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Reaction paper

Reaction paper


Individual placed therapy is recognized as individual-placed treatment as well as customer-positioned service. It is considered a humanistic method that is seen to deal with the various ways through which individuals see or carry themselves consciously relative to how a human counselor can interpret their unconscious ideas and thoughts (Rogers, 2012). The ideology is seen to have come up in the early 1950s and was developed by one American psychologist by the name Carl Rogers. He argued that the approach views human beings as having an innate tendency to develop towards their complete potential. The person-centered counselling or therapy as it is commonly known is based on six principles with three principles referred to as the core or the active values. Out of the six principles, three are known as the core values (McCarthy & Archer, 2013).

Describe in detail the three core values of person-centered counseling

Unconditional positive regard                                                                                                   

According to Rogers (2012), unconditional positive regard is the ability of a counselor to be non-judgmental and show value to the client. Rogers assumed that for persons to develop and achieve latency there was need to be appreciated as they are. The scenario denotes to the psychoanalyst’s an unfathomable and honest kind to the client. The counsellor may not favor a customer’s activities, but the psychotherapist favors the punter. Rogers (2012) claims that the psychoanalyst should display boldness. The person-centered therapist is therefore cautious to continuously uphold an optimistic assertiveness to the customer, even after being offended by the customer’s activities (McCarthy & Archer, 2013).


Empathetic Understanding

The last of the core values, which is empathetic understanding, is the ability of the counselor to strive hard possible to understand the client’s experience and what the client expects. Empathy is the aptitude to comprehend how the customer is feeling (McCarthy & Archer, 2013). This denotes to the psychoanalyst’s aptitude a perceptive and precise [not sympathetically] customer’s experience and moods. A significant portion of the chore of the individual-based therapist is to trail exactly what the customer is feeling and converse to them that the psychoanalyst comprehends their feelings (Rogers, 2012).


Congruence refers to the state of a counselor’s complete authenticity. It is also referred to as genuineness. This is the highest important trait in therapy, conferring to Roger’s viewpoint (McCarthy & Archer, 2013). This shows that, dissimilar to the psychodynamic psychoanalyst who normally upholds an empty expression and discloses miniature of their personality in treatment, the Rogerian is ardent in allowing the customer to familiarize himself or herself as they actually are. The psychoanalyst does not hold a portico (like psychiatry), that is, the psychoanalyst’s interior and peripheral skills, are, one in the equal. This means that the psychoanalyst is correct.

Value of applying these aspects universally across all treatment approaches

The customer-centered therapy or counselling model is universally accepted and applied in all treatments globally (Yellion, 2017). Regarding treatment, congruence is applied in various scenarios since the counsellors and individuals administering treatment are fully genuine with what they tell the clients as well as with the advice and counsel they give to the audience (McCarthy & Archer, 2013). The professionals harbors a deep conviction that the counsel is the best for them and therefore are genuine in their guidance and their feelings to the clients’ situations (Rogers, 2012). The unconditional positive regard, which is the ability of the counselor to be non-judgmental, is seen, because the counselor is not subjective. The counsel is based not on perception, rather on what the client is really saying. The take ensures that the counselor delivers an un-biased judgment to the client (Yellion, 2017). It is therefore client based. Counselors demonstrate empathy, which is the counsellor’s ability to strive to understand the client’s experience by interrogating the client to find the root cause or even the duration of the condition faced by the client. It helps the counselor to chart an effective way and remedy to the client’s problem (Rogers, 2012).

The undertaking ensures that the client is not given a remedy for another condition other the one the one affecting them. It also ensures the counselor does not undermine or overlook some conditions or some effects (McCarthy & Archer, 2013). The use of the core values in client-centered therapy ensures that the clients are well counseled without omitting any of the conditions from the client. It also guarantees that the counsellor will shelve his or her feelings and opinions in order to make the outcome based on the client issues (Rogers, 2012).


This is mainly described as the scientific study of mental disorders. It includes the struggles to fathom the inherent, genetic, mental, and societal sources as well as actual classification structures (nosology) and sequence through all phases of development; appearances and cure. The concept could also denote the appearance of manners that show the occurrence of a cerebral disorder (Yellion, 2017). Empirical psychotherapy is a logical mode of treatment, which operates on the trust that internal conflict inside a being is owed to that person’s conflict with the absolutes of the same. The fundamentals, as renowned by Irvin D. Yalom, are the inexorableness of demise, liberty and its associated accountability, empirical separation, and insignificance (Längle, 2003). The four absolutes, also denoted to as final worries, make the figure of empirical psychoanalysis and create the outline in which a psychoanalyst hypothesizes a client’s disorders to come up with a technique of action (McCarthy & Archer, 2013). In the British Institute of empirical therapy, the absolutes are perceived as foreseeable strains and inconsistencies of the four scopes of hominid including, the bodily, communal and individual as well as divine kingdoms (Cooper, 2003). The Viennese Institute of Empirical therapy defines four central empirical extents as an organizational perfect of remedy. Their achievement (liberatingly permitted by the process of Personal Empirical Investigation) clues to individual empirical contentment (McCarthy & Archer, 2013).

According to Längle (2003), because there is no solitary empirical opinion, views on emotional failure vary. According to philosophers linked with Yalom, emotional failure comes from a person’s rejection and failure to handle the usual empiric nervousness, originated by challenging lifetime’s “absolutes”: humanity, separation, insignificance, and liberty. For other philosophers, there exists no such mechanism as mental dysfunction or psychological sickness (Yellion, 2017). Each method of existence is simply an appearance of in what way an individual selects to animate individual’s lifetime. However, one might seem unable to reach an understanding with the nervousness of existing alone in the biosphere. An empirical analyst could assist an individual to accepting the sensations rather than attempting to alter them as if they are somewhat incorrect (Rogers, 2012). Everybody has the liberty of selecting how they will live, though this might go unexercised since coming up with such decisions is problematic. It might appear cooler and innocuous to fail to make selections that an individual will be liable for. Numerous individuals will continue being ignorant of substitute varieties in a lifetime for numerous social explanations (Yellion, 2017).

Persons who relate to themselves generate an individualistic world (Längle, 2003). This element comprises opinions of their own personality, their past involvement, and their upcoming potentials. Inconsistencies are frequently felt in terms of individual fortes and faintness. Persons explore individuality, a sensation of existence, which is considerable, and has a personality (Rogers, 2012). Nevertheless, unavoidably numerous actions will challenge them with indication opposing the individuals into a form of misperception or breakdown. Action and inactiveness are a significant schism. Personal-assertion and resolve align with the previous, thereby submitting a yielding finality (Längle, 2003). Fronting the last closure of personality that originates from individual loss may lead to nervousness and misperception to countless individuals who have not hitherto surrendered their logic of personal-status.


Cooper, M. (2003). Empirical therapies (1st ed.). London: Sage Publications.

Längle, A. (2003). Empirical analysis (1st ed.). München: CIP-Medien.

McCarthy, C. J. & Archer, J., Jr. (2013). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. San Diego: Bridgepoint
Education, Inc.

