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Author Archives: Gilbert Maina

 The American Dream

 The American Dream

The American dream gives the American people a chance to progress, prosper and succeed guaranteed by hard work. The Declaration of Independence paved way for the American Dream through its stipulation that all individuals are equal. All people have an equal right to life, freedom and search for joy.  Over time, the American dream has gone through dynamism. Different scholars have generated different definitions for the American dream. For instance, the Center for a New American visualizes it as the prioritization of creation of a stable life, adding value to the society and allocating time to relatives and acquaintances.

The American dream can also be defined as a place where one derives satisfaction from savings than expenses, where one meets his or her needs and does not need to impress others.  Today, the American dream has evolved to encompass the notion of a better high class life characterized by fame, fortune, money and power. The American dream however varies in accordance to race, class and gender.

Class

Acquisition of material luxuries is only availed to credit worthy individuals. Credit worthiness is based on type of employment and status. The society is usually grouped into different strata (Foster & Wolfson, 2010). The unequal distribution of wealth has denied majority of the American people the luxury of enjoying material purchases. The social disparity in America has been initiated by the differences in income, wealth and employment. According to Kasser and Ryan (1996), pursuing finances, material luxuries and fame has long been perceived the American dream. The notion is however insignificant as it creates a level that is beyond the ability of majority, for instance purchasing expensive cars, living in expensive apartments and the latest media system which cannot be afforded (Kasser & Ryan, 1993).

Race

Members from the African American community have long perceived the middle class status as the American dream. According to Jennifer Hochschild (2003), the blacks believed in the American dream with vigor and worked hard to realize it.  Social stratification exists in the society and is based on employment, marriage and education. The whites have always gained more preference in terms of employment opportunities.  In accordance to Rossi & Curtis (2013), only about 58% of the African Americans were employed compared to the 63% whites. The disparity in the rates showed inequality in terms of opportunities to the minority. According to Rossi & Curtis (2013), the whites had a much lower level of unemployment compared to their black counterparts. The inequalities in employment opportunities have always raised questions on whether the American dream is attainable or not.

Gender

Education has in the longest time become the corner stone of the United States success. Over the years, the number of educated women flocking into the job market has increased. According to the Marklin (2014), the number of ladies enrolling into institutions of higher learning had significantly outweighed the number of men. Women are now working hard, staying long in school and pursuing great careers. They later get into good jobs to gain independence and status. According to Cherlin (2010), educated women are more desired for companionship due to their careers. Marriage increases their financial stability which aids them realize the American dream.

References

Cherlin, A. J. (2010). Demographic trends in the United States: A review of research in the 2000s. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72(3), 403-419.

Foster, J. E., & Wolfson, M. C. (2010). Polarization and the Decline of the Middle Class: Canada and the US. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 8(2), 247-273.

Hochschild, J. L., & Scovronick, N. (2003). The American dream and the public schools. Oxford University Press.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 22(3), 280-287.

Marklin, S. D. (2014). Examining the Influence of Race, Class and Gender Inequalities on Perceptions of the American Dream Since the 2008 Economic Recession. B 2011

Rossi, M. M., & Curtis, K. A. (2013). Aiming at half of the target: An argument to replace poverty thresholds with self-sufficiency, or “living wage” standards. Journal of Poverty, 17(1), 110-130.

