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Ethical Governance

Ethical Governance

According to Aubin, Bayen and Pierre (2011), ethical governance describes as the demonstration of positive qualities in guiding and enacting decisions in a moral and ethical fashion.  Ethical governance demands exhibition of values such as openness, honesty, integrity and accountability. Aubin et al., (2011) defines organization viability as the ability of an outfit to have a long-term survival and sustained profits year after year. An organization that continues to be profitable over long period can be said to viable.

Ethical governance no doubt guarantees organizational viability. The viability aspect is contributed by the constructive organizational shaping courtesy of ethical governance. Aubin et al., (2011) explain that it is through ethical governance that an organization management practices optimum utilization of resources consequently amounting to organization success. Collin (2010) argues that governance is linked to organizational performance. Ethical governance works to dispel negative vices in an organization such as nepotism, embezzlement, corruption and mis-use of organizational resources. Eradicating such disconnects in an outfit will definitely lead to organization viability. Moreover, show of virtues such as integrity, accountability and openness results to good leadership (Jurgovan, Blair & United States, 2010). Leaders who display the values often translate to good management and consequently improved organizational performance.

Quality leadership is a concept that is born by ethical governance. As such, an organization continues to record and sustain high profits over years of its existence (Hoverstadt, 2011). Ethical governance often leads to organization stability. Investors gain confidence in such an organization. The organization gains more from investors and secures solid customer base. The overall outcome is on time realization of organizational goals and objectives, which consequently leads to organizational viability. The concept of ethical governance leads to a smooth flow of organization revenue and cost reduction, which ultimately amounts to profits sustainability and consequently viability (Aubin et al., 2011). Conclusively, the argument staged demonstrate that without ethical governance, an outfit is bound to experience decreased revenues, which downplays the concept of organization viability.


Aubin, J., Bayen, A. M., & Saint-Pierre, P. (2011). Overview and Organization. Viability Theory, 1-40. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16684-6_1

Collin, G. J. (2010). Extending demo – control organization model – Modeling an Organization’s Viability Norms, Dysfunctions and Resilience Strategies. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems. doi:10.5220/0002908704890492

Hoverstadt, P. (2011). The Fractal Organization: Creating Sustainable Organizations with the Viable System Model. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Jurgovan & Blair & United States. (2010). Health maintenance organization viability. Rockville, MD: Jurgovan & Blair.

Ethical and Economic Challenges.

Ethical and Economic Challenges.

Ethically, the health care services face a substantial list of problems that reduce the effectiveness, efficiency, and convenience in which health services are delivered to the citizens of diverse economies. Economic challenges, for example, financing, also poses a threat to how healthcare services are provided. Both ethical and economic problems affect immensely the quality of services offered as healthcare. There exist a direct link between the policy decisions on health care and the current economic and ethical challenges in health- that is the universal question.

Amongst the challenges aforementioned include; the financing of healthcare as well as regulation and management of its production and distribution. Health financial gain is considered key while cost effectiveness and health benefit should be the major drive. Use of old and obsolete technologies in healthcare centers have made it not only costly to the services but also ineffective in health gain. There is little technology comparisons made to foster the advancement of services offered at the health care centers (Darr & Sampson).

Market failure, that is, in improving access to healthcare to all the citizens who are in need is also a challenge in health care provisions (Darr & Sampson). Favorable policies are yet to be put in place in most countries especially the developing countries to distribute health care in all areas equitably. This adds to the cost of acquiring healthcare services.

Building and sustaining the healthcare workforce of the future have had a major impact on the cost, quality, and access to healthcare services for citizens of some countries. The rate of enrollment into healthcare and related studies is low in most countries as compared to the number of people in need of these services. Inadequacy in workforce diminishes the quality of services and increase cost due to the law of demand effect.

Conclusively the well-being of the global citizens regarding Heath is a steering wheel to economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to put reliable measures and mechanisms to improve on healthcare services.


