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Healthcare Organization Niche Market

Healthcare Organization Niche Market

Yale-New Haven Hospital

Yale-New Haven is a non-profit hospital providing healthcare services in Connecticut. The hospital had more than one million outpatient and emergency visits in the year 2013, and 80,000 discharges (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018). The hospital has more than 10,000 employees and numerous university-based physicians practicing medical specialties (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018). As a public health advocate, it excels at creating innovative programs supporting the area’s economic growth and healthcare accessibility. The organization is highly involved in many community-based, and health-related organizations to allow continuity community health assessment (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018).

Niche Market

Niche Market is created by making a clear identification of what customers want by understanding their needs, then working to deliver better solutions to problems not presented by other firms (Dugonjic, 2016). The tactic involves specific target audience with specialized offerings, making a company become a market leader making it possible for other firms to venture into that particular segment.

Niche marketing reduces competition in market segments, with companies being leaders and enjoying a monopoly. The firm has strong relationships with customers because they operate in small segments, strengthening brands key to customer loyalty. Niche markets enjoy good revenues because customers do not mind paying a little more for services they cannot receive in other places. Healthcare organizations that enjoy greater market power can negotiate higher prices with insurance companies than those facing more direct competition.

Yale-New Haven Hospital specializes in pediatric specialties such as heart surgery, cancer, and cardiology. It takes pride in dealing with diabetes, uronology, neurosurgery, and neonatology.

Segmentation Strategy

Segmentation in marketing allows healthcare firms to identify unique population subsets, so that they can be targeted for delivery of special services in marketing initiatives (Verley, 2015). Segmentation is usually defined by demographic distinctiveness, location, and category of diseases. Segmentation help healthcare organizations to formulate marketing mix, products, promotions, and pricing.

Health institutions segment patients for reasons of insurance status, risk stratification, and marketing. Yale-New Haven Hospital segments them based on the traits they share such as advanced cancer, complex chronic, aging risks, pregnancies and deliveries, and newborns and toddlers.

Yale-New Haven Hospital aims at stimulating community growth, improve the healthcare of children, provide educational opportunities, end homelessness, and create employment to the locals.

Marketing Programs to address Targets

Yale-New Haven hospital specializes in branding strategy to address a diverse customer base. The hospital involves in co-branding to market its name alongside another brand name. This maximizes the marketing budget by creating a partnership (Roson, 2015).

They also practice multi-brand strategies, placing different names on each of their items. This establishes interest to a wide number of groups creating different appeals. The hospital takes advantage of the history it has created in years providing sophisticated, high appealing care to open new satellite clinics in other parts.

The hospital also practices multiproduct strategies, placing its name on their outpatient surgery center, and in all industrial, medical programs to make use of brand equity. Once customers have knowledge and name of the product, they always have confidence that the new brand should work as other products in the line. Application of multiproduct strategy ensures quality productions to meet the organization’s standards because any faulty brand puts the entire brand equity at risk.

They put into application the diffusion of innovation strategy to save on the amount of time required by customers to adopt new products. Profiles of innovators and early adopters are developed, and identification of nurses and physician groups most likely to influence their hospital staff made. Companies send these groups information on new products or invite them to conferences making product announcements.

Effectiveness of marketing Approach and Tools Used

Yale-New Haven Hospital uses effective marketing approach that has been all around, relying on well-assessed methods to advertise services and products to create a connection with patients. I have come to this conclusion after following their user network in social media. The hospital regularly conducts service surveys through social media to interact with patients and know interests. They also share preventive health-care tips to educate patients, forming a personal bond with patients.

Yale-New Haven Hospital uses social media for cross-promotional marketing strategies to get connections with other local organizations and do cross-promotion. This increases exposure and retains customers, to maintain and refer other people to enjoy their services.

Social media comments by people who read blogs and posts from the hospital indicate the success of marketing tools employed. Their twitter handle has more than a million followers globally who follow online medical help program. Increased number of followers can be used as a content metrics to measure content success and reputation. Online marketing assesses context exposure in terms of how many people view the content and content engagement.  Google rankings shows how frequently the organization name is searched, while content conversion estimates how much more was made after the campaign.

The overall monthly performance can be monitored by analyzing tweets to get insight into followers, while measuring exposure and engagement. This is done by looking the number of people who saw your tweet, number of times they visited the profile, number of followers and other mentioning. The organization knows when to improve on service delivery, and what to change depending of followers views.

Things to Do Differently

Marketing and business development services should focus on taking the work of the hospital and focusing on quality improvement and taking the results to grow the market niche. I would improve the hospital physician marketing materials as my most important assets to help market their skills and the facility. The facility would create custom prescriptions for referrals and outpatient programs and also identify key therapists to discuss other progress.

The effects of hospitals buying out their competitors are higher prices and lower quality (Park, Byung-Jin, 2014). I would focus on measures to merge with other hospitals to create efficiency in gains to reduce bills that target to reduce competition. Merging will improve the quantity of management because the CEOs compensations will reduce, and income distribution among medical professionals will balance.

The hospital would take advantage of hospital discharge data and census building to attend to services lacking in the community. The discharge data trends would be analyzed regularly to identify opportunities and increase census building to deal with underserved areas to help create niche program areas that are difficult for other local hospitals to cover. Community outreach would be put in place to develop a market plan to forge relationships with all individuals and organizations to help in developing a good reputation in the community the hospital serves.

 Reference

Dugonjic, A. (2016). Market of halal products: From niche to global market. Ekonomski Izazovi, 5(9), 56-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/ekoizavov1609056d

Park, Byung-Jin. (2014). Administrative Monopoly Regulation on China’s Anti-Monopoly Law Enforcement. China And Sinology, 22(null), 35-74.= http://dx.doi.org/10.17935/chinan.2014.22..35

Roson, R. (2015). Competition between Multiproduct Firms with Heterogeneous. Advances In Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.27.1215

Verley, P. (2015). Révolution Industrielle/ industrialization, innovations, organizations. Marché Et Organisations, 23(2), 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/maorg.023.0061

Yale-New Haven Hospital, B. (2018). Yale-New Haven Hospital, Inc.: Private Company Information – Bloomberg. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 February 2018, from https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=4205064

 

Name

Institution

Yale-New Haven Hospital

Yale-New Haven is a non-profit hospital providing healthcare services in Connecticut. The hospital had more than one million outpatient and emergency visits in the year 2013, and 80,000 discharges (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018). The hospital has more than 10,000 employees and numerous university-based physicians practicing medical specialties (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018). As a public health advocate, it excels at creating innovative programs supporting the area’s economic growth and healthcare accessibility. The organization is highly involved in many community-based, and health-related organizations to allow continuity community health assessment (Yale-New Haven Hospital, 2018).