Rogers, C. (2012). On becoming a person (1st ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Yellion, G., (2017). Person Centred Therapy – Core Conditions | Simply Psychology. (2017). Retrieved 21 April 2017, from

Conflict Management

Conflict Management

Section 1

In chapter seven, the author indicates that intercultural conflicts arise due to lack of ample knowledge requisite to deal with conflicts that are cultural based. Personally, I tend to identify conflict as an existing struggle between two or more interdependent parties with unmet emotional needs or incompatible goals. In other words, conflict arises when there is an implicit or explicit frustration or emotional struggle between people who come from differing cultures over perceived incompatible norms, goals, face concerns, values communication outcomes or scarce resources (Tooney & Oetzel, 2001). However, I have to concur with the author that the process of managing conflict is much more important than engaging in it. The type of management style employed when dealing with conflict has an adverse effect to the outcomes. In this regard, one needs to have a highly flexible approach when engaging or managing conflict. Failure to doing so, could lead to polarized situational outcomes that are capable worsening existing conflicts (Toomey & Oetzel, 2001).

Section 2

The first topic that I found interesting from the reading is the significance of our cultural value patterns. The cultural patterns are important in our individual lives because they are responsible in influencing our expectations, attitudes and behaviors. In fact, there is a great possibility that play crucial roles in engendering intercultural frustrations among individuals (Tooney & Oetzel, 2001). For example as someone from a collectivistic culture, I will be more tempted to approach a certain situation having a specific group’s goal in mind. On the other hand, an individual having an individualistic culture will more likely approach the same state of affairs with self-serving goals in mind. It is indeed interesting to watch conflict or frustrations develop when these two different mindsets clash.

The second interesting topic derived from the readings is the issue of communication patterns in the global working environment and how they contribute to the development of conflicts between workers. A type of communication pattern is more likely to be influenced by the structure and expectations of power distance (Tooney & Oetzel, 2001). A status achievement conflict approach is as a result of large power distance and individualism. This is particularly interesting since given this particular situation, I would value earned inequality and freedom highly relative to other values. Moreover, due to power distance, I may feel free to communicate with my superiors however; I would not anticipate much change from the top management. This means that the effectiveness of my communication channel would be compromised.

Finally, conflict styles employed by different individuals dictate the approaches taken to resolving conflicts.  The most critical aspect of any individual’s public self-image is his or her face (Toomey & Oetzel, 2001). The readings have explored various strategies that different individuals use when protecting or defending self-image. Personally, if I happen to encounter a situation that will likely put a threat to my sense of public image, I would be forced to engage in face-saving strategies. This is an imperative observation that helps me identify or discover values that I hold critical in my life.

Section 3

Different people adopt different approaches when resolving conflicts depending on their specific traits. This presents two main problems. First, what are the best strategies to employ between introverts who tend to dodge their conflicts instead of attacking them? Moreover, extroverts tend to dominate when approaching conflicts (Toomey & Oetzel, 2001). This in turn demonstrates low concern for others and high concern for self. In this scenario, extroverts tend to protect and safe guide their own interests while steamrolling those of an introvert. What are the best conflict styles that could be effective when resolving cultural conflicts between an introvert and extrovert?


Toomey S. & Oetzel G. J. (2001). Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively. London. SAGE Publishers.

Starbucks Case Analysis

Starbucks Case Analysis


Starbucks is an organization that delivers a sustainable economic model. It is a leading light in obtaining resources ethically and reducing the environmental effect of the business. The aim mission was developed by the firm’s owner Schultz, who acquired the company in the year 1987. The company has stores experience across 66 countries. Starbucks aims at producing environmental friendly products that will not only not harm the environment. The organization purposes to minimize the impact of other related products from other companies (schultz, 2013).

Discussion and Analysis

Current Digital Marketing Tools

Starbucks Company has realized that it is thriving in a technologically growing world that continues to develop new technological devices. In the process, the management has acknowledged that the firm needs to incorporate the use of the technologies in its running and marketing strategies to ably compete against rivals and still stay relevant in its field (schultz, 2013). Starbucks customers profited from Schultz’s commitment to innovation. It provided Wi-Fi in their stores in 2002 and connected with Apple in 2007 to offer free entrance to iTunes Music. Transactions followed thereby enabling the company to expand its technology attention to hold more information, provide loyalty prizes, and eventuall disbursements. The initiative was a marketing strategy that saw Starbucks increase sales and compete comfortably with rival producers by advertising their products by the use of the technology available. Much of todays’ generation rely on the web to deliver whatever they need. Starbucks ensured that the firm had a large client list from the web based customers (McDonald & Dunbar, 2004).

The firm created a tarbuck app to market its products and services. The Starbucks app presented a variety of skins, such as a store locating system and payment organization. Operators brought about online Order and Pay by connecting their app to a credit card or PayPal account and deposited cash onto the instrument to serve as a withdrawal card. There was an optional feature to spontaneously re-fund the tool when the credit dipped excessively low. Operators could instruct using the app as well. Schultz and Scott (2015) note that a message operator permitted Starbucks to drive operator communications extending from usability instructions to a new list of options.

Starbucks capitalized on mobile device adoption rates worldwide. The maiden edition of its mobile app in 2011 was essentially a digital form of the Starbucks Card. The adoption rate was heartening that the company continued to invest in the app (Jeem, 2010).

In 2012, the company had made a big bet on Square by investing $25 million in the payments start-up. The investment streamlined the store experience and eventually enabled the Mobile Order & Pay feature of the app. Starbucks earned the 2012 title of the mobile marketer of the year, after also having won it in 2010, for its innovations in creating two-way communications with customers via SMS and for its strategic use of QR codes (Dorn, Messner & Wänke, 2016). The company drove opt-ins with special offers and encouraged users to text specific codes to receive discounts (Schultz & Galobart, 2012). By 2013, customers could access the app by shaking their mobile device and tip baristas via the tool. The company served mobile ads using Mobile Rich Media Ad Interface Definitions (MRAID), and the geo-location tracing incentivized operators to stopover the nearby shop.

The business was steadily profiting from the struggles by the end of 2015. Customers in excess of 9 million of  the total 45 million clienteles were repaying via their mobile instruments every week. Vigorous mobile operators rose by 32% in the third quarter of 2015 matched to the similar quarter of 2014. The digital disbursements was for up to 21% of the total in-store dealings in numerous U.S. locations(Schultz & Gordon, 2011). The dealings were extra moneymaking for Starbucks as the dues on old-style credit card dealings were greater. Portable Order & Pay was accessible all over the United States and in Canada by 2015 wintertime breaks. The feature allowed vibrant evocative vending, which pressed food substances accessible in every store founded on the customers’ acquisition account (Schultz & Galobart, 2012). Mobile users grew to 32% between the third and fourth quarters of 2015. Howard Schultz revealed that the dealings on Mobile Order & Pay were rising “by the hour.” Food delivery was hot in 2015, a trend to which Starbucks was not immune. The company partnered with Postmates for a Seattle, Washington, pilot late in the year for coffee delivery in less than one hour (Schultz, 2011).