Darr, K., & Sampson, C. J. (n.d.). Ethical challenges in healthcare. Handbook of Healthcare Management, 460-482. doi:10.4337/9781783470167.00024

Ethical challanges. (2003). The American Journal of Evaluation, 24(1), 81-82. doi:10.1016/s1098-2140(02)00265-5

“Solving” Ethical Problems. (n.d.). Textbook of Healthcare Ethics, 267-299. doi:10.1007/0-306-46801-8_12

Emphatic Denial and Explanatory Denial

Emphatic Denial and Explanatory Denial


A denial is the act of a suspect refusing to accept that a claim he/she is charged with is the truth. There are various forms of denials but emphatic and explanatory denials are going to be discussed in this text. Emphatic denial involves a forceful and a precise expression or action. It is a denial in which the suspect expresses him/herself in an aggressive and self-assured way. Explanatory denial on the other hand is a kind of denial in which the suspect uses an explanation to express him/herself.


Explanatory and emphatic denials are both used by suspects during an interrogation to defend themselves. For the case of explanatory denial, the defendant uses a narration or an explanation to prove his or her innocence. For instance, in a case where a husband being examined why he killed his wife, he may say, “am not the one who murdered my wife because I love my wife very much.” In most cases, explanatory denials are likely to be true. The guilty suspect makes truthful statements in order to divert the interrogator from discovering the truth (Zulawski & Wicklander, 2002, p. 355). The suspect uses explanatory denial to hide the real scenario of the case or to prevent the interrogator from knowing the truth.

In emphatic denial, the suspect does not give a story in his or her defense. The suspect refuses to give direct answers to the questions asked. A good example is a case whereby an individual is asked what action is to be taken if a person is caught having burned a house down without an intention to do so.  The suspect may say that, “a person who is caught trying to burn a house down should be although that person is not me.” In this kind of denial, an individual refuses to own up his/her actions as the ones that caused the crime.



Emphatic denial is the most common type of denial. It is a response to a reasoning made by the interrogator. It is basically a defense used by the person being accused to protect him/herself.  Emphatic denial can be expressed verbally or physically. The accused may shake his/her head back and forth to show disagreement with what the interrogator is saying (Zulawski & Wicklander, 2002, p. 345). The suspect may also tighten the muscles around the mouth, take in a deep breath to prepare to give a speech and ensure a stern eye contact with the interrogator.

Verbal behavior is also used by the defendant trying to interrupt the interrogator in order to be allowed to make a denial.  The suspect may use certain statements in order to interrupt the interrogator in an attempt to seek permission to be allowed to make a denial. The statements include: “can I…”, “please sir…” or “may i…” followed by an emphatic denial (Zulawski & Wicklander, 2002, p. 346). However, the interrogator may stop the interruption that may be caused by the denial by raising the hands in a “stop” sign while raising the tone, volume , increase the speed of his/her speech and look away from the suspect.

In the case of explanatory denial, the suspects try to elaborate their innocence by giving excuses why they could not have been the ones who committed the crime. The suspects may use statements such as, “I could not have committed such a crime since my parents did not bring me up in that manner…” The interviewers accept the denial pretending it is true and then instantly include it in their process of rationalization and use the explanation against the suspect. They respond by turning around the statement as they continue with the rationalization process hence discouraging the suspect from using the same denial since it did not bring the expected or desired results. The interrogators make use of statements such as: “well said, that one tells me that…” or “I now clearly understand…”

The interviewers use these statements to enable them to shun arguments with the suspect and also ensure that the focus and full control of the interrogation is maintained. Sometimes, an interrogator is unable to use certain explanatory denials and turn them around. Allegations of discrimination based on sex or race are not built upon by the interrogator. Instead, the interrogator should respond with an understanding of the perception of bias and explain the investigation process and emphasize the non-bias aspects of fact-finding in investigations. (Zulawski & Wicklander, 2002, p. 357).


In summary, both explanatory and emphatic denials are similar in that they occur in the interrogation process. The main difference between the two types of denials is how the interrogator responds and how the suspects strive to prove their innocence. In emphatic denial, the defendant does not give a story to express him/her. In contrast to explanatory denial, the suspect gives a narration explaining why he/she could not be the doer of the crime accused of. The interrogator should also maintain the focus of interrogation.