Niche Market

Niche Market is created by making a clear identification of what customers want by understanding their needs, then working to deliver better solutions to problems not presented by other firms (Dugonjic, 2016). The tactic involves specific target audience with specialized offerings, making a company become a market leader making it possible for other firms to venture into that particular segment.

Niche marketing reduces competition in market segments, with companies being leaders and enjoying a monopoly. The firm has strong relationships with customers because they operate in small segments, strengthening brands key to customer loyalty. Niche markets enjoy good revenues because customers do not mind paying a little more for services they cannot receive in other places. Healthcare organizations that enjoy greater market power can negotiate higher prices with insurance companies than those facing more direct competition.

Yale-New Haven Hospital specializes in pediatric specialties such as heart surgery, cancer, and cardiology. It takes pride in dealing with diabetes, uronology, neurosurgery, and neonatology.

Segmentation Strategy

Segmentation in marketing allows healthcare firms to identify unique population subsets, so that they can be targeted for delivery of special services in marketing initiatives (Verley, 2015). Segmentation is usually defined by demographic distinctiveness, location, and category of diseases. Segmentation help healthcare organizations to formulate marketing mix, products, promotions, and pricing.

Health institutions segment patients for reasons of insurance status, risk stratification, and marketing. Yale-New Haven Hospital segments them based on the traits they share such as advanced cancer, complex chronic, aging risks, pregnancies and deliveries, and newborns and toddlers.

Yale-New Haven Hospital aims at stimulating community growth, improve the healthcare of children, provide educational opportunities, end homelessness, and create employment to the locals.

Marketing Programs to address Targets

Yale-New Haven hospital specializes in branding strategy to address a diverse customer base. The hospital involves in co-branding to market its name alongside another brand name. This maximizes the marketing budget by creating a partnership (Roson, 2015).

They also practice multi-brand strategies, placing different names on each of their items. This establishes interest to a wide number of groups creating different appeals. The hospital takes advantage of the history it has created in years providing sophisticated, high appealing care to open new satellite clinics in other parts.

The hospital also practices multiproduct strategies, placing its name on their outpatient surgery center, and in all industrial, medical programs to make use of brand equity. Once customers have knowledge and name of the product, they always have confidence that the new brand should work as other products in the line. Application of multiproduct strategy ensures quality productions to meet the organization’s standards because any faulty brand puts the entire brand equity at risk.

They put into application the diffusion of innovation strategy to save on the amount of time required by customers to adopt new products. Profiles of innovators and early adopters are developed, and identification of nurses and physician groups most likely to influence their hospital staff made. Companies send these groups information on new products or invite them to conferences making product announcements.

Effectiveness of marketing Approach and Tools Used

Yale-New Haven Hospital uses effective marketing approach that has been all around, relying on well-assessed methods to advertise services and products to create a connection with patients. I have come to this conclusion after following their user network in social media. The hospital regularly conducts service surveys through social media to interact with patients and know interests. They also share preventive health-care tips to educate patients, forming a personal bond with patients.

Yale-New Haven Hospital uses social media for cross-promotional marketing strategies to get connections with other local organizations and do cross-promotion. This increases exposure and retains customers, to maintain and refer other people to enjoy their services.

Social media comments by people who read blogs and posts from the hospital indicate the success of marketing tools employed. Their twitter handle has more than a million followers globally who follow online medical help program. Increased number of followers can be used as a content metrics to measure content success and reputation. Online marketing assesses context exposure in terms of how many people view the content and content engagement.  Google rankings shows how frequently the organization name is searched, while content conversion estimates how much more was made after the campaign.

The overall monthly performance can be monitored by analyzing tweets to get insight into followers, while measuring exposure and engagement. This is done by looking the number of people who saw your tweet, number of times they visited the profile, number of followers and other mentioning. The organization knows when to improve on service delivery, and what to change depending of followers views.

Things to Do Differently

Marketing and business development services should focus on taking the work of the hospital and focusing on quality improvement and taking the results to grow the market niche. I would improve the hospital physician marketing materials as my most important assets to help market their skills and the facility. The facility would create custom prescriptions for referrals and outpatient programs and also identify key therapists to discuss other progress.

The effects of hospitals buying out their competitors are higher prices and lower quality (Park, Byung-Jin, 2014). I would focus on measures to merge with other hospitals to create efficiency in gains to reduce bills that target to reduce competition. Merging will improve the quantity of management because the CEOs compensations will reduce, and income distribution among medical professionals will balance.

The hospital would take advantage of hospital discharge data and census building to attend to services lacking in the community. The discharge data trends would be analyzed regularly to identify opportunities and increase census building to deal with underserved areas to help create niche program areas that are difficult for other local hospitals to cover. Community outreach would be put in place to develop a market plan to forge relationships with all individuals and organizations to help in developing a good reputation in the community the hospital serves.

Reference

Dugonjic, A. (2016). Market of halal products: From niche to global market. Ekonomski Izazovi, 5(9), 56-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/ekoizavov1609056d

Park, Byung-Jin. (2014). Administrative Monopoly Regulation on China’s Anti-Monopoly Law Enforcement. China And Sinology, 22(null), 35-74.= http://dx.doi.org/10.17935/chinan.2014.22..35

Roson, R. (2015). Competition between Multiproduct Firms with Heterogeneous. Advances In Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.14738/assrj.27.1215

Verley, P. (2015). Révolution Industrielle/ industrialization, innovations, organizations. Marché Et Organisations, 23(2), 61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3917/maorg.023.0061

Yale-New Haven Hospital, B. (2018). Yale-New Haven Hospital, Inc.: Private Company Information – Bloomberg. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 23 February 2018, from https://www.bloomberg.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=4205064

 

Winter War

Winter War

The winter war was a military battle that erupted between the Soviet Union and Finland lasting for about three months. The war broke out in 1939 and ended in 1940. It started immediately after the Second World War where the Soviet Union invaded Finland with a quest to obtain some portion of land from the Finnish state.[1]

The Soviets claimed that they wanted to enhance their security on Leningrad which was primarily twenty miles from Finland’s border. The Soviet Union had a much stronger military base characterized by twice the number of Finnish soldiers, majority aircraft and tanks which indicated dominance on their part.[2]However, the Soviet army was crippled regarding leadership and strategy. Despite Soviets advantage in number and military equipment, Finland was able to repel its attack for more than two months.[3] During that period, Finland was able to inflict majority losses on the Soviet army. For the Soviets to defeat the Finnish army, they had to reorganize and formulate distinct action plans.

