 20015). They also had concessions in Tambogrande for five years. Yet the project wasn’t approved due to pressure from locals. This was mainly because the mining project required significant displacement of locals from their land, loss of agriculture and exploitation of water resources. In return, the company guaranteed new homes for displaced people and 300 mining jobs for the locals (Wilson, 2002). Will monetary factor satisfy the local people? Are we quantifying “way of life” financially? The company’s business relied on the cost outcomes of the project. This raised ethical issue on how the cost outcome is measured? In two years; ten years; or when gold deposits exhausts? A different outcome is concluded in each point of time (Kline, 2005).

The Peruvian government played an unethical role by backing the mining project without the consent of the locals. The government supported the proposal only to gain monetary benefits and to increase foreign exchanges (Feyen et al, 2015). This raised ethical issues on the corruption occurring in the governing system. Does the government decision always give right answers? Should new policies be made to stop injustice? Though a local referendum generated 90% votes against the mining project, it was treated illegally by the government. Was it ethical to neglect those votes? (Kline, 2005)  This affected the indigenous groups and caused mistrust amongst different stakeholders.

Local people were marginalised from the development processes of the project resulting in discord with the mining firm and government (Feyen et al, 2015). Locals formed a group called “Defense Front of Tambogrande” backed by many foreign NGOs to fight against the mining firm and corrupt government. The main concern for locals was the exploitation of natural resources and loss of supremacy. Ethical issues that could arise were:

  • Ignorance of locals while reaping mining revenues.
  • The inability of the government to handle conflicts, regulate political wills and redress grievances (Feyen et al, 2015).

The mining company used unethical ways to operate its project resulting in mistrust with locals. Monetary gains were considered more important than the needs of the people. A lot was at stake for the company and the government, which they considered more important than what was at stake for the local community (Wilson, 2002).

DISCUSSION ON CONFLICTS

Conflict is defined as the conjunction of different ideologies, interests and worldly facts that cannot be met concurrently and leads to increase in tension (Franks et al, 2014). Any mining proposal requiring a large scale of agricultural land, to develop its mining activities attracts a lot of controversies (Moran, 2001).

ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT

Tambogrande constitutes about 37.5% of the agricultural area, where the mining project required the displacement of locals from their lands and diversion of Piura river in the mining area. Around 85%-99% deposits of iron sulphite in the area raised the risk of surface and underground water contamination leading to acidic waters (Echave, 2005).

Another conflict was related to the possible waste generation by the mining activities. Mines are environmentally risky and create a tiff between the “national interest” and local communities. In view of stakeholders, the environmental conflicts can be used to envisage alternative economic activities to increase local income (Muradian&Correa, 2003).

COMPANY-COMMUNITY CONFLICTS

From the beginning of the proposal, the mining company had received negative vibes from the locals, due to their unethical behaviour. This was a small mining company having no projects in their country leading them to set their foot in Tambogrande. Due to the weak governance, it was easy for the company to get approvals for the project and get hold of 75% of land shares. That led to trust issues with the indigenous groups. Moreover, the company had hidden most of its motives leading to doubts among the locals. Misleading information on mining, environmental damages and bias opinion on the co-existence of mining and agriculture, led to more suspicions. There was no transparency and honesty regarding environmental studies, information about their shareholders and other false promises which led to their failure.

COMMUNICATION CONFLICT

Miscommunication was a reason for conflict between the locals and the government in alliance with the company. The locals were frustrated with them as nobody could understand their point of view. One of the major problems was the language used by different stakeholders. The government officials and the mining representatives usually used technical jargon, which intimidated the locals about their incapability to participate in discussions (Echave, 2005). Better knowledge of the local culture, customs, values; involving them in company’s activities and pictorial explanation of complex matters would have bridged the communication gap.

RIGHTS THEORY OF ETHICS TO ANALYSE TAMBOGRANDE CASE

After studying the case carefully, I observed that in a lot of instances the rights of the Tambogrande community were being exploited from the very beginning of the mining controversy. The corrupt government had exploited the right to be informed and consent when they initially approved the mining proposal. They used the innocence and illiteracy of the locals. Not just legally but morally it was unethical. Furthermore, the company had plans to turn the urban land into a mining pit. This would have been unfair to the right to life, property and environment.