Customer Loyalty and Growth

Dorn et al., (2016) explain that Starbucks Rewards proved the most successful, with more than 20 million members worldwide by the end of 2015 . During the 2015 break period, the corporation introduced a Merry Mondays package through which the firm presented bonuses like the bonus bakery piece for any Prizes affiliate who remunerated through the Starbucks app. The initiative led to registration in the program, application downloads, and transactions (Schultz & Scott, 2015). The move made customers value it much as they noticed it appreciated the community under which its growth was rooted. The trust they had in the company increased thereby raising the purchase of the company’s products.The accomplishment increased customer base for the organization (Dorn et al., 2016).

In 2015, he introduced four eons of teaching coverage for a partner or kid of benefits-qualified workers who remained U.S. experts. Schultz explained his rationale in this investment in his paperback that Forwards, “[Employees] are the true emissaries of our marque (Dorn et al., 2016). Provision to clients makes them have faith in their labor and that they are a portion of a greater assignment, they will in seizure individually raise the involvement for every client, a thing you can barely achieve by using a poster or a 30-second advert.” Customers also benefited from Schultz’s commitment to innovation (McDonald & Dunbar, 2004). Starbucks provided Wi-Fi in their from 2002 and affiliated through Apple in 2007 to offer free contact to iTunes Music.

Digital Marketing Tools Selection

The company evaluated the reviews on the apps in choosing the digital marketing tools (Schultz, 2011). The move gave the firm a large customer base as the more reviews and fame a tool attracts, the more customers it would provide the organization. For example, when they choose Twitter, Starbucks was also a pioneer company to effectively use social media to intensify a compensated media drive. In 2009, it introduced outside selling in six key U.S. metropolises and incentivized Twitter cliques with a gamble to win $20 gift passes for Tweeting photographs of the adverts. By 2014, its Twitter strategy was more complex. Anybody who owned a Twitter account connected to their Starbucks pass could possibly purchase auburn for anybody on Chirrup by tweeting at the account @tweetacoffee and including the Twitter account of the person they desired to purchase for. As an outcome of labors, the product conquered the brunet space on public media. Ninety-four out of a hundred of Facebook operators were either one fan of Starbucks or pals with somebody who was once one.

Recommendations for Improvement

Starbucks should consider employing better and modern technological advancements to increase their sales. The latest that could help the firm market their products are buffer, canva, hotjar and many more.

Conceivably the greatest time-saving tip for communal media promotion is arranging posts before time for the social outlines (Schultz & Gordon, 2011). The corporation can group the social means selling process, do all their curating and combining all in one instance and then extend the informs out athwart the next day or even week. The always free plan at Buffer gives a chance to associate an outline from each system (one from Facebook, one from Twitter, etc.) and to plan ahead 10 stakes for each network. If you stake three posts per day, that means you can stay three days ahead all the time.

In excess of 2 million individuals have confidence in Canva to aid them with generating imageries for social platform, blog columns, and virtually any extra use one can envisage. The augmented sizes and integral models make it quick and tranquil to generate tall images for use in Pinterest, quadrilateral ones to be used in Twitter, quadrangular for use in Facebook or even Instagram, and any other size in between (Schultz, 2011). Following the number of people joining the firm’s emailing list, subscribing to their service and buying their products every single day can be tiring and deprived of the correct tool. The firm need to stay on top of their most significant analytics from each amenity the corporation can use in actual time with an all-in-one dashboard


Dorn, M., Messner, C., & Wänke, M. (2016). Partitioning the Choice Task Makes Starbucks Coffee Taste Better. JMB, 1(3-4), 363-384.

Jeem, h. (2010). Everything but the coffee: learning about America from Starbucks. Choice Reviews Online, 47(08), 47-4511-47-4511.

McDonald, M. & Dunbar, I. (2004). Market segmentation (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.

Schultz, H. & Scott, M. (2015). The New Mr. Coffee: Howard Schultz. Business Ethics: The Magazine Of Corporate Responsibility, 9(6), 26-29.

Schultz, H. & Villanueva Galobart, J. (2012). Howard Schultz: “The equity of the brand is defined by the experience.”. IESE Insight, (12), 45-49.

Schultz, h. (2011). Starbucks Pays More to Benefit Coffee Workers. Business Ethics: The Magazine Of Corporate Responsibility, 12(2), 9-9.

Schultz, h. (2013). Starbucks turns coffee grinds and old muffins into laundry detergent. Focus On Surfactants, 2013(3), 3.

Weinstein, A. (2011). The Benefits of Benefit Segmentation. Journal Of Segmentation In Marketing, 3(1), 1-4.

Schultz, H. & Gordon, J. (2011). Onward (1st ed.). New York, NY: Rodale.



According to Crowther (2010), stakeholders are players in an organization who have a pegged stake, claim or interest in the outfit they subscribe to. The carder falls into two categories namely internal and external stakeholders. Examples of stakeholders in an organization are shareholders, customers, suppliers, investors and employees.

Stakeholders affiliated to any organization must have concern and a burning interest in the ethical management of the organization (Phillips, 2003). Different categories of stakeholders be it customers, employees or shareholders recognize the fact that the particular organization they are affiliated to serves them and failure to display concern in its ethical management would amount to jeopardy. Kaler (2011) gives a perfect example that shareholders who are the owners of an organization receive benefits in terms of dividends from the particular organization they subscribe to. The carder comprehends that unethical management of the organization would most likely result to deterioration in performance. The outcome of such a scenario would be a decline in profits realized and consequently reduced dividends. The stakeholder’s would therefore reap less for lack of showing interest in ethical management of the organization (Kaler, 2011). Overlooking on the way an organization is management would affect the stakeholders claim, stake and interest in the particular organization.

The size of the divided or the success realized is not all that matters to stakeholders. The stakeholders harbour other concerns such as the organization’s posterity. The group lives to ensure that despite how successful an organization is, the future of the outfit is guaranteed, to ensure sustained benefits over years (McLean, 2006). The stakeholders want to ensure presence of ethical management to guarantee existence of the organization for many years.


Crowther, D. (2010). Stakeholders. International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies. doi:10.4135/9781412956246.n500

Kaler, J. H. (2011). Who are an organization’s stakeholders and to what extent should an organization have regard to their interests? London: Henry Stewart Talks.

McLean, G. N. (2006). Organization development: Principles, processes, performance. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Phillips, R. (2003). Stakeholder theory and organizational ethics. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

The Therapeutic Alliance

The Therapeutic Alliance

According to Michel, Jobes and American Psychological Association (2011), therapeutic alliance denotes the relationship between a healthcare practitioner and a patient. The helping alliance describes the engagement between the two parties and the beneficial change that a patient reaps. The working alliance forms the most fundamental part when kick starting a psychotherapy serssion. In light of previous studies, the interaction and trust between the client and therapist best predicts treatment outcome.

Question 2

I subscribe to the fact that engagement between a clinician and a therapist entirely contributes the outcome efficiency. Numerous studies prove that a purposeful collaborative alliance between a clinician and a patient is directly linked to positive therapeutic progress and outcome. Michel, Jobes and American Psychological Association (2011) argue that therapists should focus on alliance cultivation for better results. The power of the working alliance has a direct relationship with end results. Previous research on the topic shows that therapeutic alliances start right when a patient makes a call to book the first session with a physician. The interaction through communication creates a first impression that lasts until the end of therapeutic engagement (Muran & Barbe, 2010). The effect and outcome is merely not reliant on skills and competence of a physician. A positive outcome require understanding and empathy from the therapist. Displaying a high degree of warmness during interactions builds a friendly alliance ultimately realizing positive results. Contrary, rigid therapists who fail to give a listening ear, experience strained relationship with a client leading to negative results (Muran & Barbe, 2010). Inappropriate self-disclosure and insensitivity characterize weak and unhelpful client-clinician relationships. A client having a therapeutic session with a clinician who insensitively hold silence, is overly structured and exercises intense interpretation creates a hostile environment resulting to an undesirable outcome.


