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Diagnostic Tool for the Treatment of Diabetes

Diagnostic Tool for the Treatment of Diabetes

Introduction

The disease in question, that is diabetes, is described as a body condition affecting blood glucose level. Diabetes has two classifications. The Type 1 diabetes is that which occurs due to the pancreases not producing any insulin at all to control the sugar levels in the blood. Type two of diabetes occurs in situations where the pancreases produce insulin but in insufficient amounts that are not enough for the sugar control procedures in the body. There is a need for a proper diagnostic tool to be used for the treatment of diabetes for both the adults and the children. The article, “Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with Eventide once weekly versus oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin glargine: achievement of glycemic and cardiovascular goals” will be reviewed for this report.

Summary of the Research

The major aspect described by the article involves the various treatment models of the patients affected with Diabetes type two. The chosen reading gives a description and an enumerations of the correlation between diabetes and cardiovascular risk outcomes. The article depicts the appropriate care strategies for patients diagnosed with diabetes type two   (Maeloni, DeYoung, Han, Best, & Grimm, 2013). One of the tools identified for helping on the same is the glycemic control, which is useful in the process of reducing the cardiovascular risk factor but leaves the patients affected by diabetes two at risks. The research method utilized by the article involved the analysis of data that was obtained from three different double/open blind-labeled trails. An ethics review board reviewed the whole study in a variety of ways based on the ABI significance and QW metformin. The number of clinical trials that were involved in the research process that this article utilized was four, and the board of ethics also reviewed these.

Most of the information obtained from the studies were in support of the exenatide QW over the metformin mainly based on the HbA1c goals ≤6.5% along with the fasting blood glucose (Meloni, et al., 2013). On the other hand, both sitagliptin and exenatide QW were also examined, and the later was found as being more efficient than the former especially backed with evidence from the ABI favored exenatide QW for each of the HbA1c goals that they had set among all the other goals set. Moreover, when exenatide QW and insulin glargine were compared, the findings of the article show that most of the patients that achieved the goals established by HbA2c were focused on exenatide QW. The administration of these drugs, however, had adverse side effects on the patients including injection site reactions, headaches, diarrhea, nasopharyngitis, and nausea. Moreover, glycemic control was identified as being directly linked to the gain of weight, showing a relationship with hyperglycemia, in particular on the patients under certain medication (Meloni, et al., 2013).

The conclusion of the research article is that the comparison of the commonly used therapies to lower levels of glucose within the body with administration of drugs such as dipeptidy1, basal insulin, biguanides, peptidase-4 inhibitors, among others is important since it helps to accomplish the therapeutic goals as well as provide better facilities for medication on the diabetes type two (American Diabetes Association. 2014). The recommendation to the therapeutic and treatment goals is that they are to be taken seriously to ensure that the rate of the risk of the cardiovascular threat is not that much in the patients (Sung, 2011).

Diabetic Diagnosis Tool

The article identifies that glycemic control is the best diagnostic tool for diabetes two patients, being either the adults or the children. Based on the article, this method is not only safe, but it does not offer any forms of resistance to the body of the patients, and hence the side effects are minimal. This is primarily the reason why this approach was selected (Meloni, et al., 2013).

Conclusion

Diabetes is a condition that affects the level of glucose in the blood and is mainly categorized into two. There is a need for a proper diagnostic tool to be used for the treatment of diabetes for both the adults and the children. The article, “Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with Eventide once weekly versus oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin glargine: achievement of glycemic and cardiovascular goals” is the article to be reviewed. The major aspect described by the article involves the various treatment models of the patients affected with Diabetes type two. The article describes the reasons why diabetes two is associated with the risk of cardiovascular outcomes depicting the proper ways to care for the patients who may be affected by diabetes two. The conclusion of the research article is that the comparison of the commonly used therapies to lower levels of glucose within the body with administration of drugs such as dipeptidy1, basal insulin, biguanides, peptidase-4 inhibitors, among others is important since it helps to accomplish the therapeutic goals as well as provide better facilities for medication on the diabetes type two.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes care37(Supplement 1), S14-S80. From http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S14%20.full.pdf+html