Zulawski, D. E., & Wicklander, D. E. (2002). Practical Aspects of Interview and Interrogation (Second Edition ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


Effects of Economic Change on Low-Income Families

Effects of Economic Change on Low-Income Families:


The increasing economic crisis is extremely affecting low-income families. The families are unable to meet their basic needs such as food, healthcare, shelter, and education. Rising poverty levels is associated with neglect of duty by both parents and children, family conflict and partner violence (Daly & Kelly, 92). Moreover, the exacerbating economy can affect funds for private schools and public health centers where their budget are constrained thereby failing to meet public demand when it is highly needed.

How to Address the Adverse Consequences on Families

Due to worsening economy, economic stress has augmented especially in low-income families. Psychologists have played a great role in directing and advising the families on how to reduce economic stress, partner violence, and child maltreatment. According to Daly and Kelly (87), when appropriate tools are provided to the families, positive parenting is encouraged. Therefore, neglect of duty is avoided and joint effort encouraged. The initiative results in high production thereby reducing the poverty level.

How to Address the Adverse Consequences on Schools attended by Children Growing up in low-income Families

Children from low-income families are exceptionally vulnerable, as they tend to proceed from one education level to another (Daly & Kelly, 102). For instance, at adolescents stage, the students are persuaded to postpone their education plans to seek increasing jobs and contribute to households economy. To curb the occurrence, the government should ensure public education is free and that the students get food during lunch hour (Daly & Kelly, 95). The undertaking helps the parents to use their money in improving the other sectors in life thereby raising their living standards.

Conclusively, worsening economy is a threat to low-income families. It is increasing the poverty level leading to economic stress. The government is putting measures to minimize the scenario

Works Cited

Daly, Mary, and Grace Kelly. “Parents and their children.” Families and Poverty, 2015, pp. 87-108.

    Product differentiation

  Product differentiation


Product differentiation helps in coming up with differentiated goods and services that meet the demand and needs of different people in a region. The strategy of product differentiation improves the survivability of an organization in the industry and competition by having in place a broad range of goods. Product differentiation attracts large niche in the market. According to Barney and Hesterly (2005), most companies utilize differentiation and alliance strategies to create a unique image in comparison to other players in the industry by coming up with a different range of products.

How Apple has Positioned Itself

Apple Company has been successful in the telecommunication and electronic industry in all the regions that it has been operating. In China and United States, Apple Company has been among the top players in the industry, therefore, has a significant market share in the industry. Apple has been taking various steps in the introduction of different differentiated products that has enabled it to become among the top companies in the industry that are competitive. In 1999, the Apple released an operating system that was stable in comparison to other players in the industry.

According to Black (2012), other companies have been trying to imitate the differentiation strategy of Apple Company because of the success that it has shown in the market place. The company has been conducting differentiation frequently, therefore, able to meet the demands and needs of the customers. The company was the first one to come up with the idea of iTunes that gave the firm an opportunity of Mac that helped in moving to the digital style of operation. The digital lifestyle introduced by the company improved its market share in both China and United States by making the firm more competitive compared to other enterprises in the same industry.

Carpenter and Sanders (2006) claim that an organization must come up with new products based on the generation to develop new products and come up with additional services. The company has been showing progress in the development of new technologies that other companies have been trying to imitate to impress the customers. Apple Company was the first to come up with LCDs for desktops in both countries. The introduction of iTunes stores in 2003 improved the competitiveness of the company in the two nations. The company was the pioneer of the iTunes stores that made the organization has the largest niche in the market in both countries.

Research by Black (2012) shows the viability of product differentiation particularly if the firm takes into consideration the distinction for differentiating its products. Apple Company has conceptual distinctions for its products that have made it successful in most of the areas that it operates including China and United States. The conceptual differences that have enabled Apple Company to be successful in the market by having a large market niche include product mix, link with other organizations, product features, and reputation of the company and its products. According to Aaker (2001), the company has high reputation that has enabled it to be competitive in the industry based on the quality of the products that it offers to its customers. The company has been producing technologies or products that are easy to use therefore making more people attracted to the products that the firm sells and as a result improving the market share and significant market niche.