As Muran and Barbe (2010) argue a continuous and authentic working alliance amounts to a successful therapy. The effectiveness of any alliance depends on the prevailing atmosphere between a client and the clinician. Relationships characterized by empathy, genuineness and positive unconditional client regard instils satisfaction to a client and makes a patient yearn to have similar repeat sessions. A clinician who fails to understand a client feelings imparts a negative impression within the patient consequently scoring a low outcome (Safran & Muran, 2000). Prosperous relationships calls for openness and honesty from the therapist. Physicians must show positive regard and avoid enacting any conditions of worth. Disregard of a patients’ values puts an ongoing therapeutic alliance in jeopardy. The behavior demonstrated by a clinician is critical to the outcome of the therapy. The relationship nature is the most fundamental art of any therapy. The effectiveness of all therapies exudes from aspects such as focusing on emotions and a patient’s feelings (Safran & Muran, 2000).

Failure to hold a patient as an equal partner during interactions is a show of demeaning the client resulting to negative transference. For an individual to trust the physician, the clinician must examine incidences of mistrust and review client goals and ultimate expectations. A clinician must inculcate a high condition of worth to make a patient feel valued unconditionally. During interactions a physician must work to dispense feelings of anger and hurt to realize a fruitful working alliance (Safran & Muran, 2000). A clinician-client relationship where a physician displays warmth, acceptance, empathy and ability to comprehend a client feelings achieves a therapy’s set goals achieving mutual satisfaction. The outcome of a therapeutic alliance depends on trust and emotional closeness between involved parties. The client and the therapist must formulate expectations regarding change of behavior. The two should reach a concurrence on methods to employ to realize set goals.


As Safran and Muran (2000) argue a strong bond in the relationship is a necessity to realize set targets. A fruitful therapeutic alliance is mutually founded between the two party’s shared goals, tasks and cultivated bond. Realizing a rewarding outcome require therapist to increase rapport with clients by displaying interest, showing active engagement and embracing the patients intentions. Quality of a therapeutic alliance is directly related to the outcome of the engagement. An efficacious connection between a therapist and a patient strengthens the alliance facilitating realizations of stipulated expectations. Current research on topic explains that therapists and clients must prioritize on building the relationship to foster good results (Safran & Muran, 2000). An amiable therapist client engagement is a core foundation for a profitable therapy. To foster a safe and a trustworthy relationship parties must honestly and openly discuss issues.

A collaborative relationship requires a positive perception for both clinician and the patient. As Safran and Muran (2000) observe the two must work as a team. Parties must take active roles for a fruitful outcome. A good rapport in a therapeutic relationship supports feedback system for both parties to make informed choices and decisions.

Cooperation during sessions in a therapeutic alliance accomplishes productive results. Prevailing relationship is powerful and acts as an agent of behavior change. Exploring negatives in a therapeutic relationship creates a sour environment and may contribute to premature termination of a session (Safran & Muran, 2000). Quality of prevailing relationship is an ingredient that determines outcome of an engagement.


Collaborative client relationships has myriad characteristics. The elements are core to success of the engagement. The features form the foundation of the relationship.


Therapist-client genuineness

Previous studies emphasize on importance of the clinician and the patient expressing concern authentically to foster cooperative relationship. As Muran and Barber (2010) expound, genuineness cultivates value of honesty and trustworthiness strengthening therapeutic relationships. Expression of real thoughts, feelings and problems in a working client relationship interaction calls for both parties to be true to one another. Collaboration is cultivated through trust and positive altitude enhanced by authenticity of both parties.

According to Safran and Muran (2000), genuiness serve as the heart of every true client relationships. The virtue is expressed through openness. A comfortable environment created by the element enable patients express feelings freely. Clients become comfortable in sharing with a therapist, ultimately deepening relationship. The feature prompts a fearsome and fearless exchange between parties in a therapeutic relationship.


Manifestation of empathy in client relationships nurtures collaboration consequently reducing level of potential conflict in an alliance (Safran & Muran, 2000). The element is essential in improving relationships and eliminating feelings of racism, sexism and other forms of sensitive aspects. Furthermore, the feature cultivates cooperation by making parties in a working alliance more open-minded about pertinent issues.  Empathetic client interactions build relationships, stimulate self-exploration, provide support and help clinicians focus attention on the client. The virtue enhances manifestation of respect and ultimately tight working relationship. Empathy enable clinicians recognize and relate to patients feelings. Clients is such engagements experience satisfying relationships. Empathetic physicians easily identify with a client experience and understand raised problems effectively. As Safran and Muran (2000) note, empathy is a key element in establishing collaborative client relationships. Clinicians exercising the feature understand issues from a client perspective facilitating accurate crafting of solutions. The cooperation creates an environment that propels the therapy in a productive direction (Safran & Muran, 2000). Clients in such a relationship comply more because of the feeling that a physician is sensitive about needs.

Trust and confidentiality

The elements enable clients have the willingness to share problems, concerns and issues considered private. The element gives clients assurance of safety in disclosing secret problems.  A therapeutic alliance lacking trust makes clients reluctant in giving information. The aspect provide reassurance and make the individual comfortable during therapies (Safran & Muran, 2000).

Positive regard

According to Muran and Barber (2010), different clients have different needs therefore demanding positive regard from a therapist. The phenomenon creates awareness and enable clinicians effectively monitor needs ultimately cultivating a collaborative atmosphere. It is an important aspect in providing support and encouragement in client relationships. Moreover, the established environment enhances improvement of a patient’s condition. Positive regard is important in preventing termination of therapy sessions and fostering effectiveness of results. Developing the perception helps get rid of barriers to successful therapeutic outcome. The coordination promotes creation of shared goals and counters possible resistance and separation during sessions.
            The element is essential for creation of cooperative client relationships. Humour in alliances stimulates a client’s mood and state of mind. It serves as a therapeutic experience and allows a patient feel more in control of the prevailing situation. The amusement impacts a client feelings and thoughts, biochemistry and behavior (Muran & Barber, 2010).


Michel, K., Jobes, D. A., & American Psychological Association. (2011). Building a therapeutic alliance with the suicidal patient. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Muran, J. C., & Barber, J. P. (2010). The therapeutic alliance: An evidence-based guide to practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Safran, J. D., & Muran, J. C. (2000). Negotiating the therapeutic alliance: A relational treatment guide. New York: Guilford Press.