Meloni, A. R., DeYoung, M. B., Han, J., Best, J. H., & Grimm, M. (2013). Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with exenatide once weekly versus oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin glargine: achievement of glycemic and cardiovascular goals. Cardiovascular diabetology12(1), 48. From https://cardiab.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2840-12-48

Sung, T. H. (2011). Hemoglobin A1c as a Diagnostic Tool for Diabetes Screening and New-Onset Diabetes Prediction. Retrieved from Diabetes Journals: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/diacare/34/4/944.full.pdf

Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome

Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome

American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) came up with criteria for metabolic syndrome diagnosis and management. In their research, they discovered metabolic risk factors that are likely to raise human’s heart diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Besides, type 2 diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with the metabolic risk factors. AHA/NHLBI listed some of the risk factors linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus such as atherogenic dyslipidemia among others. Moreover, the scientific statement constituted the factors that might cause the metabolic syndrome. However, the roots of metabolic risk factors were not clearly displayed (2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care, 2005).

AHA/NHLBI came up with several sets for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. Later, in 2001, other two organizations; National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) developed other criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. The ATP III criteria were assimilated and widely used in clinical practices. The AHA/NHLBI approved ATP III proposal but recommended its use on minor modifications.

The metabolic syndrome risks human’s lives thus clinical management methods were suggested. The principal aim of the clinical management is to minimize the risk factors associated with atherosclerotic disease. However, there were other minor goals like reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus to the uninfected people. Lowering LDL-C, glucose levels and blood pressure was set out as the best measures to reduce metabolic risk factors. The ATA/ NHLBI proposed lifestyle therapy in an attempt to solve both long-term and short-term risks. The therapies recommended depends on 10-year risk. Also, the metabolic risk factor requires specific therapy, and in some cases, drug therapy is applied.

Recommendation for the four major metabolic risk factors is clearly highlighted. The proposal for reducing Atherogenic Dyslipidemia is by reducing the level of LDL-C. Besides, for the patient under clinical supervision, the lifestyle intervention is deployed as the primary therapy. In minimal cases, lipid-lowering drugs are administered with respect to 10-year risk intervals. For the Elevated blood pressure, the individuals within the blood pressure range of “prehypertension” are recommended for lifestyle therapies to reduce the lowering of blood pressure. At high pressures, the drug therapy is required to reduce the blood pressure.

Application in practical settings

The ATP III criteria help in day-to-day lives since one can do them practically even when at home. For instance, everyone can measure his or her waist circumference using a tape measure. That being criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome, it can be done practically. Besides, the lifestyle therapies are done at home and are done practically. For instance, the physical activities such as running and playing in the field help in reducing cholesterol hence reducing cardiovascular disease. In addition, lifestyle interventions to facilitate weight loss in overweight individuals are done practically. The weight loss therapies contribute to reducing the risk factors linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, prehypertension among other diseases.

In conclusion, AHA/NHLBI proposal on diagnosing and managing the metabolic syndrome highlighted the metabolic risk factors and the clinical diagnosis. The AHA group seconded the ATP III proposal and was widely used. Lifestyle and drug therapies should be applied according to the risk factor.

References

2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency                 cardiovascular care. (2005) (1st ed.). Dallas, Tex.

Educational Philosophies of John Dewey and Paulo Freire

Educational Philosophies of John Dewey and Paulo Freire

Introduction

The impact of Paulo Freire and John Dewey in the educational context is evident and has an extensive impact on the overall process of learning. There are several differences and similarities in the educational philosophies provided by the same. The purpose of this essay is to describe the similar concepts provided by the two scholars, and differences between the same.

