Anger and Autism in children and its Implication on Affected People
Autism as Houzel, Rhode, European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the Public Health Services and Cyprus Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Studies, 2005) explain is a serious psychological infirmity with onset in early childhood stages. Autistic individuals display minimal emotional attachment, abnormal speech, retarded IQ, anger and self-injury. Statistics form previous reports demonstrate that Autistic disorder occur in up to 1% of the population and possess a tremendous public health concern owing to the disease early onset, life-long persistence and acute levels of associated impairment (Hunges, Claire & James, 2003). Credible data and statistics from CDC’S Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, showcase that the disorder is present in about 1 out of 68 children. The ailment as Hunges et al., (2003) argue is reported to occur across the board in all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Houzel, Rhode, European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the Public Health Services and Cyprus Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Studies, 2005) further cite that the infirmity is almost 5 times more common among boys (1 in 42) than girls (1 in 189).
The figure illustrates the prevalence of Autism across the globe
Figure 1.1 Autism prevalence across the globe
Fukumura et al., (2016) postulate that depressed persons affected by autism disorder experience mental health complications such as anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. The most common argument regarding the topic states that the individual’s social communication, social understanding and imagination get severely affected (Lovaas, Ivar, Califonia and Los Angeles, 2007). Moreover, depressed people display symptoms such as mood swings, irregular thinking patterns, behavioral changes and physical symptoms such as sleep disturbance, appetite changes and tiredness.
The article’s main aim is to study autistic children’s difficulty with mental disengagement from an object and its impacts on theories of autism. The research work proposes that childhood autism is best characterized as delay in growing of mind theory and retardation in ability to represent mental representations (Fukumura et al., 2016). The article employs empirical study method by carrying experiments on sixty subjects diagnosed as autistic. 60 mentally handicapped non-autistic individuals also participated. The children with autism had a mean age of 13 years and 3 months and verbal mental ages of at least 3 years and 6 months. The minors provided three successful correct answers on the training face of the windows task (Lovaas et al., 2007). The male to female ratios were 3:6:1 for the autistic category and 3:1 for the mentally handicapped. Fifteen subjects were assigned to the four experimental conditions within the autistic and non-autistic teams. The results of the experiment showed a higher number of autistic subjects than non-autistic, mentally handicapped persons 70% vs. 37% chose the box containing candy (Fukumura et al., 2016). Half of the autistic subjects in this group did 20 subsequent trials whereas none of the non-autistic did (Lovaas et al., 2007). Eleven of the entire autistic group gave a random response. Two of the non-autistic subjects gave a similar response.
The second article is based on behavioral treatment, normal educational and intellectual functioning in autistic children. The methodologies employed include empirical and follow-up study by enrolling subjects for treatment provided the groups met a couple of criterion (Fukumura et al., 2016). The clinical diagnosis of autism on chosen subjects underscored on emotional detachment, extreme interpersonal isolation, peer play, mutism and onset in infancy. The clinical diagnosis was founded on psychiatric interview with parents based on observation of the child’s behaviors, psychological intelligence test and access to pediatric checks. Subjects were assigned to an intensive treatment experimental group receiving 40 hours of one to one treatment weekly. Fukumura et al., (2016) expound that each experimental group subject had well trained student therapists working part time with the individuals in the subject’s residence and school for an aggregate 40 hours weekly in two years. Results showcased that the two control teams suffered less on intake and follow up. Data harnessed from control group two replicated information from control group one, validating effectiveness of the experimental group program. Only two children representing 10% placed in autistic children group scored in the retarded IQ range. A substantial increase in the subject levels after treatment was noted (Hunges et al., 2003). The experimental group subjects garnered an average of 30 IQ points over group one. The subjects scoring within the normal range of intellectual functioning rose from 2 to 12 whereas the number of subjects within the moderate intellectual retardation declined from 10 to 3 hugely impacting the subject’s work quality.
The final article sheds light on development of audience design in children with and without autism. According to Hunges et al., (2003) the article employs empirical study and quantitative study in examining two hypothesis regarding development and contrasting autistic children and the minors’ without the disorder. Twenty pairs of subjects with and without Autism, aged between 6 and 10 years were subjected to an experiment. Children without ASD were personally matched with the minors without the ailment on basis of chronological and verbal mental age. Results showed that children with autism were more affected by privilege knowledge than the subjects without (Fukumura et al., 2016). The minors without ASD produced contrastive adjectives than in the privileged context. The outcome revealed that in Autism neither receptive BPVS nor productive vocabularies correlated with the rising tendency.
Summary and conclusion
The data from article one backs up the mental disengagement account of subjects with autism. The failing of autistic individuals shows a ‘no mind’ to impart a false belief, making little sense to conclude that the subjects pointed the baited box because of lacking theoretical grasp. The second article comprehensively reports outcome of intensive behaviour treatment for young autistic minors revealing no significant difference between intensively treated experimental group and control teams. The third article lays emphasis on the fact that autism affects perspective taking in production and comprehension among children with and without the impairment. The findings from the three articles goes a long way to aid research bodies mandated with the task of finding ways of identification and subsequent intervention for the disorder.
Fukumura, K, Kumiko, M, Glasgow, J. University of Strathclyde. (2016). Development of audience design in children with and without ASD. Journal of Developmental Psychology, (Vol. 52), pp. 71-87, U.S: American Psychological Association.
Houzel, D., Rhode, M., European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the Public Health Services, & Cyprus Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Studies. (2005). Invisible boundaries: Psychosis and autism in children and adolescents. London: Published by Karnac for European Federation for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the Public Health Services and Cyprus Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Studies.
Hunges, S, Claire, G. James, D. (2003). Autistic children’s difficulty with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of autism. Journal of Developmental Psychology, (Vol, 29), pp. 498-510, U.S: American Psychological Association.
Lovaas, K. Ivar, O. Califonia, U. Los Angeles. (2007). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting Psychology, (Vol. 55), pp. 3-9, U.S: American Psychological Association.