Major Implication for Airpower

Major Implication for Airpower


The battlespace in the air domain will be utilized in the future with the evolving modern welfare. According to White (2014), clear conceptual issues within the operations in the land domain seem to be clear; yet combating on the same is a challenge. There is need to have air combatants while maintaining proper operations on the land with the advancement in technological aspects. According to Lamberth (2000), the air domain is described as being the atmosphere that begins from the surface of the earth and extends largely to the altitude in which the operations of the main results are negligible. The different implication may be brought about by this aspect of having the dominance over air power in the region. Countries such as China and Russia that are of high competency may regard the air domain as a single region for improving their battlegrounds. The nature of the same is deemed to cause much competitive nature on the issue of air power.

Peer Competition

One factor to consider is that the air domain is not centered on people, and thus technical solutions are affected in regards to aiding the ground individuals. Peer competitors including China and Russia have capabilities enough to contest on the matter of air domain. According to Epstein (2014), the competitors pose a large threat to the dominance of the air domain, and it is thus difficult to maintain and attain the same. In this regard, the need for cross-domain, including the land and the sea, is rising, especially because of the improved technological advancement that affects these domains.

With the rising competition for the air domain power and limited access to the land domain, the peer competitors including China and Russia pose a profound threat of ensuring that the dominance of this domain remains contested for, yet with them having the majority of the power over the same. According to Van Crefeld, (2015), the utilization of the air domain in the majority of the defensive nature will be limited to given regions depending upon the various competing agents in the given scenario. This may hence lead to increased usage of the land barriers and defense forces may be more dependent on the land as much as the same is dependent on the air.

Dependence on Land and Sea

The rising competitive nature of the peers may result in the utilization of the land and sea domains as part of the major aspects to be utilized as opposed to using the air power. According to Pape, (2014), however, the land domains are dependent on the air power since the same cannot function in a proper way that without the air power. In this regard, there increasing dependency on the land will be more pronounced especially because of the evolving technologies that may otherwise lead to proper utilization and integration with part of the air power.

In addition, the same may result in the merging of the other peer competitions in a way to combat the competitive nature of the same. According to Lamberth, (2000), the coming up with a contingency plan to ensure that the contest for dominion of the air power will be averted and hence the major planners and competitors will work together in the given aspects. In addition to the same, the competitors may thus co-involve each other with the dominion over the air power and hence improved air security in the same.

Neutral Parity

According to White (2014), there exists a difference in the levels of control of the air domain. This is primarily because of the differences in powers of the various competitive Nations including China and Russia. In this regard, the lack of one single dominance of the strength of the air domain presents a great challenge as to how the same should be maintained. However, in the future, the same may have to be controlled from a central region. The impact of this element would be positive, in that the dominion of the air region will not be contested for, but will otherwise be claimed only for utilization at given scenarios.

In addition, with the central control, the same will have proper management resulting in concrete evidence of usage and general maintenance of the same. According to White (2014), air superiority is necessary as the majority of the various activities within the air domain will be effectively controlled and maintained properly. The same implies that the security of the given air domain will hence be improved, resulting in improved efficiency in the control and air battles, which, in turn, lead to more inclusion and utilization of the land and sea domains.

Enhanced Regional Conflicts

The competitive nature of major of the superior nations such as Russia and China for the air power superiority may result in conflicts between these Countries. According to Mrozek, (2015), hunger for power is an aspect that may lead to conflicts and ultimately lead to war. This is because each of the super powers aims at having ultimate control over the air domains, disregarding the other parties in the same. Thus, this may result in feuds between these nations over the superiority in air these domains.

Alternatively, the same may enhance and catalyze the feuds that have existed between these different nations. According to Harkavy (2013), slight disagreements and disregards may cause war on various grounds for conflicts that may not have been entirely resolved between the nations. In this regard, the feuds may have to be resolved through battles and wars, owing to the fact that these firms may be competing for the air dominance. Moreover, the party with higher superiority over the given aspects may hence have enemies from regions within, thereby having to battle with them over time due to their power over the air domain.


            The air domain is important to many nations, and superiority of the same means that they may have better focus and support to the ground teams especially in battle. The air power, therefore, is an aspect contested for by the major countries such as Russia and China. However, many implications including the dependence on the alternative domains including the cyberspace, the land, and the sea may be prudent owing to competition over air domain. Enhanced battles and conflicts between these nations may arise due to the competitive nature of the same, and hence there is a need for a central control of these aspects.


Epstein, J. M. (2014). Measuring Military Power: The Soviet Air Threat to Europe. Princeton University Press.

Harkavy, R. E. (2013). Great power competition for overseas bases: The geopolitics of access diplomacy. Elsevier.

Lamberth, B. (2000). The Role of Air Power Going into the 21st Century. Emerging threats, force structures, and the role of air power in Korea, 115-141. From

Mrozek, D. J. (2015). Air Power And The Ground War In Vietnam, Ideas And Actions. Pickle Partners Publishing. From

Pape, R. A. (2014). Bombing to win: Air power and coercion in war. Cornell University Press.

Van Crefeld, M. (2015). Air Power and Maneuver Warfare. Pickle Partners Publishing.

White Jr, S. R. (2014). Futures Seminar: The United States Army in 2025 and Beyond. A Compendium of US Army War College Student Papers. Volume 1. ARMY WAR COLLEGE CARLISLE BARRACKS PA CENTER FOR STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP. From

Child Abuse and Neglect

Child Abuse and Neglect

Child abuse refers to the treatment of children in a malicious way that affects their physical, psychological, or sexual mistreatment and neglect of a child. The mistreatment might be from parents, caregivers, educators or any person who may be directly linked with the children.  According to Chen and Chan, (2016), child neglect is a form of abuse of children where the child’s needs such as medical care, clothing, housing, nutrition, and education are not met. The federal government refers to child neglect and abuse as a form of failure of child caregivers to act as responsible parents for the child, which results in emotional, physical and sexual exploration and abuse.

Risk Factors of Child Abuse

Child abuse can arise from a number of issues that contribute to the risk of abuse increasing. The factors can be grouped into three, that is, the parental, environmental and child factors.


The parent may have abused other children or was abused at their tender ages. The mother might not be supported and may lack enough education or may be isolated and therefore abuses the child. In addition, the pregnancy may not have been wanted or the parent may not be mentally fit.


Violence in the family, stress, poverty, overcrowding and lack of good nutrition in ma lead to child abuse (Houlgate, 2017). In addition, non-biological adults who may be living in the same house with the children may abuse these children.


The child may have development or physical disability, lack of attachment between the parent and the child, or constantly falling seek, being unwanted colicky can lead to child abuse. Also, if the child is as a result of an abusive relationship, then it is possible that the child may be abused by the parent (s).

Signs and Symptoms of Child Abuse

            According to LLL, the signs and symptoms of that may suggest cases of child abuse, among others, include:

  • Slower development of their skills and abilities such as socializing and talking as compared other children of the same age.
  • Failure to gain weight and height over time.
  • Unusual parent-child relationship.
  • Emotional health issues such as low self-esteem, depression, thought of suicide, and anxiety.
  • The sudden drop in grades in school.
  • Children running away from home.
  • Signs of pain, discomfort, and fear.

Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect

According to Pasalich, Cyr, Zheng, McMahon and Spieker (2016), prevention refers to the strategies and measures that can be undertaken in reducing the probability of a risk from occurring.  Some of the best ways to ensure that child abuse and neglect is curbed include:

  • Development of prevention programs and schemes
  • Promotion of the well-being of families and child-parent relationship
  • Making sure the public is aware of child abuse and that it affects the children.
  • Advocating for Psychological treatment and counseling to parents when they bear children and to those who are parents already.