Similarities between the educational philosophies

One of the notable similarities in the philosophies presented by both Paulo Freire and John Dewey is that the community and the individual are inseparable concepts in the education of the person. Stanley (114) indicates that the two concepts are linked together and can be viewed as reciprocal concepts which cannot exist in isolation. Dewey depicts that the development of the mind is regarded as a communal process, thereby no separation of the individual and the community is possible in the construct of education (Kelvin 5). Similarly, Freire asserts the idea that education is regarded as a tool for social policy. The scholar argues that education can be seen as a tool for either perpetuating the society or a remedy to the inequality of the same. Hence the individual and the society in the educational context cannot be separated.

The two scholars believed that the education could be regarded as a vehicle to drive social change. Freire indicates that with the engagement of students in questions concerning the already accepted wisdom within the educational setting is essential in developing them as critical citizens, hence combating the oppression of the mind and the culture of silence (Stanley 118). Dewey also believes that proper educational systems are relevant in setting the pace for students on an equal footing, which is against the socioeconomic status of the same and hence would help develop social change.

Freire indicates that students are like empty vessels as they wait for relevant knowledge from their educators to be disseminated to them, and are to pass on the same in generations. The scholar purports that students need to have the ability to examine and critically evaluate facts and theories for proper absorption of the concepts. Similarly, Dewey shows that students need to have hands-on experience for the learning process to be efficient. The scholar suggests that the traditional model of education where the tutor stands in front of the classrooms to provide students with instructions is flawed. He supports the idea of students moving within different rooms for different subjects. It engages each of them in the process of learning and interactions.

Differences between the educational philosophies

Despite the two scholars suggesting that inquiry and questioning of the current knowledge, their approach towards the process was different. Dewey indicates that developing hypothesis from data obtained and problems defined is the most appropriate in the process of learning. However, Freire indicates that the most appropriate approach is through observation and selection of themes for discussion which help decode information and seek clarification on the same (Kelvin 8).

Dewey indicates that the school is an institution in the community where life skills and strategies are gained. He purports that the school is not only crucial for the knowledge that one gains in the course of learning, but also as a place for obtaining life skills and problem-solving techniques for real-life challenges. Freire, on the other hand, indicates that the educational system is a setting for obtaining the relevant knowledge on subjects, rather than objects of the world. As such, he argues that the schools help to engage the students on how to live with people by giving them an understanding of the subjects and how to integrate their concepts in practice.

Conclusion

The two scholars present proper philosophies to guide the learning process. There are similarities in their concepts, but also some differences are evident in the same.

Works Cited

Stanley. “Paulo Freire’s radical democratic humanism.” Against Orthodoxy. Palgrave Macmillan US, 2015. 113-127.

Kelvin. “John Dewey’s conception of education: Finding common ground with RS Peters and Paulo Freire.” Educational Philosophy and Theory, 2017: 1-10.

 

Developing Organizations and Leaders

Developing Organizations and Leaders

Introduction

The incoming army commander has noted myriad issues. The warrying matters need to be addressed and actions taken to avert occurence in the future. The primary concerns of the 4th Armored Brigade Combat Team (ABCT) addressed the inconsistent leadership that is portrayed by the previous leaders. It is, therefore, indispensable to come up with measures and frameworks that will be put into action to curb the leadership problems found to be disturbing the teams. Disquiets that have been brought up by the team members include the lack of motivation, too much work to the extent that the troop lacks time for their families, insufficient resources for the battalions to use during the training and field activities, and sexual harassment of the female warriors. As the incoming leader, I plan to implement the concepts of diversity where leaders view their subordinates as normal human beings and respect their feelings while delegating duties to them[1].

The Leadership Problems that are noted

The report filed by the 4TH Brigade Combat Team that was in Afghanistan provided information that explained the technological and leadership problems they faced in the state while in operation. The brigade commander complained about the team having trained for the wrong task. The report claimed that “The fourth ABCT prepared for the wrong mission-fundamental undertakings amid its preparation “increase” for the arrangement to Afghanistan. The unit made dominatingly on consolidated arms move businesses with little accentuation on broad region security situations[2]. Upon entry into the theater, operational need required utilization of seven renditions of mine-safe protective player ensured variation vehicles. The unit could prepare on just a single form at home station. The detachment had a couple of benefits accessible at Bagram Airbase to execute drivers making amid gathering, organizing, ahead of development, and coordination, requiring the production of drivers preparing a project to develop drivers amid the initial two months in battle.”  This shows that the leaders did not undertake the responsibility to provide the correct information to the brigade teams thereby causing inconveniences on the field.