The indigenous groups too had been unethical when they vandalized the property of Manhattan Minerals. This move was uncalled and as responsible citizens, such step should have been avoided. They could have used their freedom of expression in peaceful protests; since many foreign NGOs media interactions backed them could have handled the situation. In turn, the leader of the local gang was murdered. This was very barbaric and against the human rights. Monetary gains and worldly pleasures drive people to commit such heinous crime.

Weaker political and legal policies along with corrupt governance had a negative impact on the rights of the locals. An important observation made on this basis was when a local referendum gained 90% votes against the mining activity only to be declared invalid by the government. The locals had no rights legally and as an individual. Only if there were a stronger legal framework, the foreign companies would have known their limit. Moreover, the company had concealed major motives that were unfair to the locals both legally and morally. It was very unethical the way company behaved and indiscriminately disregarded the locals. Furthermore, the right to be treated equally should have been practised by the firm which would have bridged the gap, rather than focusing on the profits.

In my opinion, if the human rights were taken into consideration, preached and practised, the locals would have been strong. The entire community would have been unified on the human rights and claimed their justice much before all those controversies. Not just the legal rights but the moral rights of an individual shall be considered. That is what that differentiates us from the animals and makes us more human.

EXAMPLE- PARACATU MINING CASE

Another example where the indigenous communities faced problems from foreign companies is the Paracatu or Morro do Ouro case.

Morro do Ouro is Brazil’s largest gold mine situated on the outskirts of Paracatu. This area was heavily exploited by a Canadian mining company named Kinross Gold. Inhabiting the Morro do Ouro were the indigenous community called “Quilombolas” (Alforte et al, 2014). A case similar to Tambogrande, the quilombolas too faced unethical situations and exploitation.

The quilombolas went through a tough phase when the company started buying licenses and land for the mining operations. Not only were the locals intimidated to sell their land, but also assaulted physically and sexually for opposing the mining activities. In my view, the company has committed a serious crime, not just legally but morally too. Such uncivilized and barbaric attitude should have been stopped by the Brazil government. Instead of resorting to such acts, Kinross should have respected the locals and created a trusting environment.

Another important situation that I came upon was the weak political and legal framework of the host (Brazil) country, and the Canadian government which had no rules on their company regarding the safety of locals and environment. It was a very unethical conduct of business and the foremost duty of the government is the development of their respective ethical and legal laws. The quilombolas should have had access to the legal advisory, human rights and support by its federal government.

Canadian government further behaved unethical and biased when it supported Kinross in its mining activities, knowing the fact that the quilombolas were treated badly. This was purely a profit based interest. I strongly oppose this move since no business is above humanity. Business yields cannot compromise human life and the environment. Businesses should be done in a way that causes no harm to the surroundings. Kinross should have responsibly taken measures to improve the relationship with quilombolas and protection of the environment.

After studying these cases, I suggest that the foreign mining companies not only abide by the host nations legal and social policies but also develop a sense of responsibility towards the local communities and environment. The locals should be treated equally and their rights should be respected. Better communication and knowledge would help build a trustable relationship between the company and locals. Environmental precautions should be taken care of and sustainable development concept should be practised.

My opinion is based on how a firm should behave ethically and responsibly in a given ethical dilemma. Ethics not only applies legally but also justifies a person’s moral behaviour. Thus, the code of conduct in business should be maintained ethically and morally.

CONCLUSION

Ethics plays a crucial role in day to day life and the business domain. Any situation that arises needs a clear understanding to avoid conflicts. Our morality defines the person we are today. Our moral values along with the right decision-making can help us to live in a world of peace and harmony. In Tambogrande case, Manhattan Minerals project was cancelled by the reformed government. This was a great victory for the locals. In 2002, the Tambogrande people were awarded by the National Coordinator of Human rights for their courageous struggle. Hence, ethics should not only be practised legally, but morally.

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