The hostility between the two nations ended in nineteen forty when they both signed the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland passed more than 10% of its territory and 13% of its economic returns to the Soviet Union. Despite the loss of the land, Finland maintained its sovereign power and image in regards to military warfare.[4] On the other hand, the poor performance of the Soviet Union destroyed their image and enticed other Nations to initiate an attack on them, for instance, Hitler’s Barbarossa Operation.[5]

The winter did not only show the historical events that contributed to the nation’s civilization but also emphasizes the impacts of undermining others. We should, therefore, learn that larger rivals can be defeated by proper strategies just as Finland opposed the Soviet Union.

[1] Engle, E., & Paananen, L. (2014). The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland, 1939-1940. Stackpole Books.

[2] Ibid

[3] Ibid

[4] Nivala, S., & Sarvimäki, A. (2015). The lifelong struggle of Finnish World War II veterans. Aging & mental health, 19(6), 493-499.

 

[5] Ibid

Telework

Telework

Based off this weeks resources, a literature review is taking scholarly articles and research and picking out key findings/facts, that will go into a lengthier secondary report. For instance, my manager is asking me to find research on teleworking (good or bad) and put together a comprehensive report on what the findings are. It is not going to be a persuasive paper or one of me conducting my own research. It will just be the more recent findings of what teleworking is, how it works, and the results. So I would find scholarly sources on telework, review the findings, analysis what they found, and then present it in a research report with citations. From there, my manager will have a clearer understanding of how telework works and if it would be beneficial.

criminal behaviour among youths

criminal behaviour among youths

Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(7), 1178-1200.

Religiosity and Violence among Adolescents in the General Population

The author outlines religion as a significant contributor to the decline in fights and attacks among the youths in America. In as much as religion acts as an inhibitor to criminal activities, the article does not go ahead to explain why religion is a protective factor to crimes. The author explains that some religious beliefs influence the decisions being made by an individual. For instance, a person who attends a religious service is less likely to be involved in violent activities such as fights and robbery. However, there are neither examples of religious beliefs that would limit the youth to perform criminal activities nor evidence of the influence of religion of criminal behaviour.

The article can be used as a basis for further research since one can search deeper details regarding the influence of religion. More research should be undertaken so as to clearly establish the influence of religion and its importance in managing criminal activities among the youth. Religion, on the other hand, can be used as a platform for criminal activities and this should be clarified.

Cooley-Strickland, M., Quille, T. J., Griffin, R. S., Stuart, E. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Furr-Holden, D. (2009). Community violence and youth: Affect, behavior, substance use, and academics. Clinical child and family psychology review, 12(2), 127-156

Exposure to Community Violence and Emotional, Social, and Behavioral Functioning

The author in this article outlines communal disruptions as the major disruption of normal psychological behavior and development among the youths. The young people in cities and major towns characterized by high levels of poverty and violent attacks and disruptions manifest symptoms of nervousness and poor school performance. Majority of them end up dropping from school. Those highly exposed manifest higher levels of anxiety and depression compared to the one with limited exposure. The author goes deeper into the issue in which it can be derived that in the United States, the highest affected youth populations are the African Americans and the Hispanics.

Their neighborhoods are characterized by high rates of violence and aggression. Most of the black youngsters are deeply rooted in drug trafficking; a business characterized by gun violence and aggressive behavior. Living in such communities usually ends up instituting the same aggression in the youths.  The recurring violence usually disrupts their behavior and distorts their psychological working and social aspects. The article hence sheds light to a person interested in researching on this topic and can be a basis for further research.

McGee, Z. T., Logan, K., Samuel, J., & Nunn, T. (2017). A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1328772.

A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers

The author expresses deep interest in gun violence among the children and youth of the United States. Many young people have died as a result of shooting that has become rampant in many nations. Urban areas are highly affected by criminal activities since there is a lot of peer pressure among the young people. Children who are brought up in the urban areas, as explained by the author are likely to involve themselves in criminal activities due to exposure and desire to feel included among peers due to fear of victimization.

The article goes deeper to explain that African American youth are most likely to be exposed to criminal activities especially those living in the cities. The article can therefore be used by any person willing to learn more about criminal behaviour in different residential areas. Disparities in the areas and the reasons behind rise of crime in different areas can therefore be easily compared and a plan of action formulated by the police department for the different areas.

Simckes, M. S., Simonetti, J. A., Moreno, M. A., Rivara, F. P., Oudekerk, B. A., & Rowhani-Rahbar, A. (2017). Access to a loaded gun without adult permission and school-based bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 329-334.

Guns in America: The worrying relationship between school-bullying and gun violence

The article sheds light on the increase in exposure to guns among school going youths. The author broadly describes the risks associated with exposure to guns and the places where the guns are easily available to children which include homes, friends’ houses or school among other settings. The youths who have been bullied whether through the social media or physically may tend to be vulnerable to violence using guns that they are easy to access. Some youths may have experienced violence at their homes for instance, where one parent has been shot by another. Schools have become centers where bullying is rampant.

The frequent exposure to violence has made youths more violent. The article is a great base from which more research can be undertaken relating to gun violence among youths. More knowledge can be obtained on how to minimize the exposure to guns among people and how the police can intervene. Availability of guns has been one of the contributing factors to increased criminal activities among the young people.

Day, D. M., & Wanklyn, S. G. (2012). Identification and operationalization of the major risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behaviour among children and youth. Public Safety Canada.

Major Risk Factors for Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviour among Children and Youth

The research clearly outlines that there is no evidence of the risk factors that are associated to the behavior of a person. Bad morals are as a result of a particular pattern that has been adopted for a long time among a certain community. The author explains that it is important for the behavior of individuals to be understood since it acts as a lens through which effects can be ascertained. Failed relationship, as established by the author, can result to delinquent behaviors among the young people. Such failures increase risks of antisocial behavior and mental health problems which act as a catalyst for increased criminal behaviour among the affected youth.

The author, however, do not mention the remedies to these behaviors nor does he provide recommendations to parents or other stakeholders on how to minimize the risks associated with delinquency. This research can be broadened to capture the gaps left out by the researchers so as to broaden the association of isolation and criminal behaviour.

Perron, B. E., & Howard, M. O. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 243-255.

Prevalence and Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury among Delinquent Youths

In the research provided in this article, the author provides a basis for reasoning regarding the results of criminal behavior. One of the results of criminal activities is TBI (traumatic brain injuries) which is caused by involvement in high risk behaviors. TBI can result to other problems such as drug and substance abuse which may only elevate the level of crimes committed especially the young people. However, the author does not provide readers with the examples of criminal activities that can lead to serious problems.

