American History:

American History:

Introduction

Many Historians debate on the subject of the fall of the Roman Civilization providing reasons such as overexpansion, Christianity, economic and political issues and numerous invasions by the Barbarians. Coffin and Judith (100) argue that after the fall of the Roman Empire Europe became unstable and thus was divided into two; the political and financial parts. The paper aims at analyzing the factors that affected the economic growth of Europe between 950 and 1100, the relationship that was further formed by the economic growth and the political power and the contribution of Feudalism to the National Monarchies in England and France. In addition, the paper will detail out the roles of the Crusading movement in reforming the Church in the 11th Century.

Economic Growth

During the early stages of the Middle Age, many challenges were faced by Europe. These challenges offered the state the chance to not only improve their living standards but also to maximize the use of their skills in agriculture, integrate technology and hence improve the currency of Europe. These improvements were the primary factors that ensured the growth of the economy in Europe between 950 and 1100 (Cole and Symes 134).

Within the eighth and ninth century, agriculture had a breakthrough and become the leading economic support for Europe. Both animals and tools were the key elements that were essential in raising and harvesting crops. At this period, tools such as shovels, forks, plows, scythes, and hoes were much invested in since they could be used in the production process in Agriculture. The climatic conditions were significant with high-rise in temperatures reducing the invasion of Magyar and Viking thus damage to crops was significantly reduced. The reduced damage to crops provided consistent planting cycles (Berend, Ivan and Tibor 160). The farmers in this period had more knowledge on farming methods and they had the ability to determine which soil was fertile and the best periods for harvesting their products. This helped to increase the production of crops since the farmers had a productive way of farming. Thus, Agriculture and its products helped the Economy of Europe to grow within 950 and 1100.

Moreover, the collapse of the Roman Empire led to many cities being destroyed (Craig and Albert 45). This was because the invasion of the Barbarians was not peaceful, thus many cities were destroyed by their invasion. As a form of re-establishment of Europe from the Roman fall, major towns began to grow within Europe, establishing their foundation from the old monasteries, which they believed, was a form of inspiration and provided protection to the towns. Most of the re-established towns were strategically located in front of water bodies with the future aim of becoming ports (Berend et al., 162). The towns that were developed close to waterfronts were strategically located there for business purposes. The old cities in the same areas had been known for their International market, and thus the towns formed within the area hosted markets from many trading ports providing luxurious products such as spices and silk. Other town centers were developed near farms with the aim of practicing agriculture. This development led to the improved growth of the economy of Europe through the importing and trading of goods.

The increased trading activities in Europe led to the reinvention of currency within the state with the aim of maintaining financial stability. As trading activities became important sources of obtaining wealth within Europe between 950 and 1100, a new method of obtaining finances was needed (Craig and Albert 49). Bankers created a new financial method, which would maintain a specific system through the various towns and cities in Europe (Berend et al. 174). This financial system was designed to help individuals to invest with use of credits, which was a form of a loan. The re-invention of currency, credit, and money, the economy of Europe continued to blossom. Most decisions and motives of the towns were aimed at increasing their financial capabilities, thus the economy of Europe continued to flourish (Cole and Symes 139).

Relationship between Economic Growth and Political Power

At this period, the political aspect of the country was lagging behind as most of the effort was put on ensuring the economy of the country was stable. The commercial and agricultural revolution helped to improve the economy without considering the political side. The government had turned back to Monarchy, having kings and queens who were responsible for running the kingdom. Power and leadership were distributed among the wealthy individuals and families. The growing people at this period considered inheritance of vital importance, and thus they did not put much effort in trying to earn their wealth as they could easily inherit the same. As such, (Campos and Pablo et al. 104) agrees that most of the people who inherited the leadership power had no knowledge of how to lead people and thus the political aspect was not stable.