Roles of Nurses in child abuse and neglect prevention


            Within the primary prevention, nurses should aim at preventing abuse before it begins by focusing on individuals from the community through expensive based projects to bring issues to the light of the issue and offer help administrations.


            Nurses advocate for prevention through the development of programs which are aimed at minimizing the incidences of child neglect and abuse through the identification of families which are likely to abuse and neglect children and giving them supportive services to help them resolve their issues (Pasalich et al., 2016).




            Here, the nurses are expected to develop frameworks in which they can identify families where child abuse has recently occurred and design plans to help the affected children and the conflicting party to resolve their problems.

Intervention, Treatment, and Reporting

            The nurses should be ready to identify any child who is has been noted to be treated in any abusive way or with neglect. After the identification, the nurses should intervene and try to help these children in overcoming and solving the abuse issue. This process will thus lead to the treatment process, which is only necessary if there is any sexual or physical abuse or malnutrition and other neglects that may need treatment. Houlgate (2017) adds that the nurses should as well report their findings on the abuse of the child to the administration and health care services for preventive measures to be made in due time to reduce additional risks for the children. Any person should report the cases of child neglect if they notice any cases. The reporting can be done to the police stations or health care centers and thus the ones who receive the information can devise plans on solving the same (Chen & Chan, 2016). One of the referral points that is within the United States is the Prevent Child Abuse America organization, which is responsible for treatment, counseling and providing care for children who have been abused.

Differences between child abuse and child neglecting

Child Abuse Child Neglecting
Physical hurting of a child Failure to provide basic needs
Resulting effects can be treated but may cause long lasting effects. Can cause long-lasting effects on the child
Exist in three categories: physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Exist in four categories; physical, emotional, educational, and environmental neglect.
Examples include; sexual abuse, slapping, isolation, and threats. Examples include poor nutrition and lack of education.

Reporting of the cases should be similar since the cases affect children and may result in unwanted cases. According to Briere, Runtz, Eadie, Bigras and Godbout (2017), the types of abuse cannot be defined in the same way but their reporting systems should be similar. Therefore, many resources are available for the different types of abuse, which may include non-governmental aid, hospital care and the government and the police. The community nursing changes at every level of nursing prevention depending on the type of abuse. The nurses are expected to be more concerned with the community around those children being affected by abuse cases and with parents for the cases where neglect is noted.


In conclusion, the nurses play an important role in preventing child neglect and abuse. This is because it is their responsibility and mandate to ensure children have good security, health and physical and hence the nurses must ensure that children are not abused. The nurses are expected to report any cases of neglect to the administration for proper action to be undertaken in the event of reducing the associated risks arising from child abuse and neglect. As such, it is imperative to ensure the children are protected and the parents and caregivers have the necessary information on how to reduce and prevent child abuse and neglect.


Briere, J., Runtz, M., Eadie, E., Bigras, N., & Godbout, N. (2017). Disengaged parenting: structural equation modeling with child abuse, insecure attachment, and adult symptomatology. Child Abuse & Neglect67, 260-270.

Chen, M., & Chan, K. L. (2016). Parental absence, child victimization, and psychological well-being in rural China. Child Abuse & Neglect59, 45-54.

Houlgate, L. D. (2017). Child Abuse and Neglect. In Philosophy, Law and the Family (pp. 127-141). Springer International Publishing.

Pasalich, D. S., Cyr, M., Zheng, Y., McMahon, R. J., & Spieker, S. J. (2016). Child abuse history in teen mothers and parent–child risk processes for offspring externalizing problems. Child abuse & neglect56, 89-98.

Waste Management

Waste Management

Incident description and its Environmental Impact

Mount Polley Mine Spill comprises breach of the tailing pond that drains its contaminated water into the Quesnel Lake and the Cariboo River. Consistently, Quesnel Lake was among the largest lakes in the world with clean and deep water. However, after testing the purity of water in the lake, the results revealed that increased levels of arsenic, selenium among other metallic wastes had contaminated the water. Contaminated water from the tailing pond consisted a slurry of toxic components that contaminates the lake waters as well as addition of mud in the lake. Pollutants spilled in the lake are among the biggest environmental disasters encountered in the Canadian history. Test results indicated that 326 tonnes of nickel, 18, 000 tonnes of copper, 176 tonnes of lead and over 350 tonnes of Arsenic were present in the contaminated water. Notably, the said hard metals have a great environmental impact that affect both human, plants and water creatures negatively.

Extreme selenium level observed in fish after sampling indicated that its impact exceeds safety threshold for human consumption. Toxic pollutants including vanadium, iron and manganese are health hazard and threaten lives of people and the population of fish. Also, the toxic level of the lake makes its water less susceptible to consumption due to high level of MCLGs in the water as stated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. Additionally, the impact of the pollutants extends to the land and pollutes the soil due to toxic spills. In addition, adverse spills with high level of liquid strength erodes the soil causation soil sediments to the lake, which adds mud to the water body.

 Physical and Chemical characteristics of the Waste

Common waste pollutants comprises of copper, iron, vanadium, lead, selenium and silver. The wastes are heavy metals and have adverse impact when consumed due to their extreme health implications. Also, chemical reactions such as oxidation worsens the situation by making metal soluble to water which in turn enhances their impact when they are dissolved in water. For instance, when such chemicals are consumed they initiate blood level poisoning in children as well as lowering their intelligent quotient. Adverse occasions may lead to impairment related to neurobehavioral development in human when their intake is high. Prolonged exposure to hard metals impacts the brain and triggers gastrointestinal disease. However, not all metallic components are soluble in water, their deposits corrodes water reservoirs hindering water preservation. Moreover, the said toxic metals ionizes water in the lake raising its pH, which further impacts the life of water creatures as well as plants.

Which of these do you think could have contributed the
most? Take a position and defend it, using at least one outside resource

Pollution of water in the lake is attributed by poor regulation and compromised management of the site that deters its conservancy. Specifically, management, construction and maintenance of mining corporations is regulated by rules and regulations that ensure standards are met to uphold both human and environmental safety. Mount Polley Mine Corporation violates the stipulated regulations that governs the standards of operation of its activities. It’s tailing dam collapsed during its construction compromising the underlying earth layer of glacial till that is unaccounted to date. It is a requirement that the company engineering team investigates the structure and the composition of the underlying geology alongside evaluating its strengths. Since there is no sufficient evidence demonstrating that the dam collapsed out of pressure from within, caution has to be taken to ensure that high standards are observed to prevent chances of risk.