The police departments may therefore be unable to clearly distinguish criminals from those who suffer injuries as a result of an accident. Criminal behaviour is hence not easily recognizable through use of the details in the article. The study cannot be used to make critical decisions by police or detectives in a crime committed. It can however be used as base to obtain more information of criminal behavior and its consequences.

Samenow, S. (2012). Inside the criminal mind: Revised and updated edition. Crown.

A Criminal Personality or So-Called “Radicalization”?

The author makes it known that terrorists use the root cause of a problem to their own advantage in a way that they will be able to express their personalities. Criminal behaviour is in a way related to the personality of an individual and the environment surrounding that person. Radicalization can be said to be a form of influence among the young people especially those who are isolated from the rest of the society. The author goes deeper to explain that the Islam is among the highest ranked group who undertake terrorist attacks.

The information in this article, however, seems to be biased to only a single group of individuals and religion. Scholars reading the article might tend to lean on one side which is not logical. In as much as this information may be used to study criminal behaviour among the youth, more research needs to be undertaken which relates to personalities.

Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Crossan, J. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Parent–child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 94-107.

 

The author of this article states that mental health professionals have for a long time associated criminal behaviour with the upbringing of a person who has committed a crime for example, mass shooting. Low income families may be the most affected by criminal activities as most children turn to violence. He continues to expound that parents have been judged and blamed for having delinquent children. The reason behind this, as explained by the author, is that parents are supposed to shape their children similar to a lump of clay. The author describes that every child has a different personality and that there exists genetic components relating to criminal behaviour.

The author, however, demonstrates weakness in the study since he does not have a firm stand. He does not argue against nor support that parents are to blame for the behaviour of their children. A firm stand should have been established so as to ensure the research done is concrete and reliable. More research needs to be undertaken so as to establish whether parents contribute or not towards criminal behaviour of their children.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending (Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime). Bulletin, 1.

From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending

The article exposes that children who have been involved in criminal activities are likely to involve themselves in crimes as they grow older and become adults. The author explains that criminal activities tend to increase with age in that at teenage, offenses are more likely to be committed and decline as the youth near their twenties. The author goes on to explain that there is high probability of continuation of criminal activities for the people who started offending at an early age.

Drug dealing and use of weapons persist more than membership of the youth in gangs involved in robbery and violence. The article provides with the interventions that can be undertaken to minimize criminal behaviour among the youth such as training parents on how to handle children and offering enrichment programs to the young offenders. The article is therefore a great reference to those in need of details relating to juvenile crimes for example police officers and detectives.

Beresin, E. V. (2009). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, The DevelopMentor. http://www. aacap. org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_ for_clinical_interventions.

The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions

Violence has become a common term in the modern society. As the author explains in details, the availability of guns and other weapons have increased the risk of violence among the young people. The author deeply explains the topic on violence by providing the reader with examples such as the increased school shootings that have been trending and suicide among the youth. The media has also contributed to violence in that some films that are being aired on television influence bad behaviors among the youth. The author explains that there exists a relationship between aired violence and violent behavior among the young people which have been proven by a number of researches undertaken. Music videos and television programs have continued to impact the views of the youth on violence.

The article provides recommendations to parents and psychiatrists that could be used to reduce the influence of media violence among the youth. However, the author does not provide recommendations to media platforms on how they can set good examples to the youth using the programs they air. Therefore, this can be a platform for further research to those willing to learn more about criminal behavior for example police officers.

Floyd, L. J., Alexandre, P. K., Hedden, S. L., Lawson, A. L., Latimer, W. W., & Giles III, N. (2010). Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 36(2), 87-91.

Adolescent Drug Dealing and Race/Ethnicity: A Population-Based Study of the Differential Impact of Substance Use on Involvement in Drug Trade

The author of the article explains that the youth mostly act as drug dealers. The article describes the disparities that exist in the different races and ethnic groups. For instance, the drugs associated with the white people may differ from those being used by the African American community. The author goes ahead to explain that the white people prefer using drugs than participating in the sale of drugs. The reason why there are disparities in criminal activities is not explained in the article.

Drug dealing is a criminal behavior that has been on the rise recently and has been associated with other crimes such as robbery. More research should be done on the disparities and criminal behaviour among youths of different race. However, the author does not provide a clear link of drug dealing and crime. The information obtained from the research obtained can be used for reference by detectives, police officers and psychiatrists.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Nelson, E. J., Vaughn, M. G., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Córdova, D. (2017). Trends in fighting and violence among adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014. American journal of public health, 107(6), 977-982.

Trends in Fighting and Violence among Adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014

The articles emphasizes on the trends and changes that have occurred regarding violence among the young population in the United States. The author focuses on the three major ethnic groups in America, that is, the African Americans, the Hispania’s and the Whites. The article stipulates that violent behaviour among the young population in the United States has significantly reduced by a big margin from the year two thousand and two to the year two thousand and twelve. It dropped by a margin of 9.9% which is proportional to the number of youths involved in violence. The article continues to outline the consistency in violence occurrence among the different ethnic groups in the years of study.

The ratings escalate mostly among the African Americans, Hispania’s and finally the whites. The author in the study only emphasizes the study on the three major ethnic groups in the United States. However, the study only focuses on the rate changes in fighting among the youths and places little emphasis on the causes of fighting. The reader will only gain significant knowledge on the drop in figures but will gather minute comprehension in regards to causes and recommendations for the study.

   Reference

Beresin, E. V. (2009). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, The DevelopMentor. http://www. aacap. org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_ for_clinical_interventions.

Cooley-Strickland, M., Quille, T. J., Griffin, R. S., Stuart, E. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Furr-Holden, D. (2009). Community violence and youth: Affect, behavior, substance use, and academics. Clinical child and family psychology review, 12(2), 127-156

Day, D. M., & Wanklyn, S. G. (2012). Identification and operationalization of the major risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behaviour among children and youth. Public Safety Canada.

Floyd, L. J., Alexandre, P. K., Hedden, S. L., Lawson, A. L., Latimer, W. W., & Giles III, N. (2010). Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 36(2), 87-91.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending (Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime). Bulletin, 1.

McGee, Z. T., Logan, K., Samuel, J., & Nunn, T. (2017). A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1328772.

Perron, B. E., & Howard, M. O. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 243-255.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Nelson, E. J., Vaughn, M. G., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Córdova, D. (2017). Trends in fighting and violence among adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014. American journal of public health, 107(6), 977-982.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(7), 1178-1200.