The differentiated products of the company appear attractive as compared to the substitutes. Apple Company has been highly competitive in China and United States as well as in other operating areas. In product differentiation, there are various dilemmas that firms find themselves in and they pose a threat to their operations. Coming up with appropriate techniques helps to bypass the challenges turning them into opportunities in the market or the industry. Apple Company has been utilizing high-qualified management team in resolving the problems. Coming up with the best differentiation strategy or way of solving problems has been the key to success of the company (Barney & Hesterly, 2005). The high cost involved in differentiating the products has been encouraging the company to succeed in its operation by having a firm position in the differentiation of its products. The high cost has been putting other companies from differentiating its products.

Risk Associated with Strategic Alliance

Strategic alliance helps in achieving the objectives and goals of the company by bringing together resources and expertise. Failure to enter into an agreement can have shortcoming effects or challenges including the inability to meet the set goals of the company effectively. Joining an alliance, however, can turn out to be risky to a firm. Entering an agreement can lead to overtaking of the less powerful company by the one that is powerful either regarding resources or expertise of the enterprise (Barney & Hesterly, 2005). The Alliance can encourage rivalry between the companies. For example, from the article, Sculley refused to sign a contract of entering into an agreement with Apollo Company because of the feeling that the firm would overtake Apollo Computer Company of which it happened.

A strategic alliance can lead to diverse views or disagreements between the merging companies, therefore, deviating from their intended goal of the operation. Michael Spindler and Sculler collaborated with Apple Company with a hope that IBM Company would buy or acquire Apple Company that never came to being making it difficult for them to undertake the intended business effectively. A strategic alliance can lead to loss of positions of individuals or employees of the companies. Coming together of the groups may result in stepping down of the management team of either one company or a mix of the companies to facilitate smooth operation. The businesses that license the firms coming into a partnership can lose because of the strategic alliance. Failure to enter into an alliance can lead to high operating cost that could have been shared if the company had entered into a partnership with other firms in the same industry.

Strategic alliance helps in the calculating price of business. Failure of Apple Company to form an alliance with other groups led to high prices involved in calculating the cost of its operating system. Inability to enter into an agreement would also result in utilization of less efficient technologies as compared to the time when an alliance is involved. Entering into an agreement would help in making sense or evaluating how to conduct a business (Aaker, 2001). Not entering has a risk of not seeing the effectiveness in leading companies. Failure to be in a strategic alliance ruins the ambition of an organization to be competitive in the industry and difficult to imitate. However, the strategic alliance can increase the risk of competition among companies entering into a partnership.


Aaker, D. A. (2001). Developing business strategies. New York, NY [u.a.: Wiley.

Barney, J. B., & Hesterly, W. S. (2005). Strategic management and competitive advantage: Concepts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Pearson.

Black, E. (2012). IBM and the holocaust: The strategic alliance between Nazi Germany and America’s most powerful corporation. Washington, DC: Dialog Press.

Carpenter, M. A., & Sanders, W. G. (2006). Strategic management: a dynamic perspective, concepts and cases

Domestic Violence Batterers

Domestic Violence Batterers


Walker 2000 describes a batterer as a person who inflicts emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, economic abuse and other sorts of immoral behavior to child, spouse, relatives or other persons. Michael and Groetsch define batterers as people who prompt domestic violence. In addition, he categorized them into three groups.

Three categories of domestic violence batterers

According to Groetsch, there exist three types of batterers, that is, remorseful, sporadic and serial batterers (Groetsch and Michael 28).

Groetsch describes a remorseful batterer as an ordinary man in unusual situations. He says that the mind of this person is triggered by external circumstances. Besides, he has no antecedent background of violence, and the fracas is isolated. He often solicits medication freely. Remorseful batterers can change. Serial batterer is a person who causes violence as an expression of terrible character affliction. He seeks medication at the court order and only in order to influence the victim to drop the allegations against him.  The people are not likely to change, and they can murder the victims. Groetsch says that the violence of sporadic batterers does not follow a consistent pattern. The violence is caused by both internal and external situations. He does not have terrible personality issues (Groetsch and Michael 31).