     The Effect on Americans Appetite following the Sinking of the Lusitania

     The Effect on Americans Appetite following the Sinking of the Lusitania

The sinking of the US Passenger ship, the Lusitania, was a pivotal point in the turn of events in WWI which ultimately resulted in the United States newly founded appetite to enter WWI and shed their neutral status. The Lusitania, A vessel destined to reach Great Britain from New York in early may of 1915, made the mistake of making waves through German warzone waters. All 1201 people aboard the Lusitania died, sinking in a record time of only 20 minutes. Before the sea-attack that occurred on May 7th, 1915, the United States maintained a status of neutrality in WWI and stayed out of the way of the war for the most part. This attack breached the treaty with the European powers, and vetoed their neutrality status, leading to a climax in the American appetite to enter WWI. An earlier agreement was created to prevent unrestricted submarine warfare in open waters, which apparently were ignored in this case by the Germans. Following this attack, were many effects on the war based on the United States entry into the war. Initiated by President Woodrow Wilson started initial efforts to propagandize(See figure 1) and stir the pot when it comes to America’s war effort. During a speech following WWI, Wilson says: “The impact of the Great War on the United States saw political, economic and social changes. The United States emerged from the war as a world military and industrial leader.
Resulting from the sinking of the Lusitania, mistrust and disloyalty problems became a threat to US and Germany. At the birthing of the Sussex Pledge, it was made clear that ships and other boats can operate freely in open water without hearing any interference from either Germany or the US, specifically in submarine warfare. After the violation of the treaty, tensions increased between both countries. Thus, the sinking of this ship was an explicit revocation of the international accord and further lead to war. A majority of the people who lost their lives were not associated with the war, which naturally leads to higher anger in the US.   The breach of the peace accord came in the wake of suspicion by the Germans and its sides that England was secretly engaging the USA to use the open seas to supply weapons. The violation of the Sussex Pledge rooted from the German’s idea that the US and England were teamed up to take advantage of open-waters and supply weapons and ammunition. Although they were broad, the accusations were later confirmed when the ship was sunk; Tons of guns and ammunition came from New York and were en-route to Liverpool. Therefore, following the sinking of the Lusitania brought upon a broader realization that the Americans were aiding England and the more substantial allied powers. Apparently, Germany was not happy with this, and this started a giant arms race and a mistrust that would never be solved. The distrust and hatred lead to even more vicious and violent wars and confrontations between the two. The German’s disobeyed the Sussex Pledge and even slightly intensified their submarine warfare. Following this, the American’s had no choice but to enter the war. Spouting from the attacks, the USA decided to openly support England and the allies, to further instigate the fight. To respond, Germany decided to sink all American and English vessels that they could. After all the attacks, American’s released different forms of both accurate news and also propaganda, which were open to the public eyes. Below in Fig 1, you can see an example of a type of propaganda by the US, made to appeal to the American people. Publicity like so creates an image in the public’s eye that Germany is the worst country in the world, in efforts to rally the nation against them in war efforts.
Although the Germans believe the attack on the Lusitania was justifiable and fair, the war appetite for the American’s significantly increased. The Americans started to care once the lives of innocent and unarmed civilians were lost. This increase in appetite demanded an answer on the USA’s behalf, on Germany and its associated allies who were responsible for these despicable acts on a US vessel. The American’s attacks were now based more on revenge rather than strategy. As such, the US decided to abandon its neutral space and finally declare with Germany and its allies. The US was able to shed their noncombatant status so quickly due to the pressure from the public on the Congress. The public’s stance on the war was the roadblock in the US’s initial entry. In conclusion, the sinking of the ship worked as a catalyst for the Americans, who finally found a need to attack back at the Germans and eventually enter the war.
The sinking of the Lusitania marked the beginning of loud arguments between Germany and the USA. For example, the German embassy in the USA warned Americans against traveling in the allied ships since they had deep mistrust with one another. The Americans ignored these calls, and this led to serious havoc on the American bound ships. This worsening relationship forced Woodrow Wilson to sign a pact that would end the US’s promise to keep a neutral status during the European wars. Even worse still, the telegram written by Arthur Zimmerman triggered the need for the Americans to enter into the fight. These clamors for the US to join the war were triggered by a series of violations of war policies by Germany.  The wake of growing hostility between the USA and Germany created a perfect ground for the two countries to aggressively engage one another in fierce confrontations.
Principally, the sinking of Lusitania was the most significant extent of provocation by a European country to the Americans, and they would never take it. Thus, the sinking of this ship catalyzed the American to test their military weapons. Before then, the USA had manufactured guns but never proved them in a real war. In fact, this incident opened a wave of curiosity and anxiety by the Americans to see how they would perform and outdo European countries, who for a long time had underscored its capabilities and strength. Thus, the arms race was a very significant episode in the American’s history as it would test its strength against Germany; the self-declared superpower.
With time, the US’s appetite grew into the war, and the country was more than ready to engage Germany. When President Wilson signed a document warranting America to enter into the war, it was a fulfillment of the country’s appetite to join the battle. In fact, Germany did not expect that it would meet any stiff challenge from the USA, and so this became a real point where it would be proved otherwise. America’s entry into World War One climaxed the fate of this war into the British’s sides. It was never anticipated that the war would end in such a short span of time, but it had to come to a halt with the defeat of Germany. When the German leaders were killed or detained, the writings were clear that its side had lost power and control of the war. All these successes came as a result of the US’s intervention, and final attack on Germany.  Evidently, the sinking of the Lusitania marked a new phase into the war.
Meanwhile, the German’s aggression did not recede after the end of World War One but soon gained momentum into the Second World War. Ideally, Adolf Hitler gathered all the soldiers, who would later take over the leadership of Germany. Thus, World War Two was triggered by the deep built animosity that compounded from the World War One, which mostly ended upon the intervention of the USA. Meanwhile, the beginning of this war can be traced to the time when the Lusitania was sunken by the Germany operatives under the unrestrictive submarine warfare.
In conclusion, the sinking of the US passenger ship, Lusitania, provoked the Americans, therefore, leading them into the war. The effects of the wreckage on the US ship were so significant that the public formed the opinion supporting a course into the fight. Indeed, the US Congress adopted a universal stance that endorsed a path for the war. With these pilling pressures, America entered the war.

database

database

Sources obtained

I choose the ABI/INFORM database wire feeds. The reason as to why I chose the particular database is because they are in line with my topic that is how technological advancements have helped solve cases in the police department. The articles contained in this database are detailed and therefore providing a credible source of data to be used in my research.

The article ‘U.S. department of justice announces a multi-million dollar program to begin equipping police departments with body cameras as wireless video technology make notable advancements’ talks about the program that is aimed at equipping the police department with body cameras as a way of improving its effectiveness. This is due to the national demand on high tech video cameras, intellectual property for body cameras and advanced technology. This is an addition of the video technology which has received a great reception and made some substantial advancement on the police department in terms of cases being handled. Cameras program could have a mile stone as it could digitalize the whole department and actually make all the information recorded to be well archived and retrieved when needed. This will also be used to document important scenes and therefore making it an important program.

The article ‘Local police to get upgrades: New technology will help officers improve the quality and accuracy of their investigations’ talks about how police could improve their accuracy and effectiveness through technological embracing and advancements. The technology advancement will target areas such as numerous wireless hotspots across the city, digital cameras in every patrol car as well as Panasonic computers and this will greatly help in solving cases on the sport and therefore reducing the time wasted and the congestion of pending cases in the department.

Culture shifts in healthcare organizations

Culture shifts in healthcare organizations

Healthcare is a heavily regulated industry.  However, until the passing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010 (also known as “Obamacare”), there had been no significant changes to the laws since the passing of the Social Security Amendments of 1965.  Medicare and Medicaid programs were created from the 1965 amendments.  Due to the changes in payment structures for Medicaid and Medicare because of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act (PPACA), healthcare organizations have faced a multitude of challenges and changes, not only in the way they must provide treatment and seek reimbursements for the care of patients, but also fundamental changes to the way they do business (Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, 2017).