Samenow, S. (2012). Inside the criminal mind: Revised and updated edition. Crown

Simckes, M. S., Simonetti, J. A., Moreno, M. A., Rivara, F. P., Oudekerk, B. A., & Rowhani-Rahbar, A. (2017). Access to a loaded gun without adult permission and school-based bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 329-334.

Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Crossan, J. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Parent–child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 94-107.

Differentiating SLE from Fibromyalgia

Differentiating SLE from Fibromyalgia

These two conditions have features and one has to be keen while trying to outline their differences in epidemiological studies. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease of the autoimmune system which involves the immune system attacking the body cells and tissues which results in inflammation and damage to tissues (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013). Whereas, fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder which causes great pain in bones, muscles and tender areas of the body and also characterized by general fatigue (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

SLE can affect any part of the body following a remitting and relapsing course. The disease is characterized by protean manifestations in the urine which can help in differential diagnosis to avoid misdiagnosis. Fibromyalgia is more specific regarding expression as opposed to SLE which can occur in any part of the body. Lupus manifests itself as a rash while Fibromyalgia does not. Their causes also serve as a differing point since SLE is an autoimmune disorder but has also been found to have genetic traces. Fibromyalgia, on the other hand, has some predisposition to genetics but has various triggers such as trauma, emotional stress, and anxiety (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

In diagnosis, samples of blood from suspected SLE patients have elevated levels of positive antinuclear antibodies which are not the same for Fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia Symptom management includes a combination of therapies such as antidepressants, painkillers steroidal therapy and muscle relaxants while SLE responds well to steroidal treatment with immunosuppressant medications than Fibromyalgia (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

Information for patient education suffering from SLE

The causes should also be explained to the patients. The disease is more prevalent in women than men with 90% approximate cases reported being women (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013). This means that it usually affects women nine times more than men. Some environmental factors also predispose one to the disease such as ultraviolet light, chemicals, and drugs such as hydrazine, alfalfa sprouts, smoking and infections such as parvovirus.

It is also imperative to undergo diagnosis from a professional due to the similar symptoms posed by the disorder to avoid misdiagnosis and ensure early discovery and treatments. One of the most apparent sign is the skin abnormalities such as rashes and patterns. Concepts of treatment should also be discussed to reduce the symptoms.

Reference

Fortuna, G., & Brennan, M. T. (2013). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Dental Clinics57(4), 631-655.

European conquest of the First World War

European conquest of the First World War

Throughout the years after the European conquest of the First World War, there have been several historians, students, and nations seeking to identify the truth behind the Great War. What events contributed to the fallout that would cause the five Great Powers of Europe to erupt into a four-year Armageddon? More importantly, which nation or nations are to blame for this great and tragic event? There have been a multitude of historians who have conjured theories as to the actual truth of these inquiries; however, there are two historians whose speculations were held in a higher regard than their peers. So much so, that their allegations have created a great contradictory divide amongst their fellow and future historians who have debated this era. These two historians are Sidney B. Fay and Fritz Fischer. Both Fay and Fischer are notorious for their idealism that has sparked the historical community in the aftermath of World War I, and consequently their ideology has created an erudition revolution amongst even the greatest of debates.

Sidney Bradshaw Fay was an American historian, who is most notably recognized “for his classical reexamination of the causes of World War I.”[1] “Fay was the first U.S. historian to challenge the widely held notion that Germany alone was responsible for initiating World War I.”[2] Fay’s thesis places a shared blame for the fallout of the Great Powers on a collective scale. He named that responsibility for this tragic war was not only shared in part by every other nation involved, but also that Serbia and Russia held the greatest portion of the handle to the bloody knife. Fay also recognized that the organization of secret alliances were another root cause of the evil that stirred.

Fritz Fischer was a German historian who is closely marked as the single most point of friction to the historian community claim that Germany’s involvement in the origin of World War I was not just partially their fault, but solely their intentional desire for annexation over European territory. Fischer lay claim to the truthfulness of his thesis with exalted evidence gained during his service in the German military and in the post-war year of 1950, “when Fischer was given access […] to the East German archives at Potsdam, where he came across an explosive set of files relating to war aims and annexationist plans that the Reich government had drawn up in World War I.”[3]

It is evident by both historians that where there is an exaction of evidence marking a specific entity as the sole conspirator, or even taking blame away from another, there is relevant truth that each party had a dire motivating factor to plan for war. It is remarked beautifully by Samuel R. Williamson, Jr. “peace is more easily maintained if one avoids even the smallest incursion into war, for, once the barrier of peace is broken, the process of diplomacy in restoring peace or preventing a larger war is infinitely more difficult.”[4]Inferences of future historians following the insights made by the implications of Fay and Fischer, denote that the aftermath of World War I is simultaneously linked by the origins of the war. Restitution settles in the exaction of all the evidence provided, making neither Fay, nor Fischer wrong in their testaments. It is by a cumulative collection of hard evidence and insight that form the basis in which historians prove their interpretations. Even hard evidence can be difficult to produce the desired results for either side of the controversy, as noted by the “arguments about the authenticity and interpretation of primary evidence…” found by Fischer.[5] “[A]s Fischer’s critics, finding themselves faced with overwhelming amounts of primary source evidence, contended that Fischer was either using the wrong type of evidence, or reading it in the wrong way.”[6] However, if neither is wrong in their accounting for the origins then one must be more correct than the other. In the penance of blame to be beseeched for the origin and the aftermath of World War I, I would concur that more accurate evidence and conjecture has been made into the query that equal measure be taken by all parties of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente. It is also stated by Williamson that “… most scholarship has eschewed a broader focus, such as that used by Fay and Albertini, concentrating instead on single countries […]; too much concentration on Berlin’s role slights developments taking place in Austria-Hungary, Russia, Serbia, and the Balkan states in the months before July 1914.”[7]

As history progresses further, our understanding of the events long passed remain prevalent in our attempts to overcome future obstacles and escape the folly of war. Where their ideology and concentration to reach their end goals differed between each of the Great Powers, the “limited options available – […] alliance loyalties, the pressures of the military bureaucrats, and the juxtaposition of different perceptions with personal motivations made the chances of peace extremely remote in the last days of July… [1914].[8] It is not so much the understanding of who to pinpoint the blame of the past on, but rather an all-encompassing responsibility to look together to prevent the past from repeating itself.

 

[1] The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. 2015. “Sidney Bradshaw Fay.” Encyclopædia Britannica. November 12. Accessed February 07, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Sidney-Bradshaw-Fay.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Berghahn, Volker R. 2000. “In Memoriam: Fritz Fischer (1908-99).” American Historical Association. March. Accessed February 08, 2018. https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/march-2000/in-memoriam-fritz-fischer.