Importance of classifying batterers

Groetsch applies his methodology to treatment. He says that every batterer should be treated according to his or her category. A remorseful batterer should receive treatment immediately. Sporadic batterer should receive treatment only if they are exceedingly remorseful; otherwise, he should be jailed. A serial batterer is not recommended for any form of treatment; he should be prosecuted (Groetsch and Michael 33).

Interventions to domestic violence

There are various interventions needed for children and families who experience domestic violence. In addition, the batterers also might require intervention. Some of the intervention includes family safety, children and family therapy, individual counseling and other interventions which are relevant to the victim (Groetsch and Michael 34).

Conclusively, batterers are of different times. Therefore, they seek treatment differently. However, some can change through guidance and counseling while some cannot rectify.

Works Cited

Groetsch, Michael. The Battering Syndrome: Why Men Beat Women and the Professional’s Guide to Intervention. CPI Pub, 2006.

Distinguishing between Nursing Roles

Distinguishing between Nursing Roles


There are various distinguishing features between licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and a nursing assistant based on the distinguishing roles that they play. Licensed practical nurses are those nurses who seek to provide preventative as well standard emergency healthcare. This paper will investigate various distinguishing features as far as nursing roles are concerned.

         A Healing Environment             

Licensed practical nurses create an enabling healing environment in all health care institutions especially at the first point of contact, healthcare clinics or the office belonging to the doctor (London, 2011). They are tasked with greeting and communicating with patients whenever they come seeking medical services or have come for a follow up. On the other hand, registered nurses are generally tasked with overseeing the duties of the licensed nurses in any healthcare setting. In many cases, they are typically assigned between two or six patients in a medical floor. A nursing assistant is usually assigned three patients more when compared to the registered nurses (London, 2011).


A licensed nurse is responsible for the process of monitoring the patients’ health progress and report findings to the doctor or the registered nurse (London, 2011). On the other hand, a registered nurse monitors and evaluates all duties conducted by the licensed nurses including patients’ charts, care plans as well as the administration of medication. Nurse assistants generally monitor the administration of medication to patients playing the role of assistants to registered nurses (London, 2011).


Licensed nurses normally collect patients’ samples during the process of diagnosis and this is regarded to be a critical responsibility (London, 2011). In this case, for laboratory functions they collect samples such as saliva, feces, urine or any other appropriate bodily fluid that would assist in the process of diagnosis. Registered nurses on the other hand play the role of administering medications to patients specifically through IVs (London, 2011). However, nursing assistants are only tasked with assisting the registered nurses during such processes.


Licensed and registered nurses generally offer healthcare services  to patients who are injured, sick or may just need routine health checkups. They are usually supervised by registered doctors or nurses and are usually expected to perform their functions alongside the available team of healthcare providers.


London, M. L. (2011). Maternal & child nursing care. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Leadership and Leadership Standards

Leadership and Leadership Standards


The world is comprised of a variety of different cultures, each of these has different views of leadership. The diversity in views also extends to the personal level of thinking. When asked the meaning of leadership, the majority of people are likely to respond differently. In essence, the following is a brief recap of the different factors which are involved in leadership, followed by a final conceptualization of the subject from a personal perspective.

The Three Concepts of Leadership

As already briefly explained above, people are likely to respond differently when asked the meaning of leadership as per their opinions. As such, the responses may be based on three major concepts; these are leadership traits, assigned leadership, and emergent leadership. To put this into context, a person may define leadership as the ability to rule passed down from one generation to another (Adubato, 2016). This response falls under the assigned leadership concept; another person may define a leader as a character with exceptional leadership traits who stands out among the rest in a specified scenario (Michael & Lochirie, 2009). This definition falls under leadership trait concept. Complete understanding of what it means to become a leader demands a proper knowledge of these three concepts.

