Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

Introduction

Allergic Contract Dermatitis is a disorder that results from allergic reactions, which occur within the skin surface. The main characteristics of the allergic reaction is prevalence of rashes that exist within the skin surface which may ooze and crust depending on the various allergens causing the disorder. Moreover, individuals affected by this disorder are affected by inflammation of the skin and itching. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and the treatment of this allergic disorder and the impact of culture in the treatment process of the same.

Pathophysiology

Allergic Contact Dermatitis affects the internal Langerhans cells, the dendritic epidermal and plasmocytic cells, thereby being characterized by the bombs developing on the skin which are spongy (Demehri, Cunningham, Hurst, Schaffer, Sheinbein, & Yokoyama, 2014). These bumpy rashes may spread to other parts of the body if not cleaned regularly. However, detergents and soaps act as catalysts that may accelerate the rate of the reactions of the allergen to the skin and may impact the spread of the disorder (Chang, & Nakrani, 2014).

Epidemiology

A wide number of individuals who are affected by this disorder are females as compared to the males. The reason behind this, as argued by Quaranta, Eyerich, Knapp, Nasorri, Scarponi, & Mattii, et al., (2017), is because of the many chemicals used by the females for beauty and may be allergens in this situation. In addition, the disorder is common among the ages of 17 years and 44 years. On average, about 10% of the total population in the United States who affected by the disorder are children. However, the adults affected by the disorder include workers in social assistance industries and tenants in the social science fields (Chang, & Nakrani, 2014).

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the Allergic Contact dermatitis involves examination of the patient concerning the appearance and presentation of the rashes in their skin. According to Qu, Fu, Yang, Shimada, & LaMotte, (2015), the exact allergen is defined through a test called the patch test, which consists of the application of small amounts of the suspected allergens onto the spots in the body that have been affected by the allergy. The different allergens are then left to stay within the body for two days and then the same are checked to identify the spots that have raised and hence identify the allergen causing the reaction.

If there are no observable changes, the small allergens may be left to stay within the skin of the affected party for about 72 to 96 more hours, which also helps to be certain of the results obtained. Moreover, the diagnosis includes a medical examination, which consists of the patient answering questions based on their historical medical conditions, and the illness that may be affected by such allergic reactions.

Management and Treatment

According to Demehri et al., (2014), the individuals who may be diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis need a lot of care for the disorder to be effectively managed. For instance, the parties may be required to avoid the causative allergen, which thus ensures that the disease is less stimulated, and thus helping to manage the disorder. Moreover, if the body’s immune systems have already recognized the allergen as a pathogen, then the body may permanently counter the condition.

However, for the treatment of the same, a number of steps are considered. First, the causative agent must be identified and the chemicals that may accelerate the rate of spreading of the reaction need to also be known. The medication then provided is the application of corticosteroid cream, every twice a day in the morning and in the evening until the rashes disappear (Burns, Dunn, Brady, Starr, Blosser, & Garzon 2017). It is, however, recommended that this cream be used only until when the rashes on the skin fade away, otherwise, continued use of the same may result in thinning of the skin.

Follow-up Care

According to Quaranta et al. (2017), follow up care for the individuals affected by the disorder involves ensuring that they do not get in contact with the causative allergens of the disorder. Moreover, the infected persons need to avoid using soaps and other detergents that may otherwise be rough to the skin and hence result in spreading of the condition. In addition, Hagan, Shaw, Duncan, (2008) suggests that the individuals should avoid using sharp objects, which may otherwise result in spreading the allergens

Impact of Culture on the Care of Patients

According to Burns, et al., (2017), different cultural practices by different patients, may restrict them from revealing certain, body parts for diagnosis process. This would also result in having difficulties when it comes to treatment of the disorder. Additionally, different cultures may restrict the patients from attending to hospitals for medical purposes and thereby impacting the treatment of the same.

Conclusion

The allergic response is a major disorder that has caused negative effects on the lives of the affected parties. Nevertheless, the condition can easily be cured with proper application of the corticosteroid cream and thereby cure the same. Moreover, the same can be managed through avoiding the causative allergens, which thus helps to mitigate effects of the disorder.

References

Burns, C. E., Dunn, A. M., Brady, M. A., Starr, N. B., Blosser, C. G. & Garzon D. L. (2017). Pediatric Primary Care 6th edition (pp. 1-1280). St. Louis MO: Elsevier.

Chang, M. W., & Nakrani, R. (2014). Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes). Pediatrics133(2), e434-e438. Obtained from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/dbce/c40bab6c3b6ed38e3131384d90839420ecec.pdf

Demehri, S., Cunningham, T. J., Hurst, E. A., Schaffer, A., Sheinbein, D. M., & Yokoyama, W. M. (2014). Chronic allergic contact dermatitis promotes skin cancer. The Journal of clinical investigation124(11), 5037. Available at https://www.jci.org/articles/view/77843/pdf

Hagan, J. F., Jr., Shaw, J. S., Duncan, P. M. (Eds.). (2008). Bright futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents third edition (pp.1-616). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.

Quaranta, M., Eyerich, S., Knapp, B., Nasorri, F., Scarponi, C., & Mattii, M. et al. (2017). Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Psoriasis Patients: Typical, Delayed, and Non-Interacting. Retrieved 7 July 2017, from http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101814

Qu, L., Fu, K., Yang, J., Shimada, S. G., & LaMotte, R. H. (2015). CXCR3 chemokine receptor signaling mediates itch in experimental allergic contact dermatitis. Pain156(9), 1737-1746. Obtained from http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc4545682

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