Within the 360-Degree Commander and staff assessment for the 4th ABCT that was obtained from the Epicenter for Military Leadership’s Management Calculation and Feedback Program, it was noted that the employees were not involved in the decision-making process. The staff was reported to have lost confidence in their leaders since they were not willing to provide any form of assistance to them[3]. The employees complained that there was no information about their performance shared by them and they fondled as if they were not part of the organization. Major Sean Springsteen is not known to complain about the amount of work done, but he discussed with the XO that he was tired of being extremely busy. He explained to XO that he shortened his vacation to come and help with the exercises of the division[4]. The complaints show that the leaders are not concerned with the performance of their employees, and are not in any way affected by the factors that may lead to loss of the workers. The leaders in action did not take their subordinates seriously, and as such, they did not seem to care about their welfare.[5]

Within the base, I experienced some discussions that led me to think that there may be cases of sexual harassment especially to the female agents. I noted what the discussion was about as the individuals claimed that “CPT Cooper has had affairs in every FOB.” The LTC Tagoli, he stands up for Cooper saying that he is a person who can make many friends quickly as he dismisses the allegation. Additionally, the Chaplain confirms that there is an increased case of infidelity and cheating within the base. Also, disappointment amongst the leaders due to their wrong use of power is evident[6]. Climatic surveys from the ABCT had comments that showed the disappointment that the base members had upon the heads. One of the comments read, “Significant Wilson is continually conversing with the female Soldiers. I can tell he makes them awkward by the measure of consideration he pays them. He even makes a special effort to get individual women into his office, I think it is influencing the execution of the area, yet what would I be able to do, I am just an expert.”

Vision for the Brigade

The Brigade’s vision purposes to implement the leadership strategy that will entail diversity within the base and on the field. The diversification will be important in ensuring that workers are appreciated and ensure that they are included in the decision-making process for the base[7]. The strategy will also provide for proficiency and competency in ensuring that the brigades and battalions have enough resources to work within the field and within the base for training purposes

Solution for the Problem, Implementation of the Vision and measuring the effectiveness

Leaders are answerable for creating a situation where the subordinates can practice real leadership skill while being relevant to the course of the firm[8]. The noted problems can be solved by first evaluating the performance and effectiveness of the leaders in action. The results will reflect how worth the leaders are to the base while providing relevant information concerning their competitiveness and proficiency in their areas. After the assessment, the problems will be laid out, and the whole team within the base will suggest the possible solutions for ensuring that they are all participating in the process[9]. The recommendations that will be put forward and decisions made after that on how the problems can be solved. For the cases of sexual harassment, if the accused are found guilty they will have to prove themselves that they will not indulge in such behaviors in the future. In the implementation process for the vision, training will be done for all the officers and other workers to ensure they understand the key concepts of diversity[10]. The team will be provided with materials that they can read to comprehend and practice diversity in their work areas. Sexual harassment will be a crime in the base, and any illicit affairs within the base will not be condoned.

In measuring the effectiveness on achieving the visions, certain key elements will be assessed. The factors will include how the worker-leader relation will be; the way leaders are issuing commands and how they will react towards questions that are asked to them by the workers. Additional aspects include the manner in which the leaders and employees will undertake their work and how the productivity of the same will be[11].

Conclusion

The 4th ABCT leadership is not in a good state and the relationship between the subordinates and the ones in leadership offices is not okay. As such, I believe that the next commander will revolutionize the vision and promote both diversity and a healthy working environment that the leaders, workers, battalions and the brigades can feel comfortable working in and therefore increase their efficiency.