Factor contributing to the Accident

Absence of an outlet for the tailing dam maybe be the main factor that contributed to its flooding for over four square kilometers. Closed dams without outlets builds up pressure due to too much weight of water. Based on the tailing dam case, the dam was constructed without the consideration of the structures holding capacity that contributed to its collapse and flooding due to inability to withstand vast water capacity. The flooding led to loss of people’s lives alongside animals and their habitats references. In addition, the disaster impacted the environment negatively through soil erosion and contamination. Additionally, loss of biodiversity and ecological imbalances comprise the impacts that are observable until today. Therefore, the flooding incident is linked to irresponsible construction and tailing pond’s substandard infrastructure



Tony Hsieh at Zappos: Structure, Culture, and Change


Zappos is commonly known as an online market for clothing, shoes, boots, dresses and athletic shoes. It was started in 1999 and has been under the leadership of Tony Hsieh as the CEO and a number of people among them Swinmurn and Hsieh. The profit was little and therefore more effort was needed to ensure company prosperity (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011).

Would you want to work at a place like Zappos before the transition to Holacracy? How about after? Why/why not?

According to Menipaz and Menipaz (2011), opulence is obtained if holacracy exists in most of the companies and institutions. Upon emergence of Zappos, working together was unrecognized. Therefore, every employee worked as instructed by seniors to ensure high sales and good delivery of products. Tony Hsieh wanted to change the employee-to-employee relationship as well as employee to client relationship to ensure higher profits. Hsieh approved self-management rather than hierarchy management. In addition, he believed that self-management would increase transparency, obligations and organizational agility resulting to higher chances of maximizing profits. As a result, every employee was free to make decisions and the authority were employee based (Hanson, Kenney & Rourke, 2012).

Working in a place like Zappos before transitioning from hierarchy management to self-management seems to impose more pressure on the employee. Therefore, poor services are rendered to the customer. Online services involve both the client and the seller if an agreement is made (Hanson et al., 2012). The seller is therefore free to deliver the goods and services. By contrast, if the employee must consult the manager or the seniors to inquire whether that is right, it wastes time and the client may fail to continue following up with the conversation because of the delay. The scenario makes the employee give up and exit the labor force (Hanson et al., 2012). Simultaneously, if after embracing holacracy by the company, working with Zappos would be quite easy since every employee is permitted to make decisions, which are favorable to the company. In doing so, the employees feel free and are willing to work together for the prosperity of the company at large.

Why do you think Tony Hsieh is making this change? Why is he doing it now?

Checking the company progress proves that Hsieh is determined to maximize the profits. He says that free interaction with the client is pivotal since it attracts more customers. The office bureaucracy disassembles the employees rather than keeping them together for quality work.  Some years back, Zappos was comfortable with its position after making $1.2 billion to the Amazon. The undertaking put the company in a static state (Pelletier & Mujtaba, 2015). The firm hired employees from the nearest college to distribute goods to the customers. In 2012, Hsieh had a conversation with Brian Robertson. That is where he got the idea of holacracy. He started campaigning for change in their company. According to wall street journal, it is clear that the environment of Zappos was playful and this had to be transformed into a serious business (Pelletier & Mujtaba, 2015). It was arduous for Hsieh to make all the decisions and follow every employee in the company. The scenario triggered his mind to transform the structure and culture of the company where authority was handed over to the employees (Pelletier & Mujtaba, 2015). Upon implementation of the undertaking, Hsieh had to send a memo to every employee informing them of the same. Not all the employees were conversant with his decision. Therefore, they exited the job. Ironically, the Holarctic management was supposed to eliminate bureaucracy but it followed that employees continued to attend formal meetings with a procedural formality (Gerrick, 2015). Although many problems emerged, this was done for the betterment of the company.

What do you make of the fact that 14% of the employees took Hsieh up on his offer?

In the Hsieh memo, it was clear to every worker that he was advocating for the change of the company structure. The undertaking was painful and slow since workers were not ready to embrace the change (Gerrick, 2015). According to the research done, an employee who has worked with Zappos for the last ten years told the “Times” that only 14% of the employees responded to the move. Most of the employees gave up on Zappos and ceaseless meetings, which were part of holacracy acquaintance (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). Later on, Hsieh was convinced by the Zipponians who worked in outsourcing information in technology infrastructure in Amazon to adjust the deadline to 4th January 2016. Ultimately, Hsieh agreed and upon the deadline in January 2016. The employees who were acquainted were about 18%. The scenario indicated that quite a large number hesitated to change and therefore took the severance package. On a recent trip made by the Hsieh to the Zappos headquarters in Las Vegas, he was interviewed regarding his decisions. He said that it is the right decision since he wanted to ensure that the employees are not there just for a paycheck but believe that it is the right place for the workers. He added and said that he has gone through transition for a number of times to make the company a giant (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). For instance, in 2004 he offered new employment for $2000 to exit after undergoing the training practices if the staff decided that the company is too harsh or if it is not the right place.

What do you think this process feels like as an employee?

Before isomerization, every worker was used to their norms and way of doing things. Imposition of new rules to the company was not in employees favor. According to Pelletier and Mujtaba (2015), the company transition was painful. Employees were unprepared for any change enacted. Initially, the staff used to follow traditional management. Therefore, everything was done following the orders from their seniors. Courtesy of the holacracy management, it implied that every employee must be responsible and active in the office (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). Everybody’s decision is considered and every employee is responsible for his or her actions in the office. Only 18% employee accepted the transition. The scenario showed that most of the workers were not pleased and therefore the opted to quit the work. As a result, the company suffered a shortage of employee. More employees were therefore needed in the company (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). Although the transition did not favor employees, the company flourished to higher levels and the profits augmented.

How would you assess Tony Hsieh as a leader? As a boss?

Hsieh is a good example of a leader or a boss (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). Despite the high turnover of the employees, Hsieh is unmindful as long as there was a number of employees who embraced the change. He is determined on improving the company’s condition rather than focusing on individual interests such as just getting a paycheck (Robertson, 2015). Some of the employees who worked for money stepped down since the workers could not persevere the changes in the company. Hsieh focused and worked closely with the 18% of the employees and showed the staff importance of being proud of the company they are working with (Menipaz & Menipaz, 2011). According to the research, after Hsieh was interviewed, he boldly answered the questions relating to the reasons why he decided to implement self-management mechanism. Hsieh outlined that the clients’ need to be convinced to purchase their shoes and clothes online (Pelletier & Mujtaba, 2015). Also, he said that it is prudent if the customer can communicate to the employer through a phone call for clarity of the available goods.

What, if anything, should Tony do now?

Tony is a CEO of a big company, which is not in its comfort level (Pelletier & Mujtaba, 2015). Zappos is still developing and more profit is needed. Zappos was developing at a slower rate and the shareholders were forced to sell their property. For example, swinmurn sold his property to invest in Zappos when the profit was low and wanted the firm to progress (Hanson et al., 2012). As a result, Hsieh looked for an initiative, which helped the organization to maximize profit. Currently, the company is doing well though it needs more workers to enhance quality of services to the clients. The firm should hire more workers to mitigate the employee’s workload. The undertaking would enable the company rise to higher levels. Also, Zappos will be of great help to the society since it offers goods, as well as employment thereby eradicating poverty.

Conclusively, Tony Hsieh has played a tremendous role in transforming Zappos to a better level. Self-management is imperative and surpasses traditional management since the element encourages Zappo’s rapid growth.


Robertson, B. J. (2015). Holacracy: The new management system for a rapidly changing world.