[4] Williamson Jr., Samuel R. 1988. “The Origins of World War I.” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History (The MIT Press) 18 (4): 818. Accessed February 07, 2018. doi:10.2307/204825.

[5] Mombauer, Annika. 2013. “The Fischer Controversy, Documents and the ‘Truth’ About the Origins of the First World War.” Journal of Contemporary History (Sage Publications, Ltd.) 48 (2): 301. Accessed February 07, 2018. doi:10.1177/0022009412472711.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Williamson, op. cit., p. 796.

[8] Williamson, p. 816.

Additionally, a word document has been attached to represent original format.

 

Interview Questions

Interview Questions

How did you start your career?

Manager A: It was not easy finding an employment opportunity. I had a collection of newspapers from which I would search opportunities. After about a year, I heard of an opening and did not hesitate to apply. I got shortlisted and later on selected for the job as a supervisor where I had to work as an assistant to the project manager. Later on, the assistant project manager got a better job offer in another company, so I was promoted to his position after a successful interview. The project manager was promoted to Chief Executive Officer, and hence I applied for the opening which I was lucky enough to get.

Manager B: I had desperately looked for a job for more than a year when my friend told me of a job vacancy of a personal assistant to the human resource manager in her organization. I applied for the job which I was successful. Later on, the human resource manager submitted her resignation since she was moving to a new country with family and due to my exceptional skills; I overruled the assistant manager and got promoted to the human resource manager.

Manager C: Personally, it was not hard to find employment. My family owns a company, and therefore my father took the position of Chief Executive Officer after the retirement of my grandfather. I hence filled in the position as a manager.

How do you define the success of a manager?

Manager A: Success can be associated with high profits since the manager coordinates all activities.

Manager B: I define the success of a manager with employee satisfaction. When employees are satisfied, the manager is hence successful.

Manager C: High returns define the success of a manager since one is rewarded in accordance to visible details.

What challenges have you encountered as a manager?

Manager A: Family pressure since each wants a job offer which is not possible according to qualifications.

Manager B: Family is a challenge especially during selection. A family member may be disqualified at an interview.

Manager C: Family poses a great challenge since they expect me to give them jobs since I was also given a job by my father which may not be possible since some are not qualified.

What skills should a manager possess to be successful?

Manager A: A manager should have focus, determination, and desire to achieve so that more success will be realized.

Manager B: A manager should be willing to accept corrections and be friendly to employees and to learn on areas to work on.

Manager C: Managers should be easy to talk to know challenges facing fellow workers and should not discriminate against employees.

Why do you think you are suitable for your position?

Manager A: Yes, my determination and commitment have gained me this position.

Manager B: Yes, I am highly qualified and committed to my work.

Manager C: Definitely, I have the required skills, and my level of commitment to work is superb.

Where do you see yourself in ten years?

Manager A: I see myself as the Chief Executive Officer of this company.

Manager B: Working in a non-governmental organization with ties across the world as a human resource manager since I love associating myself with different people.

Manager C: As Chief Executive Officer of my family company.

Parting Shot

Manager A: The young people should not shy away from challenges to be successful.

Manager B: Females should embrace change since no position belongs to a particular gender.

Manager C: Success is a journey.

 The League of Nations

  The League of Nations

Kaley Cortellini

The League of Nations was formed in an attempt to collectively keep world peace. Of the five most powerful countries, only four became members. Although the group was the idea of President Wilson, the United States would never choose to join. Congress particularly disliked Article 10, which almost forced the member into war if an aggressor were to attack any of the other League’s members.[1] The League of Nations’ main goal was disarmament throughout the world, which I believe was one of its major flaws. It was a solid idea, but if all of the countries who play by the rules get rid of their weapons, how will they protect themselves from the aggressor countries who refused to get rid of theirs? To no surprise, most countries were not willing to give up their weapons without a backup plan, and the League of Nations could not promise one. Maybe prior to World War I, the League could have been more successful. With so much tension after the war from reparations to destroyed cities to the Great Depression, the League was not strong enough to survive such harsh conditions.

Another weakness was the inability of so many countries to agree on every dispute that came across the table. Members would pick and choose which issues they were willing to help deal with. This was an issue in the Corfu incident. After an Italian general was killed, Benito Mussolini was enraged and demanded the Greeks to pay for what they did.[2] When the League of Nations got involved, Mussolini threatened to leave the League if his wishes weren’t met. This incident proved that the League had no real power when dealing with the larger, more powerful countries.

The exclusion of several larger countries could not have helped the League’s influence on them. Russia, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and Turkey were initially barred from becoming members due to their involvement in World War I. [3] Now, if I were excluded from a group, why would I follow their rules or encourage their success? Germany continuously broke the Treaty of Versailles, but the League did nothing to reprimand the country. The few successes the League did have were not nearly enough to outweigh the losses. With one after another failure, the League became desolate in 1938, just a year before the Second World War.[4]

 

[1] Danelle Moon, “League of Nations,” Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice, http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.umuc.edu/10.4135/9781412956215.n492.

[2] Feriha Kazmi “League of Nations,” OpenStax College, accessed February 13, 2018, https://umuc.equella.ecollege.com/file/49f8d688-5c23-4903-bc60-22d695e19e4b/1/LeagueofNations.pdf.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

 

 

imiAID

imiAID

Question 1.

Headquartered in Guwahati, Assam, imiAID manufactures first-aid kits for healthcare providers and institutions. The major flaw in the company’s strategy lies in the fact that few clients are aware of the product. In response, imiAID has developed a new strategy to improve their selling process. Their selling process is composed of three major stages: appointment, presentation and distribution, and collection. Changes should focus on decreasing production costs and developing new marketing strategies to enhance brand awareness among clients.

While considering inventory management at imiAID, it should be acknowledged that simply maintaining a large amount of inventory can be wasteful and costly. Therefore, keeping stockrooms and warehouses is not a viable option for maintaining the appropriate level of production costs. The company should invest in applications and technologies that can decrease their inventory. Furthermore, the major challenge of their production process lies in the fact that imiAID has a great number of diverse suppliers – both high-end and raw material suppliers – which makes it difficult to define the time required for assembling boxes with finished products. Therefore, they face risks related to delays and unforeseen events. If one supplier fails to deliver on time, the entire assembly process will be delayed, which implies a reduced return on assets.