Smaller hospitals, medical practices and long-term care facilities such as nursing homes have had to join larger health systems to maintain financial solvency and have adequate manpower and resources available to help them comply with the government’s “meaningful use” guidelines.  Meaningful use is a regulatory requirement of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Aact which mandated the use of technology in medical care, such as implementation of electronic medical record (transferring patient records from paper to electronic formats) and telemedicine (the use of technology to provide care from a distance) platforms.  In order to be eligible for reimbursement for services from government payers such as Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurers such as Blue Cross and Blue Shield, clinicians and providers have had to move away from a “fee for service” patient care model to one that demonstrates overall better health, better care and lower cost practices.

For-profit and not-for-profit health systems alike have experienced significant impacts because of healthcare law and regulation changes (Advisory Board, 2017).  Due to constant merger, acquisitions and divestiture activity within health systems, there exists vast variations in protocols, practices and procedures, as well as an array of people, personalities and work place competencies which must all be aligned in order for the health system to function as a unified efficient whole.

Faced with the new regulations of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act – and now its potential repeal and replacement by President Trump’s administration – the business climate and culture of healthcare organizations will continue to evolve at a rapid pace. These organizations must continually look at ways to assess their organization’s behavior, culture and growth, and must have effective leaders with the necessary style, drive, vision and emotional intelligence.  These leaders must be in tune with the nuances of change and be able to lead their organizations through them.  Leaders have a direct impact on whether the organizations underlying behavior and culture will breed success, contention or failure, which may ultimately lead to the survival or decimation of the healthcare organization.

In their 2014 article “Success factors for strategic change initiatives:  A qualitative study of healthcare administrators’ perspectives,” authors Kash, Spaulding and Johnson state “Strategic change capabilities have become a primary focus as hospitals and healthcare systems attempt to perpetually improve and position themselves in a competitive market characterized by continuous regulatory changes and opportunities for reorganization and growth” (p. 66).  Healthcare leaders must use their flexible leadership style and emotional intelligence to employ specific strategies which contribute to the success of change initiatives.  A change model will be reviewed.

Organizational culture

An organization is defined by its culture.  Culture shapes an organization’s ability to implement and accept change. In his book “Organizational Culture and Leadership,” Edgar Schein (2016) had defined organizational culture as follows:

“The culture of a group can be defined as the accumulated shared learning of that group as it solves its problems of external adaptation and internal integration; which has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, feel and behave in relation to those problems.  This accumulated learning is a pattern or system of beliefs, values, and behavioral norms that come to be taken for granted as basic assumptions and eventually drop out of awareness (p. 6).”

Healthcare is said to have both visible and invisible architectures.  The visible architecture is what everyone sees – the way people speak to one another, their posture, and even the cleanliness of the environment.  The invisible architecture is the culture that’s observed with the behaviors, attitudes and overall response of all staff in the organization.  The culture of the organization, combined with the leader’s style, can predict the organization’s outcome.  Leaders have a direct impact on organizational outcomes based on the leadership behaviors and styles demonstrated.  Leaders with high emotional intelligence can affect positive organizational outcomes (Smith, 2015).

A subset of organizational behavior, organizational culture reflects the values and behaviors that are commonly observed in an organization.  Schein (2016) identified three levels of organizational culture: (a) artifacts and behaviors, (b) espoused values, and (c) shared basic assumptions. Perceptions of definition and the impact of an organization’s culture differ; however it has been determined that an organization’s specific culture is related to organizational performance (Kotbra et al., 2012).  An organization’s culture will either isolate individuals or make them feel as if they belong.  If individuals are invested in the organization’s culture, and support its mission and values, individuals are more likely to support change and success.  Implementation of important changes to health care methods, processes and procedures must be managed in such a way that employees remain invested and must minimize adverse impacts to the organization’s culture.

Leaders in healthcare organizations, faced with shrinking budgets and growing systems often overlook the impacts and implications of changing cultural dynamics.  A leader’s level of emotional intelligence is key to the leader’s ability to recognize culture shifts.  A leader’s style will determine whether a leader has the appropriate skills required to manage a culture shift to the organization’s benefit and insure positive organizational outcomes.  A model for strategic change management in healthcare organizational culture includes (a) organizational analysis, (b) identification of leadership and leadership support, (c) creation of an implementation plan, (d) communication of the change process, (e) implementation of the change, (f) monitoring and adjustment of plan as needed and (g) providing training and education.

 

Strategic change management

Organization culture shifts are identified as the top indicator of successful implementation of change in healthcare systems.  The alignment of culture and values between individuals and departments, risk taking and the organization’s mission, vision and values contribute to achieving positive outcomes in healthcare (Kash et. al, p. 73).  To achieve positive outcomes related to culture shifts, healthcare organizations must employ a change model with defined strategies for success.  Kash et. al defined the top ten success factor themes for strategic change management in healthcare organizations – culture and values, business processes, people and engagement, service quality and client satisfaction, coherent planning, financial resources and accountability, leadership, market forces and external demands, and access to information and communication (p. 74).  The top ten success factors correlate to the change model components.  Table 1 below shows the alignment of the model components and success factors.