Contribution of Feudalism to National Monarchies in England and France

Feudalism is a political and social system that tied together Kings, Lords, and Peasants in a relationship based on loyalty and land. Feudalism was the dominant political and social structure in the Medieval Era. Within the middle Age, the noble citizens who wanted to distribute land, shelter, power or food in exchange for labor and military protection established feudalism. The system provided free labor for the monarchy and through the provision of shelter, land, and food for the minority groups, the noble citizens evaded paying for honest labor and that became their way of life. Thus, the noble people in both France and England obtained labor in exchange for materials as a form of feudalism (Eliade, Mircea 245).

Moreover, feudal grant of land was seen as personal bonds between the vassal and the lords. As time progressed, fiefs-contracts in which people were granted something of value in return for their services were transformed into hereditary holdings. Thus, the nature of this system transformed to be a form of land politics. As time passed by, countries begun to break down into smaller groups including the lesser seigneurs and castellans took over the control of the domestic lands (Berend et al. 175). The lesser lords made a lot of the prerogatives and state rights private including the market dues, obligations to use the lord’s mill, travel dues, and the right of justice, which was considered highly profitable. Feudalism was an approach to give assurance and security rapidly. It had one key shortcoming – the entire framework depended after having an area to provide for individuals as a by-product of reliability. This craves arrive (alongside the attacks) brought about a Medieval Arms race to create the most grounded military and protections (Cole and Symes 144). In this setting the formation of vigorously outfitted Knights (now utilizing the stirrups) and castles created.

In addition, the social and monetary framework rose amid ninth century in Carolingian realm, which was focused in the area that is presently France. In the long run, feudalism spread all through Europe and filled in as a bringing together organization for all parts of life. Under feudalism, which depended on a rural economy, particular social classes were subject to each other through an unpredictable arrangement of swearing unwaveringness in return for products and enterprises. At the top were rulers, who claimed the land, underneath them, were masters (aristocrats) and pastors (church ministers), who were allowed tracts of land called fiefs by the lord. Underneath rulers were vassals (knights), who held littler measures of land granted to them by masters. At the base were serfs (laborers), who cultivated the fiefs yet were not given a place where there is their own. Arrive involved by temples, cloisters and different religious foundations of Roman Catholic Church were likewise considered fiefs (Eliade and Mircea 275).

Role of the Crusading movement in reforming the Church in the 11th Century

The crusading movements played an integral role in the reforming of the Christian church within the 11th Century. The Crusades were formed to inflict war for power and the holy land and they demonstrated the power that was vested in the Church. The church was known as a monarchy and the leading party was known as the Pope. Popes had a lot of power and they had the ability to structure the military conquest. Moreover, the Pope could judge any man, but could not be judged by anyone (Berend et al. 200). There were four crusade movements, which were led by the Popes.

The Catholic Church was so worried about the brutality it passed ‘The Truce of God’ in 1027 to diminish carnage. In any case, the begin of the Crusades in 1096 offered another chance to channel the hostility of the Knights When the Crusades started, Universities were begun and consequently, there were both political and sparing modifications (Cole and Symes 148).

Conclusion

The fall of the Roman Empire was the primary cause of revolution of Europe. Most of the agricultural practices, business activities, and the currency re-establishment were driven by the reconstruction of towns after the Barbarians had invaded Europe, and thus the towns engaged in business activities. This led to an improved change of political power and hence most of the selected leaders, apart from inheritance, had to lead in a better way. The Feudalism period affected the monarchy and people were overworked with little to no pay. The modern society was inspired by the renaissance of this period and thus Europe became economically and politically stable.

Works Cited

Cole and Symes’ Western Civilizations, Volume 1

Coffin, Judith. “Western civilizations. Their history and culture (Vol. 1.” 2011 Print.

Craig, Albert M. The Heritage of World Civilizations Combined Volume. Pearson, 2015.

Eliade, Mircea. History of Religious Ideas, Volume 1: From the Stone Age to the Eleusinian mysteries. University of Chicago Press, 2014, Print.

Berend, Ivan, and Tibor. An economic history of nineteenth-century Europe: diversity and industrialization. Cambridge University Press, 2013, Print.

Campos, Pablo, et al. “Environmental Income of Livestock Grazing on Privately‐owned Silvopastoral Farms in Andalusia, Spain.” Land Degradation & Development 2016, Print.

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