 

Bibliography

Chin Ashley Jean L, and Chris Joseph E. Diversity and leadership. Thousand Oaks. London: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2011.

Julian, Barling. The science of leadership: lessons from research for organizational leaders.. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Stephen, Zaccaro, and Richard Klimoski. The nature of administrative leadership: accepting the performance obligations confronting today’s leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011.

[1] Chin, Ashley Jean L, and Chris Joseph E, Diversity and leadership. Thousand Oaks (London: SAGE Publications, Inc,, 2011, 23-45.

[2] Chin Jean L, and Joseph E, Diversity and leadership, 23-45.

[3] Chin Jean L, and Joseph E, Diversity and leadership, 23-45.

[4] Barling Julian, The science of leadership: lessons from research for organizational leaders. (New York: Oxford University Press., 2014, 45-56.

[5] Barling Julian, The science of leadership: lessons from research for organizational leaders. (New York: Oxford University Press., 2014, 45-56.

[6] Julian, The science of leadership: lessons from research for organizational leaders, 45-56.

[7] Julian, The science of leadership: lessons from research for organizational leaders, 45-56.

 

[8] Zaccaro, Stephen and Richard Klimoski, The nature of administrative leadership: accepting the performance obligations confronting today’s leaders (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011, 37-45.

[9] Stephen and Klimoski, administrative leadership, 37-45.

[10] Stephen and Klimoski, administrative leadership, 37-45.

[11] Chin, Ashley Jean L, and Chris Joseph E, Diversity and leadership. Thousand Oaks (London: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2011, 23-45.

Developing Learning Outcomes

Developing Learning Outcomes

The selected lesson is based on the education of children on the basic health foods that are necessary and healthy for the human body (Health Lesson Plan Part 1.2010). The setting is in a classroom, and the educator teaches the class with a board of pictures of various types of food on board in front of the class. According to Simpson (1972), it is important to consider the age, level of the children in their development, environmental factors and the reasons as to why these kids should have the knowledge of the given field. In this regard, there is need to develop outcomes that are expected from the students. Preparing the learning objectives helps to determine what the students should learn. In the process of developing these goals, it is important to consider the time allocated for the lessons, the essentials to be learned and how they will be integrated. The anticipated grade level would be an A since the content to be learned quickly to comprehend. The purpose of this paper is to develop learning outcomes of the childhood education program on healthy foods and how these results may be achieved in the learning process.

Learning Objectives

Cognitive Objectives

The following are the cognitive goals that must be developed for the students to achieve in their learning process:

  1. The students will be in a position to give detailed descriptions of healthy foods through their demonstration of the foods that the teacher has shown to them verbally.
  2. The learners will be in a position to differentiate between the healthy foods such as cabbages, vegetables, and fruits and snacks such as candy bars and explain why these foods are categorized as being healthy or snacks.
  3. The students will be able to develop a picture collage containing healthy foods through the use of images containing different foodstuffs that include snacks, healthy foods, and sugars.

Affective Objectives

The following are the effective objectives that must be developed for the students to achieve in their learning process:

  1. The learner will be in a position to appreciate the relationship that exists between proper health and the healthy foods through the design of a picture collage depicting the food items and body parts that are affected by the same in a picture collage.

Psychomotor Objective

The following are the psychomotor objectives that must be developed for the students to achieve in their learning process:

  1. The learners will have the ability to demonstrate routine skills in controlling their muscles on their hands in the course of developing the picture colleges in the class activates.

Enabling Objectives

Enabling objectives are the objectives developed to help the learning students achieve the set goals quickly. According to Anderson and Krathwohl et al., (2001), these enabling objectives give the educator a concise expectation of what the performance of the learner should reflect. They are important aspects that must be considered in all the situations where there is something new that is to be taught to the students. These objectives take into account the viewpoint of the students on a given learning aspect in the situation where the teacher can write them down and assess the same to identify which aspect must be accomplished under what circumstances and within which timeline. Therefore, the terminal course objectives must be considered in this process as well as the enabling objectives for the same to be efficient.