Table 1

Healthcare systems today are often viewed as open systems, which are defined as “those facing uncertainty in both their internal and external environment” (Kash et. al, p. 73).  This certainly defines the current nature of a typical healthcare system, as it faces internal uncertainty due to merger and acquisition activity, and the external uncertainty of current healthcare regulation based upon the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA).  In order to stay viable, healthcare systems must continually improve and position themselves in an increasingly shrinking, competitive market. Author Yafang Tsai asserts that in order to be competitive, healthcare organizations must establish a culture of learning and foster organizational commitment (2014).  Healthcare organizations are knowledge-intensive organizations and require continual improvement to increase their capabilities.  An implication of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which promotes patient-centered healthcare and the advancement of healthcare technology with its Meaningful Use regulation, is that there must be an upgrade of competencies among staff through ongoing learning.  Healthcare systems as learning organizations define an ideal organizational vision which can help organizations cope with cultural change by reinforcing learning activities (Tsai, 2014).

Leadership is also considered an indicator of success for change initiatives in healthcare systems.  The theme of leadership relates successful implementation of change initiatives to effective leadership characteristics (Kash et. al, 2014).  Leaders in various fields have been studied to determine whether there are certain traits or characteristics that they exhibit that make them great leaders.  Those traits include physical or personality traits as well as their intelligence quotients.  In addition to the leader’s characteristics, the level of emotional intelligence also allows him or her to react to people and situations with the appropriate level of emotion, exhibiting empathy and sympathy as needed.  In healthcare organizations, a great deal of empathy and sympathy is expected from not only clinical caregivers, but from non-clinical leaders and employees alike.  To positively impact and influence culture shifts in healthcare organizations, leaders must exhibit a high level of emotional intelligence and be able to read and respond to situations as the situation dictates.

Leaders decide on a vision and then align the followers’ mindsets with goals that are consistent with the vision by creating shared meaning. Shared meaning is vital to positive culture shifts which lead to positive organizational outcomes; however, organizations struggle to create shared meanings.  Tourish (2014) states that “leadership is not a discrete phenomenon with easily observable causal relationship, inherently powerful and charismatic leaders, measurable outcomes and clear demarcations between categories of meaning and behavior” (p. 84).  The appropriate leadership style encourages an on-going process of impactful change.

Planning is identified as a success factor for positive organizational outcomes and assists with identification of the scope of the change initiative and the organization’s direction (Kash et. al, 2014).  The plan must also address market forces and external demands by considering competitors, the implementation of evidence-based practices, and bench marking and performance assessment.  Implementation strategies vary, and change is adopted with differing degrees across an organization and can have an adverse effect on an organization’s culture.  The amount and disparity within change initiatives in an organization can also cause fragmentation within an organization’s culture.  Organizational challenges, such as competing priorities and misaligned strategies, make the need for adoption of an implementation plan critical to success. Therefore management and adjustment of the plan as needed is also integral to the success of the planned change.   Kash et. al state “the emergent approach to change assumes that change is not linear or sequentially planned and implemented over time but rather is an open-ended process requiring adaptation and some planned changes and initiatives” (p. 67).  A flexible plan encourages alignment of goals and resources with the organization’s vision.  To understand the cultural implications of the plan, the following questions should be addressed: 1) Is there potential to coordinate the efforts of change across the organization? 2) Is the change initiative perceived as opposed or congruent to the organization’s mission, vision or values?  3)  Will the initiative achieve its stated objective?  If those questions can be answered affirmatively, then the cultural impacts of change may be negligible (Nystrom, 2014).

Communication as a success factor and component to successful implementation of strategic change addresses the need to communicate both existing and upcoming strategies and change initiatives, relates to the need for leadership to explain expectations and defines how areas of improvement can be identified (Kash et. al 2014).  Tourish also expresses leadership as a “communicative process that produces leader-follower categories, identities and relationships (p. 80).  Communication leads to shared experiences between leader and follower and produces a shared sense of community which contributes to shared culture experiences.  Communication also ensures that there is appropriate access to information, such as reports and reporting and contains aspects of accountability and transparency throughout the organization. Communication and transparency both have positive impacts to an organization’s culture.

Implementation of the plan touches several of the factors critical to success of strategic change in healthcare organizations, namely business processes, people and engagement, service quality and client satisfaction, financial resources and accountability.  Business processes define how operational activities should work.  The success factor of people and engagement involve hiring, training and education, rewards for performance and reducing turnover; it relates closely to the change model component of providing training and education.  The most important aspect of strategic change management is how the people react to the change; people directly influence organizational outcomes. Engaged people with the appropriate training directly impact service quality and client satisfaction.  Healthcare systems rely on clients’ willingness to recommend their services as a means of growth, therefore the satisfaction of employees and clients alike is integral to positive organizational outcomes.  If strategically planned change shows fiscal responsibility, cost is managed, but there will also be an increase in income, impacting the healthcare system’s financial solvency.

Conclusion

An organized step-by-step approach to strategic change will impact those factors deemed to contribute to the successful implementation and adoption of change.  Successful adoption of change correlates with affirmative culture shifts that influence positive organizational outcomes.  When change is planned, organizational analysis, identification of leadership and leadership support, creation of an implementation plan and monitoring and adjustments to the plan as needed, communicating and implementing the plan and providing training and education are all necessary steps to ensure achievement.  Each step in its own way contributes to the success factors identified as follows: culture and values, business and processes, people and engagement, service quality and client satisfaction, coherent planning, financial resources and accountability, leadership, market forces and external demands, access to information and communication.

Appendix A – Definition of terms

Electronic Medical Record (EMR) – An electronic medical record (EMR) is a digital version of a paper chart that contains all of a patient’s medical history from one practice. An EMR is mostly used by providers for diagnosis and treatment.