The company should recognize and distinguish between the different costs associated with inventory management. There are four major types of costs that can be predicted during the manufacturing process: ordering costs, inventory holding costs, unit costs, and shortage costs. Judging from the case study, inventory-holding and shortage costs are two major concerns of imiAID. Inventory-holding costs “…reflect the opportunity cost associated with using the funds invested in inventory for alternative uses and investments” (Collier and Evans 2017, p. 218). Shortage costs refer to lost sales and backorders, service expenses for external clients, or costs related to production and assembly lines for internal clients. For imiAID, shortage costs are an important consideration because they influence the amount of finished kits that can be proposed to clients at an affordable price. Therefore, it would be more effective to buy larger quantities at a lower price per unit, thus decreasing the other cost categories and overall expense.

Apart from changes in inventory management, the company can also streamline their sales strategy. Consumer perceptions of value and worth are regarded as the prevailing elements of goods selection and behavior. Their selling process should incorporate new ways of evaluating customer perception, including the development of new distribution channels, such as specialized stores where medical equipment can be bought. This may in turn lead to new methods of cooperation. Customer relationship management should be used to promote a better post-consumption experience – it can also improve sales and increase revenue, by launching new designs and diversifying kits for specific segments of the population. For instance, imiAID could conduct surveys of the industries and organizations that require first aid kits. Construction companies, healthcare organizations, or chemical industries are some examples of entities where the risk of physical damage is greatest. By doing this, imiAID can predict the quantities required for a specific distribution channel in the future. Shifts in production can open new customer segments for sales.

In addition, imiAID should focus on new ways to appeal to customers. Additional promotional campaigns can facilitate the process. Apart from presentations made directly to clients, there should also be options for those who prefer buying items at a store. The packaging itself should provide sufficient information about the value of the product. Additionally, the company could also create a campaign for medical establishments and develop partnerships when presenting their products at different sites. This might help them attract more clients. Such a marketing approach is oriented more toward internal advertising, which often excludes the possibility of engaging external, new clients. Therefore, external clients must be engaged by video presentation on their website or at regional stores. Finally, there should be sales managers at all possible locations to ensure that the market segment increases and can provide a good opportunity for controlling sales growth.

The integration of social media and information technologies can also provide a significant advantage for the business’s development. For instance, clients could look through advertisements, such as images, press releases, and videos, and decide whether the goods imiAID sells are essential products. There should also be mass mailing of new product launch announcements for attracting new companies and industries and incorporating them into product distribution.

 

Question 2.

The relocation of the manufacturing facility relies on the company’s intentions when it comes to growth, business development, operational cost reduction, and new managerial and sales strategies. However, the company should focus on the financial and operational risks related to relocation. The company’s decision to move operations has been predetermined by their intention to increase material growth in revenues, as well as anticipated production and operational changes. Hence, the success of any change depends upon the possibility of accumulating growth opportunity, reducing the cost of operations, decreasing production costs, and defining distribution channels accurately. Location can have a significant influence on access to the product by both the manufacturer and consumers. The company tends to locate their facilities where inputs are cheaper. Factors that location can also affect include communications, labor supply, financial incentives, and power supply.

Localization in the corporate setting is the degree to which managers are substituted by local employees, who are in turn overseen by expatriate managers. Localization factors include a range of actors that operate at the place of a specific production unit. At this point, the company should define what field of entrepreneurship can be introduced to a specific customer sector. Due to the fact that location implies activities associated with the exchange, production, and consumption of services, goods and information, it is essential to align location with economic activity. Relocation should relate to the place of sourcing materials for first aid kits, which would make it easier for producers to exchange information.

Location decisions in value and supply chains rely on both economic and non-economic factors (Collier and Evans, 2017). Economic factors are more relevant for this case because they influence costs of insurance, maintenance, operating costs, and transportation – the major expenses that the company currently spends on the production and effective transport of assembly parts. However, the company should also take into consideration non-economic factors, which include the threat of new competitors in the geographic region in question. Nonetheless, it should be admitted that imiAID is located far from the original source of raw materials, which adds a significant amount of time to order delivery. Furthermore, there will be a higher degree of uncertainty regarding the actual time of delivery.

While considering whether to introduce a new facility, one should rely on four major decisions, if relevant. First of all, the company should consider global location. Judging from the case study, the company sells first aid kits at the local level, but it should still expand its production process and enter the global market. At this point, the company should consider time zone, international funds transfer, foreign languages, tariffs, and customers. Other trade limitations and packaging, along with cultural practices and monetary policies, are among factors affecting their decision. According to Collier and Evans (2017, p. 167), “the global location decision involves evaluating the product portfolio, new market opportunities, changes in regulatory laws and procedures, production and delivery economics, and the cost to locate in different countries”. Thus, the company should first determine whether it should remain in the domestic market or move beyond it. If it is the latter, then it should decide what countries can be included in the list of possible locations for expansion.

Further, the decision includes selection of a specific region within a country and should depend on the size of the target market, the location of sources of supply and materials, labor costs and availability, land and construction, and degree of unionization. Since the major materials are outsourced from the same location, the company should take these issues into consideration. However, the geographic region only shapes part of the decision process because there are also communication factors to consider, which rely on the community or city that is involved in the production and selling process. The company must consider managers’ preferences, transportation systems, environmental influences and banking services. Finally, the decision relies upon the specific location within the proposed social segment. Proximity, site cost, and transportation are influenced by zoning limitations. However, this factor is the least important because imiAID’s product range is significantly diversified and designed for different populations and customer segments.

Apart from the prioritization of location, imiAID should also employ the center-of-gravity method, which defines the X and Y coordinates of a specific facility. The method takes into consideration possible locations, transportation costs and marketing demands to determine the best solution for a facility. imiAID should define the best locations for service-providing and goods-producing facilities, as well as consider their customers, who can also define geographical position. However, distance should not be regarded as a major criterion because demands can differ from one location to another, depending on the prices and type of market segment involved. The first step includes prioritizing the variables involved and adjusting the scale of coordinates accordingly. For instance, the company depends largely on high-end suppliers to provide finished parts, which means that they should relocate the company closer to them to minimize the time and costs involved for transportation. At the same time, finished products distributed to end consumers should not be overlooked.

Coordinates, therefore, should definitely include these two major variables – clients and suppliers – to strike a balance and provide the optimal result. In general, the center-of-gravity method is applied to define service facilities, which implies that in placing an assembly facility, the location coordinates can be evaluated with the average amount of kits developed from industrial sites and residential headquarters. At the same time, to locate a new distribution site defines the relevant adjustments to the model.

Consumer behavior plays an important role in relocating the site and defining new suppliers because clients expect to have a variety of preferences and choices, which can differ in various market segments. Therefore, imiAID cannot rely on a product that sells best in one area and expect to see similar revenue in another area. Finally, relocation can largely be affected by two opposite factors – costs and flexibility. On the one hand, production costs could be minimized significantly by relocating the site closer to high-end suppliers. However, it can have negative consequences on the distribution of goods and services because the end-customers may differ significantly.