A trait, in broad terms, refers to a particular characteristic, leadership traits, therefore, refer to the exceptional features that a leader is expected to show at all times. Under this argument, traits are the only factors which define a leader (Day, 2014). A person with exceptional leadership skills is far more likely to lead the group which is under him/her well. Examples of proper leadership traits include Dominance, Enthusiasm, Conscientiousness, Self-mindedness, assurance and so on. A typical leader should be able to weigh the options that present themselves on the table and hence end up choosing the one that offers the best benefits and the least risks in the event of the circumstances. Leadership traits should be exceptional, and one should not lose any of them down the road. The loss of proper leadership qualities is the main reason as to why some government officials are elected during one election, and they fail to secure the seat again during the next ones (Day, 2014). The loss of essential leadership traits hence can make a person to be stripped of a leadership based position. Under this argument, the traits are the most important features of being a leader. Loss of proper leadership traits can cause one to lose the designated leadership role, position or title.

The second concept of leadership is that of assigned leadership, As the name suggests, appointed leadership refers to a leadership position which is given out to someone in a particular situation. Assigned leadership is based on a number of factors. As a result, the leader in question may be given the title fairly or in a biased manner (Michael & Lochirie, 2009). A good example is when the head of department in an organization resigns or is transferred, the manager may give the role to his next of kin or to a close friend. This is despite the fact that the chosen person might lack the most appropriate experience or expertise needed. Fair or unbiased forms of assigned leadership refer to the instance where the person assigned fits the requirements substantially and hence he or she is the best candidate for the position. It is important to note that appointed leadership may choose to take a person’s trait into account or not, as already explained above, it depends on a large number of factors. This, in turn, may lead to fair or unfair allocation of the leadership role. In conclusion, the assigned leadership concept dictates that a leader may be chosen on the basis of a significant number of factors, the choice may hence be biased or unbiased. The traits may or may not influence the choice.

Emergent leadership is the most peculiar of the three, according to it, a leader is not selected or appointed. The leadership role develops over time as a result of interactions of the group in various occasions (Schein, 2010). An emergent leader, in most of the cases, is not officially recognized as the head of a particular group. A good example is a youth group which deals with community work. Out of the collection, there is bound to be a person who performs exceptionally well; such a person may go out of their way to inform the group on important updates relating to their activities and even talk with sponsors on the group’s behalf (Ambrose, 2003). Such an outstanding person becomes the presumed leader due to his apparent capabilities and noble actions toward the group. Emergent leadership is mostly associated with proper leadership traits, not just anyone can emerge to be a leader, they have to show specific characteristics.

Personal Opinion

The above three have shown the major disparities which exist between various types of ways which someone becomes a leader. It is, however, important to note that the definition of leadership remains subjective by all standards, this implies that a person may still have views which differ from the above three concepts. A person may define leadership as something associated with the natural forces of nature. A typical example is the saying that “leaders are born” or that “leaders are chosen from the highest,” and many others.

In light of all of the above factors, I believe that a leader is much more than just an individual who is appointed or has proper leadership skills. A leader is a mentor, he or she should aim to teach his or her subjects to be less dependent on him or her and learn to be dependent on themselves in the process.  The insight provided above explains the various factors which make one a leader. It is indeed true that factors such as appointment, emergence and trait can make someone a leader. My own personal conceptualization of a leader is a person who teaches the others to be more dependent on themselves and not the leader in question. By teaching these essential ways of living, more leaders are likely to emerge with these skills; the world will eventually consist of self-governing individuals with the appropriate skills needed to drive their daily lives. A leader who teaches people to depend on his or her counsel and leadership can be likened to a dictator who does not wish to relinquish power or to have the subjects live by their own terms.


There are a lot of things which make someone a leader. Such include, traits appointment or even emergence. What matters the most, however, is how the leader executes his or her role. Teaching the subjects independence is my definition of real leadership.


Adubato, S. (2016). Lessons in leadership. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

Ambrose, D. (2003). Leadership: the journey inward. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

Day, D. (2014). The Oxford handbook of leadership and organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Michael, B. & Lochrie, R. (2009). Integrity: the core of leadership. Mustang, Okla: Tate Publishing & Enterprises.

Schein, E. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass





Quality patient care revolves around a highly trained workforce of nurses.  According the the done research, decreased death rates, lower medication errors and positive results are attributed to nurses who are trained at the baccalaureate and graduate degree levels. According to White (1988), the American Association of Colleges of Nursing is working tirelessly to create a large highly qualified nursing workforce because education upgrades competency in both care and clinical delivery.