Meaningful Use – a mandate of the PPACA which mandated the use of technology in medical care to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce health disparities; engage patients and family; improve care coordination, and population and public health; and maintain privacy and security of patient health information.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) – Passed in March 2010, the PPACA is the Obama administration’s signature healthcare reform which mandates changes to health insurance and government insurance programs such as Medicaid and Medicaid. The PPACA is also commonly referred to as “Obamacare.”

Telemedicine – the remote diagnosis and treatment of patients by means of telecommunications technology.

References

The Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight. (2017). In Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/index.html

Health System Growth. (2017). In Advisory Board. Retrieved February 17, 2017, from https://www.advisory.com/focus-areas/health-system-growth

Kash, B. A., Spaulding, A., & Johnson, C. E. (2014, February). Success factors for strategic change initiatives: A qualitative study of healthcare administrators’ perspectives. Journal of Healthcare Management, 59(1), 65-81.

Kotrba, L. M., Gillespie, M. A., Schmidt, A. M., Smerek, R. E., Ritchie, S. A., & Denison, D. R.  (2012). Do consistent corporate cultures have better business performance? Exploring the interaction effects [Electronic version]. Human Relations, 65(2), 241-262.

Nystrom, M. E., Garvare, R., Westerlund, A., & Weinehall, L. (2014). Concurrent implementation of quality improvement programs: Coordination or conflict? [Electronic version]. International Journal of Healthcare Quality Assurance, 27, 190-208. doi:10.1108/IJHCQA-08-2012-0085

Schein, E. H. (2016). Organizational culture and leadership (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, C. (2015, March). Exemplary leadership: How style and culture predict organizational outcomes. Nursing Management, 46(3), 47-51.

Tsai, Y. (2014). Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 152-158. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14- 152

Tourish, D. (2014). Leadership, more or less? A processual, communication perspective on the role of agency in leadership theory [Electronic version]. Leadership, 10(1), 79-98. doi:10.1177/1742715013509030

Recruitment Process in Startups

Recruitment Process in Startups

Startups have to be very keen when recruiting their employees since their performance will determine how far the organization will go. A business may be promising, but the introduction of unqualified staff can be its downfall. The following is the process used by startups when recruiting their staff.

Prioritization

The shareholders in the new business need to set up a strategy to follow. The new business should focus on gaining a competitive advantage. Prioritizing and setting up the standards that they require their staff to have is important. Senior management, therefore, should recruit new staff in accordance with the priorities set (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 74). Setting the priorities right enables the management to save unnecessary costs such as hiring agencies to find employees on behalf of the new business set up. Quote

Formulation of a Framework

A startup may experience fast growth which may make it overwhelmed and overlook recruitment processes. Positions may be opened up without careful consideration which can result in over hiring. To avoid this problem, a startup should formulate a framework that focuses on the job to be done. The framework helps in defining the work to be performed by the new employees, skills, and values desired and testing skill at the interview. Clarity is therefore enhanced in the organization and costs associated with unnecessary hiring are reduced. Quote

Bias Reduction

Startups should adopt methods that are fair during recruitment. There should, therefore, be a reduction of bias which makes the recruitment process fair and just. Fairness can be defined by the careful selection of words and inclusion of people of all gender, people with disability and race. Quote

Evaluation of the Candidate’s Skills and Experience

A startup should take on the best employees to enhance continuous success. It is important that the startup does a thorough interview with the candidate to ensure it does not suffer losses in the future (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 77).

How Startups Get Qualified Employees

Getting the right employees in a startup may be hard because many people view a startup as low paying. Most of the educated people stick to the mature organizations thus giving a cold shoulder to startups. However, there are others who prefer startups since they may be opportunities for career development. When interviewing the potential employees for the startup, careful consideration has to be made which include:Quote

Determining the Level of Tolerance in a Potential Employee

The level of failure in a startup is high depending on the industry invested in (Kasabov, 2015, p. 741). When recruiting employees, there is a high need to assess the ability of a person to endure hardship. Some employees might not be able to tolerate the downfall of an organization and fear to lose their salaries in case the organization fails. Therefore, it is important that tolerance is considered as the strength of a potential employee. Quote

Assessment of the Strengths of a Potential Employee 

When selecting an employee, it is important to consider their strengths. People are talented differently, and the level of performance is also different from another person (Kasabov, 2015, p. 742). During an interview, all the strengths of each potential employee should be noted down for further review. A startup needs the best of employees so that maximum performance can be achieved. Quote

Assessment of the Weakness of the Potential Employee

It is important that a question on the weakness of an employee be determined during an interview. An answer given by the potential employee may determine whether he or she is a good fit. Knowledge of this information in startups helps in filling in the gaps. One potential employee can have a weakness that can be complemented by another’s strength. The management is hence able to decide which of the employees it should hire (Russell & Brannan, 2016, p. 118).

Evaluating the Potential of Employee

Startups at times go through dynamism and increase in size rapidly. One of the major issues facing the startups is the difficulty experienced by the initial workers when the change erupts. Another issue facing startups is the ability to perform to attain achievement and flourish in the industry. Startups require individuals who can visualize and have the ability to develop. To capture the capabilities of an individual, one should not only pay attention to performance on the former job but also how he or she performs outside the work premises. Quote?

Carrying out recruitment and selection for the startup is amusing as it shows development and growth of the business (Münstermann, Eckhardt & Weitzel, 2010 p. 48). Candidates whose course of action is candid, suits with the business customs, knowledgeable, skilled and innovative, then they deserve to work in the business. When recruiting the candidates, critical compliance with employment regulations and provisions should be adhered to avoid suits.