Under the cognitive objectives, the following would be the terminal objectives to be considered:

  1. The students should be able to match the description of the various foods that they have learned with a picture of this particular
  2. The students should be able to visually differentiate the different pictures of the foods that they have learned about as either snacks or healthy foods as well as their descriptions.
  3. The students should be in a position to arrange pictures of the various foods depending on how healthy they are on the human body.

These enabling objectives will ensure that the learners gain the knowledge on the healthy foods and meals that they are to learn about. The same will ensure that they understand how these foods are of importance to their bodies.

Conclusion

The selected lesson is based on the education of children on the basic health foods that are necessary and healthy for the human body (Health Lesson Plan Part 1.2010). The setting is in a classroom, and the educator teaches the class with a board of pictures of various types of food on board in front of the class. In the process of developing these objectives, it is important to consider the time allocated for the lessons, the essentials to be learned and how they will be integrated. The anticipated grade level would be an A since the content to be learned easily to comprehend.

References

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R., et al. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon (Pearson Education Group).

Health Lesson Plan Part 1. (2010). YouTube. Retrieved 28 August 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gr_6zg2waS0

Simpson, E. J. (1972). The classification of educational objectives in the psychomotor domain. Washington, DC: Gryphon House.

Decorative Framing Company

Decorative Framing Company

As a long run strategy, will Goltz Strategy to superior customer service be successful?

Focusing on customers improves the loyalty of the clients towards an organization. The scenario can result to the overall well-being of a firm. The approach by Goltz to superior customer service quality will be satisfied. Various strategies have been put in place to ensure that the customers are served efficiently with the best products that the company offers. Documentation that Goltz has made helps in ensuring that the customers receive the best products. The documentation helps in ensuring that there is the minimal occurrence of challenges in dealing with the customers by providing the required guidelines to the employees serving the customers.

The approach will also be successful because of the pattern that Goltz has been using in employing workers. The firm has been hiring highly skilled individuals that can help in maintaining good customer satisfaction. Flint, Blocker and Boutin (2011) postulate that proper focus on the needs of the customers and maintaining their loyalty helps in keeping an organization at a higher competitive edge in comparison to other players. Therefore, the approach of by Goltz will be successful because of the various steps he has been undertaking to achieve it.

Would you want to work for a company with such polices? What would be the pros and Cons of working there?

I would like to work in a company that has such policies because of the various advantages that can be gained from it. Wilson, Zeithaml, Bitner and Gremler (2012) state that working in an organization with complex and challenging policies can help to gain more experience and knowledge in the fields of its operations. Working in such a company, I could be in a position to improve my knowledge of working with other people effectively through the experience I would gain when working with the customers of the company.

Such a company would also be beneficial through the provision of additional training to the workers, therefore, improving the efficiency in providing services and increasing the knowledge base. On the other hand, working in an organization whose primary concern is the employees can be an encumbrance working in because one can lose his employment opportunity to other who can work effectively in providing the customers with the appropriate services. The customers can also take the opportunity to harass the employees because of the expected motive of the workers to respect the clients of an organization and safeguard the main aim of the company.

What suggestions would you have for Goltz and his system? Can you see any ways to improve it?

As most other organization, the business of Goltz has been useful in maintaining proper satisfaction to the employees by focusing on various strategies for improving their services. However, the company can improve different areas including areas of advertisements. The company should employ other means of demonstrating the products and services and selling its brand to the customers. The company can use other media platforms in reaching the customers. In addition to showing concern for the customers, the company should show concern for its employees because showing concern for them can help improve their motivation in attaining the welfare or the mission of the enterprise (Flint et al., 2011).

If you were advising Jay, what would you recommend?

If I were advising Jay, I would ask him to use additional competitive strategies in combination to that of showing concern for the employees. I would also encourage him to reduce the days that the company use in framing the arts of the customers. This can help improve the number of clients it serves. Involving clients in making decisions can contribute to come up with successful strategies.