  1. Discuss the differences in competencies between nurses prepared at the associate-degree level versus the baccalaureate-degree level

In a study that was published by researcher Olga Yakusheva and her colleagues, it was found that a ten percent increase in the number of baccalaureate nurses on hospital units was accompanied by a decrease in the number of patients dying by almost third of the was also found that increasing the amount of care provided by BSNs to eighty percent would result in decrease the readmission rates and decrease the length of stay in the hospitals. These results show that increasing the number of baccalaureate nurses can decrease the cost.

According to Novak (2005), a researcher Ann Kutney-Lee and her colleagues discovered that an increase of nurses with bachelor of science in nursing by about ten percent of nurses within a hospital was related with an moderate decrease of around two deaths per one thousand patients and decrease of patients with complications, an average decrease of eight deaths per one thousand patients.

In another article that was published in February 2013 on Journal of Nursing Administration issue, Mary Blegen and her colleagues discovered that hospitals with a higher percentage of registered nurses with baccalaureate degrees had a decreased heart failure deaths, decubitus ulcers, pulmonary embolism and reduced length of stay in the hospital.

The October 2012 article on the issue of Medical Care, University of Pennsylvania researchers discovered that surgical patients in who were admitted in Magnet hospitals had decreased inpatient mortality rates by fourteen within thirty days and twelve percent decrease of failure to rescue compared with patients who were admitted in non-Magnet hospitals. The researchers attribute these high quality outcomes to a great extent to investments in highly qualified and educated nurses who mostly are baccalaureate level nurses.

An article published in January 2011 in the Journal of Nursing Scholarship by Deborah Kendall-Gallagher and her colleagues, they discovered employing highly trained nurses decreases the mortality rate of the patients and rescue failure rates in hospitals. The researchers discovered that the better outcomes were due to care that was provided by nurses with baccalaureate education level. According to these nurse researchers, there was no effect of specialization in the absence of baccalaureate education.

In the August 2008 article on Health Services Research which was evaluating the impact of nursing practice environments on results of cancer patients undergoing surgery, Dr. Christopher Friese and his colleagues discovered that education level of nurses was highly related with patient results. Baccalaureate-prepared nurses were associated with decreased patients deaths and failure to rescue levels. According to Grice (2008), a staff with the nurses who have at least a baccalaureate-level education would result in decreased adverse results for patients.

Education level of nurses is a factor to consider when patient safety and quality of care is concerned. According to Camenson (1995 ), medication errors and procedural violations are highly made by nurses who only possess associate degree and diplomas as compared to nurses with baccalaureate level.  Nurses who are prepared at the associate degree and diploma levels commit most of the mistakes related to practice.

Nurse administrators identified special differences in competencies based on education. According to Camenson (1995), about seventy two percent of these directors recognized differences in practice between nurses with Bachelor of Science in Nursing and those who possess an associate degree or hospital diploma. Nurses with a bachelor’s degree have stronger critical thinking and leadership skills.

According to White (1988), nurses with baccalaureate level have stronger communication and problem solving skills and a increased proficiency in making nursing diagnoses and assessing nursing interventions.

Identify a patient care situation in which you describe how nursing care or approaches to decision-making may differ based upon the educational preparation of the nurse (BSN versus a diploma or ADN degree)

A care situation where nursing care to decision-making may rend to differ based on the education level of the nurse can be in a case where a patient with alcohol withdrawals is admitted to the detoxification unit of a general hospital and is discharged after he was stabilized. The same patient is admitted again in multiple occasions and he is discharged again after he is stabilized.

Associated degree level nurse will go ahead to prepare the documentation of discharge, elaborate prescribed medication which are possible and discharge the patient.

Conversely, a baccalaureate level nurse will try to link the causes of the patient’s many admissions to the lack of a good alcohol dependence treatment. This includes an environment which is positive for recovery. Baccalaureate level nurse will make the correlations with an enough substance abuse program and enroll the patient in a necessary support group. The differences in caring provided by baccalaureate levels and diploma level nurses depend on the wide varied knowledge in the connection between the pathophysiology of alcoholism and the surrounding. According to White (1988), the knowledge of alcoholism treatment surpasses the hospital settings and highly qualified nurses can be able to make the proper connections between alcoholism and the environment of the patient.