The recruitment process by a startup is challenging since it is a high-risk business (Kasabov, 2015, p. 741). Careful measures need to be taken to ensure the selected employees are viable and will not fail the new venture. Selection of employees is based on experience, knowledge and skills, confidence and presentation during the interview.

 References

Honig, B., & Hopp, C. (2016). New venture planning and lean start-up activities: A longitudinal empirical study of entrepreneurial success, founder preferences, and venture context. In Models of start-up thinking and action: Theoretical, empirical and pedagogical approaches (pp. 75-108). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Kasabov, E. (2015). Start‐Up Difficulties in Early‐Stage Peripheral Clusters: The Case of IT in an Emerging Economy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4), 727-761.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., & Weitzel, T. (2010). The performance impact of business process standardization: An empirical evaluation of the recruitment process. Business Process Management Journal, 16(1), 29-56.

Russell, S., & Brannan, M. J. (2016). “Getting the Right People on the Bus”: Recruitment, selection, and integration for the branded organization. European Management Journal, 34(2), 114-124.

 

Let’s Talk About Sex

Let’s Talk About Sex

Please choose at least two per heading to answer and bring to class to debrief. (If there is only one question, then answer that one)

The following questions can guide discussions of Let’s Talk About Sex and are loosely broken

down in order of the film’s sections.

 

  • Kelsey and Her Mother
  1. Were you surprised when Kelsey revealed that she had had sex, but had never told her mom? Why or why not?

 

  1. For parents, do you think your teen would tell you they had had sex? For teens, would you tell your parents when you became sexually active? Why or why not?

 

  1. Do you think most parents and teens have frank discussions about sexuality? What factors might keep parents and teens from talking? How can teens and parents improve their communication about sex?

 

– FastFact Teens who have had a “good talk” about sexuality with their parents are more likely to practicesafer sex behaviors than teens that haven’t.

 

  • School for Pregnant/Parenting Teens
  1. Do you think sex education programs that stress abstinence as the only correct choice for teens are a good investment of education time and funds?

– FastFact The federal government has spent over $1.5 billion on abstinence-only-until-marriage programs.

Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs prohibit honest discussion of the health benefits of contraception for sexually active youth. Concurrently, they have repeatedly been proven ineffective – and to contain bias and inaccuracies.

 

  • Fayetteville, NC (DVD only)
  1. Members of the Fayetteville community have different opinions about when it’s OK for teens to have sex. Do you think it is realistic to expect young people to wait until marriage? If not, what factors should they consider when making the decision?

FastFact By age 19, 70 percent of young people have engaged in sexual activity. Ninety-five percent of Americans have sex before they are married.

 

  • Loaded Language Around Sex
  1. Does sex belong in the same category as an addiction or a contaminant? Have you noticed other trends in the words people use to discuss sex and sexuality?

FastFact Some abstinence-only-until-marriage programs associate sexual activity with contamination or filth by telling teens that having sex before marriage is like chewing someone else’s gum or drinking their spit.

 

  • The Dutch Approach toTeen Sexuality
  1. Would you feel comfortable discussing sexuality as openly with your parents, or your teens, as the Dutch do? Why or why not?

FastFact The U.S. teen pregnancy rate is over four times that of the Netherlands; the U.S. HIV rate is over three times that of the Netherlands.

 

  1. The film depicts “sleepovers,” teens being allowed to have partners sleep in the same room in their parents’ home. What are your thoughts? Are there any situations in which you think this practice might be a reasonable one?

 

  1. Do you think parents should make condoms and contraception available to teens? Why or why not?

FastFact Research has found that having condoms and contraception available does not make teens more likely to have sex.

 

  1. Do the teens you know carry condoms? What do you think of teens that carry condoms? What do you think of teens who don’t carry condoms?

FastFact Thirty-nine percent of sexually active high school students did not use a condom the last time they had sex.

 

 

  • Abstinence Messages
  1. Do you think virginity pledge programs are effective for young people? Why or why not?

FastFact Although virginity pledge programs do help some teens delay sex, more than 88 percent of pledgers break their pledge and have sex before marriage. Plus, once pledgers begin to have sex, they are less likely to use contraception than non-pledgers.

 

  1. Which approach do you think is a better societal investment: discouraging adolescents from having sex or teaching kids about safer sex? Is it really an either/or question?

FastFact Programs which include information about contraception and condoms, as well as abstinence, have been shown to help young people delay sexual initiation as well as protect themselves when they do have sex. Teens who receive comprehensive sex education are not more likely to have sex than those who do not receive comprehensive sex ed.

 

  • Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual , and Transgender (GLBT) Teens
  1. Do you think it is important that schools include GLBT teens in sex education lessons? Why or why not? How can parents make sure their needs are met?

 

  • HIV Outreach in Washington, DC
  1. Are the teens you know worried about getting HIV, or do they think it’s not a threat?

FastFact The CDC estimates that about 1/3 of new

HIV infections occur among youth under age 30.

 

  1. How does shame around sexuality contribute to poor sexual health outcomes?

 

  • Leah and Lizzie (Oregon)
  1. Do you agree with Lizzie’s approach that teaching about good relationships is the priority for young people, with whether or not they’re having sex less of an issue?

 

  1. The minister featured in this section of the film, and Oregon’s sex education policies, support open communication about sexuality in the school, houses of worship, and at home. Do you think Oregon is on the right track? Why or why not? Could your community adopt these practices? Why or why not?

FastFact Oregon’s rates of teen pregnancy, HIV, and STIs are much lower than national rates.

 

  • Conclusion
  1. Many adults believe that if you talk about sex, it encourages teens to go out and have sex. Do you believe that withholding information about sex protects kids and teens, or harms them?

