Application of relationship and comparison of general variables is the principle motive behind sampling and quantitative data representative of a given set of data.  According to Brown (2011, 47), collection of data, purposes to provide figures that have information value. Data collection process is a procedure that requires caution in the collection process to avoid room for errors and collection of incomplete facts. However, the author asserts that accuracy is not guaranteed during data collection process due to factors relating to method of data collection used, the environment among other human aspects (Brown, 2011, 37). Data collection is therefore an essential aspect applied in variant research studies. The paper therefore seeks to analyze data collection methods by developing specific measurements to address questions formulated for the provided case. Moreover, the paper defines a sample considering the budget allocated for the provided scenario and proposes strategies for research conduction considering location, background and the associates stipulated by the provided case.

Formulation of workable research question in the given scenario

Notably, the paper focuses on the DBA university graduates that attained their degree in 2020 at the university of Liverpool to conduct a survey that seek to find out if the degree is useful to them in their careers. According to Dowling (2010, 159), formulation of workable research questions involves the constructing of a grant proposal that helps map up a research strategy. The author asserts that good research questions identifies the phenomena that requires statement to facilitate the development of ideas that frame effective research questions based on the research topic. The author observes that formulation of research question based on ideas is facilitated by the consideration of factors such as the field and its literature. Moreover, other crucial aspects include essentiality of the questions to the selected field, the areas that requires further studies, the gap that the study fills as well as the period required for the answers and the impact of the study on the selected field. Therefore, the research demands that the selected questions be based on ideas centered on the DBA degree offered in the University of Liverpool (Dowling, 2010, 176). The scenario facilitates the effectiveness of the research by ensuring the study focuses on the areas that are crucial to the study to ensure the study is time effective and remains focused on the target community, which is the university students. The provided scenario will therefore ensure that the research questions are based on ideas that pass the “so what” test, to ensure that they are specific to the study and provides solutions to the research purpose by making sure that the research questions are not merely definitive statements.

Similarly, Richard (2010, 319) states that formulation of research questions requires thoughtful ideas that lead to the generation of hypothesis that examines the predictions which responses from the phenomena. The undertaking facilitates the provision of more specific outcomes about a relationship of variables that enhance experiences based on testable and miserable experiments (Richard, 2010, 336). The formulation of the research questions that are effective for the provided case should therefore be facilitated through the provision of hypothesis that are based on rationale to provide alternatives that avail possibilities that could be tested to choose the most effective questions (Bartlett, Kotrlik & Higgins, 2001, 45).

            Choosing data Collection Methods and Developing Specific Measurements or Instruments to address the Question

According to Leavy (2010, 563), data collection methods are crucial requirements that have an impact on the evaluation process along a given continuum. The author asserts that quantities data collection methods are dependent on random sampling and structural data collection equipment that fit a given experience into predetermined phenomena (Leavy, 2010, 558). Data collection methods therefore produce summarizable results, compared and generalized in the process of delivering a theory that interest a given phenomenon. Glicken and Robinson (2013, 42) state that various gathering strategies are employed in the collection of fact and figures if the research requires employment of probability sampling methods to select a given number of participants from a large population. Notably, the number of graduate students at the University of Liverpool is large and requires statistical control for dependability purposes of the outcome facilitated by the feasibility study (Glicken & Robinson, 2013, 41). The application of data gathering techniques such as interviews, questionnaires and observations are therefore the most effective data collection methods for the provided scenario as they facilitate the great deal of time. The researcher requires recording of any potential data that is essential in a thorough, accurate and systematic manner that facilitates efficiency and the effectiveness of the research (Kerlinger, 1973, 35).

            Sampling Definition

According to Bernhard and Glantz (2012, 558), most research studies are bounded by limiting factors such as time, money as well as workforce that makes random sampling almost impossible. Kish (1965, 53) observes that due to the limitation of such factors, application of other sampling techniques such as non-probability sampling is essential due to their accessibility benefit and the enhancement of positive judgment possibility by the researcher.  Non-probability sampling technique therefore facilitates accuracy that eliminates the generalization factor within a given population. The factor therefore saves on time, and cost due to the inclusion of subjects that are available making the sample an effective representation of the entire population (Cochran, 1974, 73).

            Proposing conducting Research and Aspects to consider when conducting a    Research

Bernhard and Glantz (2012, 565) observe that data collection process is facilitated in consideration of codes compliance with freedom of information and confidentiality protection regulation.  The undertaking facilitate the protection of credibility and reliability of data as well as information to be gathered adhering to the accepted data collection methodologies. Identification of issues and opportunities for data collection is essential for the determination of the next step. The initiative facilitates the assessment of the internal and the external understanding of what is transpiring inside and outside an institution.


Bartlett, J. E., II, Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. 2001. Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50

Bernhard, J. G., & Glantz, K. 2012. Staying human in the organization: our biological heritage and the workplace. Westport, Conn, Praeger, 557-600.

Brown, A. 2011. Considering research: reflecting upon current themes in architectural, 500.601.

Cochran, W. G. 1974 Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.

Dowling, P. 2010. Doing research/reading research: Re-interrogating education. Routledge,        157-204.

Glicken, M. D., & Robinson, B. C. 2013. The Serious Problems in the American Workplace. Treating Worker Dissatisfaction during Economic Change, 39-78.

Kerlinger F. N., 1973. Foundations of Behavioral Research. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York

Kish, L. 1965 Survey sampling. New York: Wiley.

Leavy, P. 2010. Handbook of emergent methods. Guliford press, 550-710.

Richard, M. 2010. Social work research and evaluation: foundation of evidence-based practice.Oxforduniversity press, 300-340.

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