In conclusion, nurses with baccalaureate degrees have high proficiency in valuable communication skills, quality skills in leadership and decision making compared to their counterparts who have diploma or associate degree levels of education. For better results as far as the health of the patients is concerned, all nurses should possess at least a bachelor’s degree in nursing.


Camenson, B. (1995). Nursing. Lincolnwood, Ill.: VGM Career Horizons.

Grice, T., & Greenan, J. (2008). Nursing: 2.

Novak, K. E. (2005). Agency Nurse Assessment for Competency. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development (JNSD), 21(4), 158-159. doi:10.1097/00124645-200507000-00006

White, D. (1988). Nursing. London, England: Penguin.

Dignity in Medical Set up

Dignity in Medical Set up

Lin and Tsai (2010) postulate that it is crucial to maintain an active relationship between the clients and the hospital workers or an organization’s staff members. In most cases, however, the relationship between the patients and the employees of health units including medical practitioners has been tarnished. The reasons are commonly attributed to the failure of the staff members to recognize the quality of dignity among the patients. Dignity entails observing privacy between the patient and the service providers in the hospital.

In April 2016, one of my friend’s dignity was disrespected by hospital staff. The person was suffering from a severe hereditary disease that was discovered after undergoing diagnosis. As Ajibade, Oladeji, Oyedele and Makinde (2013) record, confidentiality policy in health care is among the key issues of consideration to maintain productive relationship with the patients. My friend’s dignity was not secured because the staff member who was taking care of him shared the information concerning his medical results to unauthorized individuals. In addition to the hospital staff, other community members were also involved in transmitting unnecessary information about the patient’s medical conditions. Pincock (2014) postulates that only the individuals who can help in further treatment of the disease or in conducting research about the illness should be given information concerning the results of a patient’s condition. By disclosing information to other members in the hospital and across the society, the practitioner breached the policy of ensuring privacy when dealing with patients. Loss of dignity especially in the medical care set-up is viewed negatively. As a result of betrayed pride, the patient started suffering from psychological distress, loss of trust to health care units and lowered personal respect.
Research by Lin and Tsai (2010) shows that it is one of the most critical aspects of consideration in health care centers from clients, staff and relatives of the patient. Treating clients with dignity can help improve the employee satisfaction in his or her job and at the same time develop the patient’s trust to the medical staff and towards the organization as a whole. Nurses and other staff members should take the collective actions of ensuring that the dignity and respect of the clients visiting the hospitals are maintained. For example, in the wards, the staff members should devise ways of maintaining dignity and privacy for the patients for example when conducting personal care. According to NSW Health and New South Wales (2016), when the confidentiality and independence of a client in the hospital is taken for granted, threatened or compromised, the scenario can cause distress, embarrassment and dissatisfaction of an individual.

In the realm of care in hospitals or other medical assistance centers, if the hospital management takes appropriate care of the private concerns of a person such as making use of the toilet, the initiative can produce profound effects on the patient’s dignity. The hospital’s staff and the patient should provide an appropriate space concerning private dialogue and conversation that can help in maintaining the client’s privacy and dignity. If the customer calls for privacy in observation or monitoring of individual issues, the staff of a health unit should respect the patient’s request and keep the conversation secret.


Ajibade, B.L, M.O, Oladeji, Oyedele, E.A, Makinde. 2013. Antenatal Patients Level of Satisfaction Toward Service Rendered by Health Workers in Selected Primary Health Centers of Ejigbo Local Government, Osun, State Nigeria. The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE.

Lin, Y., & Tsai, Y. 2010. Maintaining patients’ dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(2), 340-348. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05498.x

NSW Health, & New South Wales. 2016. Guidelines for working with people with challenging behaviours in residential aged care facilities: Using appropriate interventions and minimising restraint. North Sydney, NSW: NSW Dept. of Health.

Pincock, S. 2014. Hospitals still don’t do enough for patients’ privacy and dignity. BMJ, 328(7442), 730-0. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7442.730-b