 

  1. How can communities support parents’ communication with their kids?

 

  1. When it comes to sex education, do you think it’s possible to put politics and ideology aside?

 

  1. While this film addresses cultural attitudes about sex and their impact on teens, many other factors also affect teens’ sexual health, including poverty, lack of access to health care, and inequitable access to quality education and economic opportunities. Did the film address these issues? How do you think they affect young people’s sexual health? What could government and/or communities do to address these issues? Which factors do you think most fuel the teen sexual health crisis?

 

  1. What do you think should be done to improve sexual health in the U.S.?
Recruitment Process in Startups

Recruitment Process in Startups

Startups have to be very keen when recruiting their employees since their performance will determine how far the organization will go. A business may be promising, but the introduction of unqualified staff can be its downfall. The following is the process used by startups when recruiting their staff.

Prioritization

The shareholders in the new business need to set up a strategy to follow. The new business should focus on gaining a competitive advantage. Prioritizing and setting up the standards that they require their staff to have is important. Senior management, therefore, should recruit new staff in accordance with the priorities set (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 74). Setting the priorities right enables the management to save unnecessary costs such as hiring agencies to find employees on behalf of the new business set up (Münstermann, Eckhardt & Weitzel, 2010 p. 49).

Formulation of a Framework

According to McKenzie (2017 p. 2271), startups may experience fast growth which may make it overwhelmed and overlook recruitment processes. Positions may be opened up without careful consideration which can result in over hiring. To avoid this problem, a startup should formulate a framework that focuses on the job to be done. The framework helps in defining the work to be performed by the new employees, skills, and values desired and testing skill at the interview. Clarity is therefore enhanced in the organization and costs associated with unnecessary hiring are reduced (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 74).

Bias Reduction

Startups should adopt methods that are fair during recruitment. There should, therefore, be a reduction of bias which makes the recruitment process fair and just. Fairness can be defined by the careful selection of words and inclusion of people of all gender, people with disability and race (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 74).

Evaluation of the Candidate’s Skills and Experience

A start up should take on the best employees to enhance continuous success. It is important that the startup does a thorough interview with the candidate to ensure it does not suffer losses in the future (Honig & Hopp, 2016 p. 77).

How Startups Get Qualified Employees

According to Russell and Brannan (2016 p 118) Getting the right employees in a startup may be hard because many people view a startup as low paying. Most of the educated people stick to the mature organizations thus giving a cold shoulder to startups. However, there are others who prefer startups since they may be opportunities for career development. When interviewing the potential employees for the startup, careful consideration has to be made which include:

Determining the Level of Tolerance in a Potential Employee

The level of failure in a startup is high depending on the industry invested in (Kasabov, 2015, p. 741). When recruiting employees, there is a high need to assess the ability of a person to endure hardship. Some employees might not be able to tolerate the downfall of an organization and fear to lose their salaries in case the organization fails. Therefore, it is important that tolerance is considered as the strength of a potential employee (Russell & Brannan, 2016 p 118).

Assessment of the Strengths of a Potential Employee 

When selecting an employee, it is important to consider their strengths. People are talented differently, and the level of performance is also different from another person (Kasabov, 2015, p. 742). During an interview, all the strengths of each potential employee should be noted down for further review. A start up needs the best of employees so that maximum performance can be achieved (Russell & Brannan, 2016 p 118).

Assessment of the Weakness of the Potential Employee

It is important that a question on the weakness of an employee be determined during an interview. An answer given by the potential employee may determine whether he or she is a good fit. Knowledge of this information in startups helps in filling in the gaps. One potential employee can have a weakness that can be complemented by another’s strength. The management is hence able to decide which of the employees it should hire (Russell & Brannan, 2016, p. 118).

Evaluating the Potential of Employee

Startups at times go through dynamism and increase in size rapidly. One of the major issues facing the startups is the difficulty experienced by the initial workers when the change erupts. Another issue facing startups is the ability to perform to attain achievement and flourish in the industry (Kasabov, 2015 p 742). Startups require individuals who can visualize and have the ability to develop. To capture the capabilities of an individual, one should not only pay attention to performance on the former job but also how he or she performs outside the work premises (Russell & Brannan, 2016 p 118).

Carrying out recruitment and selection for the startup is amusing as it shows development and growth of the business (Münstermann et el., 2010 p. 48). Candidates whose course of action is candid, suits with the business customs, knowledgeable, skilled and innovative, then they deserve to work in the business. When recruiting the candidates, critical compliance with employment regulations and provisions should be adhered to avoid suits.

The recruitment process by a startup is challenging since it is a high-risk business (Kasabov, 2015 p. 741). Careful measures need to be taken to ensure the selected employees are viable and will not fail the new venture. Selection of employees is based on experience, knowledge and skills, confidence and presentation during the interview.

 References

Honig, B., & Hopp, C. (2016). New venture planning and lean start-up activities: A longitudinal empirical study of entrepreneurial success, founder preferences, and venture context. In Models of start-up thinking and action: Theoretical, empirical and pedagogical approaches (pp. 75-108). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Kasabov, E. (2015). Start‐Up Difficulties in Early‐Stage Peripheral Clusters: The Case of IT in an Emerging Economy. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(4), 727-761.

McKenzie, D. (2017). Identifying and spurring high-growth entrepreneurship: experimental evidence from a business plan competition. American Economic Review, 107(8), 2278-2307.

Münstermann, B., Eckhardt, A., & Weitzel, T. (2010). The performance impact of business process standardization: An empirical evaluation of the recruitment process. Business Process Management Journal, 16(1), 29-56.