 

Question 3.

The Six Sigma method focuses on improving and eliminating gaps and errors in the production process with emphasis placed on output, which plays an important role in financial revenue. It also relies on statistical information, which detects multiple opportunities. The company that strives to adopt a Six Sigma ideology should own all critical processes, to achieve so-called near-zero defects. It has garnered a significant degree of credibility in recent years because of its use at multiple corporations, such as Motorola, General Electric, or Allied Signal (Collier & Evans, 2017). imiAID can also use this method to improve their quality management system. In order to enter the international market, it should also research quality standards at the global level and apply for more patents. Furthermore, to ensure the quality of products, the company should establish specific standards for production for the suppliers who are partners in redeveloping products and inventing new ones. By reducing delivery time, the company can invest more into research and development and provide a narrow-focused approach on the product with the highest demand.

Use of patents is a good approach for maintaining quality, but the initiative can also be enhanced by defining all of the production processes and establishing quality audits, which ensure consistent certification. The major purpose of the process is to reduce the differentiation and increase the effectiveness of box assembly. For instance, it is possible to carry out transparent reporting among suppliers to guarantee that the raw materials they deliver has passed through the certification process. The company should also redefine its mission and prioritize quality assurance because it builds clients’ trust in the safety and quality of the product.

The company managers should consider that quality at the source increases the likelihood of making the product right the first time, which can reduce the risk of waste. Employees should also be engaged in inspecting, evaluating, and monitoring their work to make sure that the goods are of the highest quality before they go to another level. Continuous improvements are essential in the supply chain and lean environment because they establish a fruitful partnership among all employees and managers. As a result, the application of Six Sigma is a helpful approach contributing to the effect of lean production, leading to Lean Six Sigma. In this respect, the company can apply lean methods to streamline the product entry process and find out that much work should be done due to mistakes and errors, shipping charges and number of clients, causing a high gap in the time spent on the manufacturing process. Hence, Six Sigma tools can provide useful for getting to the root cause of problems.

As soon as changes are introduced, it is essential to reduce cost on additional expenses and focus more on repairing and refurbishing options. Testing portable first aid kits can modernize the product and turn it into a more effective and professional tool for multiple organizations. Additionally, the company can also organize training and campaigns across potential business entities and buyers who can be persuaded that this specific tool is a good investment into the safety and welfare of their employees. All of these improvements will definitely narrow-down the mission and enhance the quality of the proposed parts. The suppliers should also be engaged in the production process and organization of campaigns because their involvement can have a positive influence on their image and competitiveness among other potential suppliers. Strengthening cooperation, therefore, can contribute to the quality of goods and services proposed by the company.

 Reference List

Colier, DA, & Evans, JR 2017, Operations management. Stanford, CN: Cengage Learning.

The Role of Stock Market Returns on Socioeconomic

The Role of Stock Market Returns on Socioeconomic

Stock market returns refer to the incomes generated by investors from the stock markets. The incomes generated may be profits acquired through trade or dividends allocated to the owners of the company. Stock trading has become prevalent in most parts of the world today. It has allowed many of the enterprises raise capital and has enabled individuals to innovate and venture into business aiding economic development in their countries (Valickova pg. 516). Stock market returns play different roles impacting social and economic development. They include;

Creation of Capital

The stock markets in the economy act as platforms where distinct business people collude to transact on the shares with the main aim of raising capital. Stock exchange provides the capital needed by the entrepreneurs for venturing into new opportunities or expanding their operations (Tulsian pg. 92). If it were not for the stock markets, business people would operate at the mercy of investors which would in return discourage entrepreneurship and limit capital creation in the economy.

Economic Transparency

Financial markets in many parts of the world are regulated through policies set out by their governments and distinct agencies. The functions oversee the trading operations ensuring security, transparency, and legality in the systems. They thus raise public confidence in the trading system which will, therefore, encourage many investors to bring in their funds. Many investors rely on transparency, credibility and proper ethical standards to gain confidence in the trading system (Pevzner pg. 218).

Social Integration

Stock trading brings together investors from different social backgrounds that have similar objectives. The stock markets benefit the minority by giving them an opportunity to buy shares of new companies which are on public offer. Stock markets enable collusion of distinct members in the society (Ayadi pg. 220). It enables integration between different genders and classes for individuals with a similar agenda that is capital creation.

Economic Status Signal

The stock market can be used as a metric of countries economic state focusing on the boom, recession, and dynamism in the financial market targets. The stock prices generated through the capital gains and losses can act as a measure of the nation’s fiscal status. Countries with steady growth in the stock rates indicate adequate institutional performances and constant economic growth. On the other hand, nations with declining stock rates indicate inadequacy in institutional performances which may either be instituted by political or economic factors (Valickova pg. 520).

Investment Servicing

Stock markets also act as an alternative way of increasing one’s capital. For instance, investors may decide to shift investing in banks and invest in share markets. This may be initiated by the higher gains generated in the share markets as compared to the interest gains from the bank savings (Ayadi pg. 215). Through the stock exchange market is further characterized by diversity and flexible opportunities giving more confidence to the investor. The stock markets thus assure the investor of maximized returns on investments rather than languishing funds in a banking institution.

Impacts

The stock markets impact a countries economy in various ways. For instance, when the stock price decline, the level of spending falls which is followed by a consequent fall on the investor’s trust which in return reduces the level of capital circulation in the economy. Consequently, when the stock prices go up, investor trust rises, expenditure goes up and capital flow increases. The governments can thus use stock markets as a tool in regulating monetary circulation and economic regulation (Ngare pg. 27).

 

Work Cited

Ayadi, Rym, et al. “Financial development, bank efficiency, and economic growth across the Mediterranean.” Economic and Social Development of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries. Springer, Cham, 2015. 219-233.

Ngare, Everlyne, Esman Morekwa Nyamongo, and Roseline N. Misati. “Stock market development and economic growth in Africa.” Journal of Economics and Business 74 (2014): 24-39.

Pevzner, Mikhail, Fei Xie, and Xiangang Xin. “When firms talk, do investors listen? The role of trust in stock market reactions to corporate earnings announcements.” Journal of Financial Economics 117.1 (2015): 190-223.

Tulsian, Pradeep G., and V. Chari. “Interrelationship between Indian Stock Market Development and Economic Development of India for the Period: 1981-2015.” Research Bulletin 42.2 (2016): 86-97.

Valickova, Petra, Tomas Havranek, and Roman Horvath. “Financial development and economic growth: A meta‐analysis.” Journal of Economic Surveys 29.3 (2015): 506-526.

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