Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography


An annotated bibliography gives an overview of a given research material briefly. It provides a summary of the research material and shows its quality and relevance as a research material on a topic. One is able to evaluate whether the given information meets the criteria of a given topic. Annotated bibliography contain important features such as citation, introduction, objectives, scope and conclusion among others depending specifications indicted.

First annotation

Meadows, Donella, Jorgen Randers and Dennis Meadows (2004) Growth constraints: The 30-Year Update. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green. In this article, it describes the meaning sustainability as systems and processes that can work over a long time on their own. It explains how various systems work, the components or individuals and the role they play while co-existing with each other (Amezaga, Rötting & Younger, 2011). The characteristics of a system are explained as it has a certain pattern that connects the components of a system, has no waste within it since byproducts from a given loop become input to another. Each component has its role to play and lastly is that each component of the system depend on each other thus affecting each other resulting to a dynamic equilibrium (Hines, Hungerford, & Tamara, 2007). It indicates that the many problems faced as a planet cannot be solved in isolation since they are interconnected. The current state of stability in the planet is indicated as not good to a point that the situation is critical and getting worse shown by mass extinction of species.

Sustainability stresses on the importance of having a healthy community that is safe, secure and with equal economic opportunity is vital in having a life support system that is in a good shape. With the high increase in the number of population that is even beyond the earth’s carrying capacity, food and water shortages and political instability are just but indicating the uncertainty of future sustainability if the challenges are not well tackled collectively to prevent them from becoming a disaster (Reid, 2006). Research set up especially among students in conjunction with enforcement of universal laws is encouraged to try brighten the future of sustainable planet.

Second annotation

Herremans and Allwright (2000). Environmental management systems at North American universities: What drives good performance? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education. This article discusses the importance of sustainability triad and a method that can be help students understand and implement sustainability concept. The need for environmental education in institutions is described using case of a national park and the surrounding area which enables the students to be able to identify sustainable practices and move various stakeholders from unsustainable to sustainable position (Edwards & Andres, 2010).  As a way to teach about environmental education, the schools council suggest that it should be taught about, for and from the environment to enable the students learn and develop attitudes and values that leads to environmental ethic. This allows them to learn about sustainability triad that entails social values, economic values and environmental values and can be applied in any situation of life (Stibbe & Arran, 2009). Benefits will include; the students understands the barriers to achieving sustainability and they are able to improve their judgment, analysis and evaluating any situation at hand.

The economic perspective entails satisfying the material possession and needs of human beings through money, properties or anything with economic value. Social dimension entails satisfying human basic needs while existing with other while improving the living standards of human. Environmental perspective is concerned with preservation and maintaining of integrity to ecosystem (Cleary, 2012). Teaching students on environmental awareness puts them in a better position to engage in environmental friendly activities for sustainability. There exist conflicts within the three-sustainability triad brought by self-interest, valuing human life only and having short term visions thus makes it difficult to resolve the conflicts.

Third annotation

Altman (2009). Indigenous communities, miners and the state in Australia. Canberra, ACT: Centre for Aboriginal Economic. This article describes the role of mining in Western Australia and the role it playing towards a sustainable development in the country. It describes that there still exist economic, social and environmental problems despite the operational improvements in the sector. Mining as a sector has had major impact either directly or indirectly to people living around and the environment (Howlett, Seini, McCallum, & Osborne, 2011). With the government drive to development, it has had huge economic success brought about by mining boom has led to over support and approval of mining industry development. This has initiated the need to research on the cost and benefits that mining industry have to the society. The benefits include; increased state revenue and economic success resulting from exporting of mined products, employment opportunities in the mining industry, community development programs and service delivery through funding and lastly improved infrastructure in the area among others. However, it is indicated that most of this benefits are mainly restricted to employed people within the area.

With the mining activities expected to increase in coming years, there is need to for intervention by the government and stakeholders in addressing the problems affecting and being influenced by this sector for long-term sustainability (McDonald, Mayes & Pini, 2012). The tension has grown mainly between mining industry, tourism and pastoralism in need to compete for same natural resources. Mining in the state have impacted natural resources negatively through loss of biodiversity, pollution, shortage of water and production of waste in large quantities. There is need to address these challenges for a sustainable future. Possible land reforms are advocated as a measure to restore land to its earlier usefulness.


Amezaga, J. M., Rötting, T. S., & Younger, P. L. (2011). A rich vein? Mining and the pursuit of sustainability. Environmental Science and Technology.

Hines, J. M., Hungerford, H. R., & Tamara, A. N. (2007). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education.

Reid, R. E. (2006).An investigation of human values: Building a foundation for indicators of ecologically sustainable tourism. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. Microform TJ–18698.

Edwards, Andres R. (2010) Thriving Beyond Sustainability: Pathways to a Resilient Society. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Stibbe, Arran, ed. (2009). The Handbook of Sustainability Literacy: Skills for a Changing World. Cambridge: Green Books.

Cleary, P. (2012). Mine-field: The dark side of Australia’s resources rush. Collingwood, VIC: Black.

Howlett, C., Seini, M., McCallum, D., & Osborne, N. (2011). Neoliberalism, mineral development and indigenous people: A framework for analysis. Australian Geographer.

McDonald, P., Mayes, R., & Pini, B. (2012). Mining work, family and community: A spatially oriented approach to the impact of the Ravensthorpe nickel mine closure in remote Australia. Journal of Industrial Relations.

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