Russell, S., & Brannan, M. J. (2016). “Getting the Right People on the Bus”: Recruitment, selection, and integration for the branded organization. European Management Journal, 34(2), 114-124.

 

 

Primary Source Analysis

Primary Source Analysis

Primary Source Analysis – Due

Feb 20, 2018 11:30 PM

HIST 337 6980 Europe’s Bloodiest Century (2182)

Primary Source Analysis

Due: 20 February (Note: Tuesday)

Grade scale: 25 points

Make certain you understand the distinctions between the following types of sources:

Primary sources: Created at the time of the event. Include letters, manuscripts, diaries, journals, newspapers, memoirs, speeches, government documents, legal case notes and decisions, scientific research notes, battle plans, maps, weapons, tools, decorative arts, music, art, and architecture.

Secondary sources: Created after the event takes place and describe, synthesize, and interpret the original primary sources. Include books, articles in scholarly journals, historical articles in newspapers, biographies, even illustrations.

Tertiary sources: Created after the primary event takes place and rely not only on primary sources but also on secondary sources. Include reference books such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, abstracts, directories, indices, and bibliographies.

  1. Create a Word Document, name it: Last Name, P.S. Analysis. Place your name and date in the paper.
  2. Select ONE, KEY primary source document that you will use when writing your essay.
  3. Then, answer these questions and where appropriate write full sentence answers.

Type of Document (for example, letter; memorandum; map; telegram; press release; report; government document; census report; court decision; other—be specific):

Date(s) of Document:

Author(s) of Document. Include full name(s); birth and death dates; position at the time and title/rank:

Intended Audience for the Document:

Document Information:

Write a paragraph with complete sentences and explain in your own words five important points the document conveys.

Write at least two sentences and explain in your own words why the document was written.

What evidence in the document helps you know why it was written? Quote from the document and provide footnotes according to the Chicago Manual of Style.

Write a three- to five-sentence paragraph in your own words that gives the historical background to the document. (Or, explain what was happening when the document was written.)

Do you have any questions about the document?

 

Grading Rubric for Primary Source Analysis

The grading scale is based on 25 points (A=22-25; B=20-21; C=17-19; D=15-16; F=14 or fewer)

To earn an A (22-25 pts):

All the Document Information questions are answered accurately and in full detail, with correct footnote documentation. The student understands the historical background and explained it well. Sentences are well constructed. Spelling and grammar are excellent.

 

To earn a B (20-21 pts):

Two-thirds of the Document Information questions are answered accurately and in full detail. The student understands the historical background, but missed a few key facts. There are a few citation errors. For the most part, sentences are well constructed. There are a few spelling and grammatical errors.

 

To earn a C (17-19 pts):

One-half of the Document Information questions are answered accurately. The student did not fully understand the historical background. Footnote citations are missing or inaccurate. Sentences are often unclear. Grammar and spelling need improvement.

 

To earn a D (15-16 pts):

One-quarter of the Document Information questions are answered but there are factual errors. The student does not understand the historical background. Footnote citations are missing or inaccurate. There are numerous errors in grammar, sentence structure, and spelling.

 

To earn an F (14 pts or fewer):

Fewer than one-quarter of the Document Information questions are answered. Numerous factual errors appear in the explanation. Footnote citations are missing and/or inaccurate. Sentences are often unintelligible; there are numerous errors in grammar and spelling.

 

Dictator Sweepstakes

Week IV, Question 1: Dictator Sweepstakes

Dictator Sweepstakes

Take one or more individuals from the list below. Briefly classify them as traditional/authoritarian, totalitarian, fascist, and/or communist. Why did they seize power? How valid were their reasons?

Adolf Hitler

Antanas Smetona

Antonio Salazar

Bela Kun

Carol II

Engelbert Dollfuß

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde

Heinrich Brüning

Ioannis Metaxas

Joseph Pilsudski

Joseph Stalin

Jozef Tiso

Kārlis Ulmanis

King Alexander

King Boris

Konstantin Päts

Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt von Schuschnigg

Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja

Miklos Horthy

Vidkun Quisling

Zog I

 

document information

Primary Source Analysis

Andrew Papalia

20/2/2018

Type of document

Journal

Date of document

April 1998

Author

Albrecht Ritschl, born March 1822 died March 1889

The intended audience for the document

The document is addressed to Economics scholars who belong to the same school of thought as Keynes and support his Economics assumptions.

Document information

The document on reparation transfers tries to point out that the German depression after the First World War was not a result of the Treaty of Versailles. The document puts forward an argument that a possible cause for the economic regression was internal or domestic factors within the German economy. Further, in explaining the regression, the document postulates that large borrowings by the government of the day were a significant contributor to the regression since Britain was experiencing unusually high labor cost similar to German’s but did not suffer economic slump of magnitude as Germans. Also, the writer argues that high labor costs were just setting a stage for the slump.

The document was written to explain the outcomes of responsibilities of war that were heaped on Germany in the treaty of Versailles that resulted in the fall of Germany’s economy.

This paper examined the effects of Germany’s inter-war reparation agreements in the framework of the Keynesian transfer problem.

This document was written after the First World War at a time when the great depression had rocked the world and with greater intensity, Europe. In this period Germany was blamed for triggering the world war and thus had to take responsibility under what came to be the Treaty of Versailles. During this period, Germany suffered economic slump that was more severe compared to other nations such as Britain who had equally participated in the First World War.

Reference

Ritschl, Albrecht. “Reparation transfers, the Borchardt hypothesis and the Great Depression in Germany, 1929–32: A guided tour for hard-headed Keynesians.” European Review of Economic History 2, no. 1 (1998): 49-72.

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