Hanson, A., Kenney, K., & O’Rourke, J. S. (2012)., Inc.: The Zappos Data Crisis. doi:10.4135/9781526403049

Menipaz, E., & Menipaz, A. (2011). Zappos – “Powered by Service”. doi:10.4135/9781473928060

Pelletier, R. A., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2015). Maximizing Employee Happiness and Well-being: An Examination of Value Creation and Competitive Advantage at Zappos. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(4). doi:10.14738/assrj.24.1164

Qa-zappos-and-holacracy. (n.d.). SAGE Business Researcher. doi:10.1177/2374556814565102

Gerrick, H., (2015). Zappos: “Your Culture is Your Brand”. Branded!, 77-95. doi:10.1002/981119200567.ch5

Alzheimer Diseases and Dementia

Alzheimer Diseases and Dementia

Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are not similar. Dementia is a terminology used to outlay signs and symptoms that affect individuals mind, operations from day to day duties. Alzheimer’s usually becomes worse with time and impact memory, thought and language. The risk of developing Dementia or Alzheimer’s increases as an individual gets older although even the younger people are at a risk of developing the conditions (Jiska 32). Despite symptoms similarities between the Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia, it is necessary to distinguish them to ensure effective management and treatment.


Dementia is a collection of symptoms which interferes with mental functions which deal with tasks such a memory and reasoning. It occurs due to various conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease (Kim & Hyun 86). People may also be affected by mixed Dementia which is more than one type of Dementia. Such people have many factors which may lead to Dementia.

Symptoms of Dementia

Early symptoms of Dementia are hardly noticeable as they often start from simple incidents of forgetting material things or other individuals for instance. People with Dementia tend to behave in abnormal ways such as losing their way in known places. Most observed signs of Dementia are repetitious questions, poor decision making and inadequate hygiene. As time progresses, people with Dementia tend to have no ability to take care of themselves and they struggle a lot in their day to day activities (Mace, Nancy & Peter 78). The conduct of this people also continues to change and they can become depressed and aggressive.

Cause of Dementia

People become more susceptible to Dementia as they grow old. Usually, it happens once particular brain cells have been destroyed. Factors that may lead to Dementia are degenerating diseases like Alzheimer’s (Mielke, Michelle, Vemuni & Walter 37). Every cause of Dementia destroys a varying group of brains.

Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a continuous ailment of the brain which slowly leads to deterioration in an individual’s ability to remember and part of the mental function that deals with logic. The fact of its cause is not yet discovered and it has no cure. Even though young people do suffer from Alzheimer’s the symptoms start after the age of sixty. Younger people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease are more likely to live for many more years compared to older people.

Effects of Alzheimer’s on the brain

Harm to the brain starts years before the symptoms start to show. The bonds within the cells are broken, hence they die. In progressive incidences, brains demonstrate a major loss whereby, individuals begin to think less than they used to. While a person is alive it’s impossible to diagnose Alzheimer’s correctly. The diagnosis may only be accurate if the brain is carefully observed under a microscope.

Differences between Dementia and Alzheimer’s

Differences based on symptoms

Alzheimer’s and Dementia symptoms can overlap but there can still be some differences. Alzheimer’s symptoms are; difficulty in remembering events or conversations that happened a short while ago, apathy, depression, impaired judgement, disorientation, and confusion. The initial symptoms of the people suffering from Dementia are visual hallucinations, difficulty in balance and sleep disturbances (Takeda, Shuko, Sato & Morishita 40). They are also likely to experience involuntary movement because of Parkinson’s or Huntington’s disease.

Differences based on treatment

In Dementia, the type and the cause of Dementia will play an important role in determining its treatment. In a few incidences, administering medication on the factors that lead to Dementia can be helpful. The factors that are more likely to react to medication are drugs, hypoglycaemia, tumours and metabolic disorders (Taylor, David, Carol & Kapur 76). Many forms of Dementia are treatable, with proper medication it can be managed while in Alzheimer’s no cure is available yet but there are options that are helpful in managing the symptoms of this disease and they include administration of medicine for memory loss which include cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine and memantine, other alternative treatments for boosting brain function can be administered,  and also administering medicines for behavioural changes and also depression.

Differences based on outlook for people with Dementia versus people with Alzheimer’s

The outlook for people with Dementia relies fully on the direct cause of Dementia. Medication is available to make Dementia symptoms manageable but currently, there is no way to stop or slow down related dementia. A few types of dementia are reversible but almost all types of dementia are irreversible and will cause a lot of impairment over time. While in the case of Alzheimer’s it is a fatal illness and it has got no cure it has three stages and the length of time in each stage varies people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s has a lifespan of approximately four to eight years although a few people can for up to twenty years after diagnosis.

Consequences of Dementia and Alzheimer’s for the patient

Consequences of Dementia on patient

  • Patients have retarded memory which makes it difficult for them to remember things such as their telephone numbers.
  • They are in most cases confused and are not organised which leads to poor performance.
  • They also have poor concentration, attention and they are easily distracted.
  • Dementia patients are also not able to think clearly or solving problems.
  • They also face a lot of difficulty in completing day to day tasks of self-standing living.
  • They also face challenges following social cues, and they lack social skills.
  • Dementia patients also face difficulty in handling and managing money.
  • They also face challenges in learning new things.
  • Knowing what to do next most especially when it is out of routine is also a challenge.
  • They also face changes in personality, depression and loss of motivation.

Consequences of Alzheimer’s in patients

  • Alzheimer’s patients are incapable to undertake or complete tasks without help.
  • They also face severe changes in personality and have a tendency to become irritable.
  • They also face challenges from deterioration from language and generally in communication.
  • They also face withdrawal from their family members and loved ones.
  • They may also suffer from permanent memory loss.
  • They also suffer from confusion and forgetfulness to people and places that were once familiar.


In concussion dementia and Alzheimer’s have a lot of similarities and can cause a lot of confusion when it comes to effective treatment and management. Specialists should be careful to avoid administering the wrong medication to patients as a result of confusion derived from the patient’s symptoms. People should also see a doctor in case they feel that they suffer from the symptoms of Dementia and Alzheimer’s as early treatment can help them manage the situation easily which in return may enable them to have a long lifespan. Healthcare providers should carry out new research in regard to Alzheimer’s disease and dementia to ensure that they have adequate knowledge. Enough information will enable specialists to offer quality services to their patients.

Work Cited

Alzheimer’s, Association. “2015 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures.” Alzheimer’s & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer’s Association 11.3 (2015): 332.

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska. “Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.” (2015): 32.

Kim, Hyun. “Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.” Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 4.7 (2016): 1086.

Mace, Nancy L., and Peter V. Rabins. The 36-Hour Day: A Family Guide to Caring for People Who Have Alzheimer Disease, Other Dementias, and Memory Loss. JHU Press, (2017): 778

Mielke, Michelle M., Prashanthi Vemuri, and Walter A. Rocca. “Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences.” Clinical epidemiology 6 (2014): 37.

Takeda, Shuko, Naoyuki Sato, and Ryuichi Morishita. “Systemic inflammation, blood-brain barrier vulnerability and cognitive/non-cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer disease: relevance to pathogenesis and therapy.” Frontiers in ageing neuroscience 6 (2014): 404

Taylor, David, Carol Paton, and Shitij Kapur. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, 2015: 976