References

Flint, D. J., Blocker, C. P., & Boutin, P. J. (2011). Customer value anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination. Industrial Marketing Management40(2), 219-230.

Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2012). Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw Hill.

Decision Making Process

Decision Making Process

Brief Summary

Role of Communication in Supporting Ethical and Legal Decision-Making Process

Effective communication is a critical tool that supports legal and ethical decision-making process in any organization (Pozgar et al., 2013). There is no single organization that is not confronted by the challenge of motivating its workforce. Research studies have established that one critical key towards that achievement is fairness (Pozgar, Pozgar & Pozgar, 2013). This is mostly because employees are frequently motivated when they feel that their organizations are fair as far as allocation of resources is concerned. In this context, organizations are forced to undertake critical decision-making processes that are guided by the principle of fairness. The type of communication must be applied using an integrity-based approach for individuals to deem it fair.

This way, ethics management typically combines various concerns of the law with a critical prominence on managerial responsibility towards communicating ethical behavior. More important to note is the fact for organizations to achieve effective communication, they must employ integrity strategies, which may vary in both scope and design (Pozgar et al., 2013). However, the main goals of such strategies are to define and communicate organizational guiding values, patterns or thoughts and aspirations of conduct. This means that when integrated into various organizational processes, these strategies help eliminate or prevent ethical lapses that may damage the organization.

Integrity based communication strategies are also critical tools of tapping powerful human impulses as far as moral thoughts and actions are concerned. As a result, a company does not shoulder the inherent burden in an ethical framework as the set rules transforms to become governing ethos. Nevertheless, many companies are today adopting and implementing compliance based communication strategies (Lewicki, Saunders & Barry, 2015). Such decisions are mainly prompted by the prospects of leniency, in which the main goals are to detect, prevent or punish legal violations (Pozgar et al., 2013). This suggests that such companies fail to understand that organizational ethics goes beyond the provision of rulebooks to employees thereby avoiding illegal practices. As such, organizational ethics is mainly aimed at addressing challenges or underlying problems that spur unlawful conducts. Therefore, organizations must cultivate a climate, which seeks to encourage exemplary behavior in their workforce (Lewicki et al., 2015).

Making Fair decisions founded on Ethical and Legal Implications

It is always possible to engage in fair decision processes not only based on necessary legal but also ethical implications. Ethics is an asset that must be effectively communicated by the management to the employees. It is rare to have an organization fully explain corporate misconduct as a result of a single individual’s character flaws (Lewicki et al., 2015). This is mainly because most frequently, tacit is attributed towards the most unethical business practices if only they are assumed not fully explicit. It is imperative for organizations to understand that full co-operation of every individual in an organization typically reflect attitudes, values, language, beliefs as well as behavior patterns that are used when defining the operating culture of such an organization (Lewicki et al., 2015).

Essentially, engaging in fair decision-making processes as determined by the prevailing ethical and legal concerns is an organizational issue more than it is personal. An organizational management is tasked with the mandate to provide effective and proper leadership in the organization. The management must also institute systems that enhance or promote ethical conducts, share responsibilities with individuals who envision, execute and benefit knowingly from corporate misconducts or misdeeds (Lewicki et al., 2015). This suggests that they should not be quick to define any wrongdoing as the work of a rogue employee or as an isolated incident.

References

Lewicki, R. J., Saunders, D. M., & Barry, B. (2015). Negotiation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Pozgar, G. D., Pozgar, G. D., & Pozgar, G. D. (2013). Legal and ethical essentials of health administration. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Lear

  Scholarly databases

  Scholarly databases

Introduction

Scholarly databases refer to professional primary gatherings of journals that are online and employed during articles searching. The elements are subject-specific and have the complete information about items except for few that only have abstracts used to get information from other sources (Mbabu, Bertram & Varnum, 2013). The paper will discuss two databases utilized in the GCU library and will be suited in EBP proposal. The essay also elucidates on reasons why the two are better than the other sources like the Google scholar.

Discussion

One of the databases is InterLibrary Loan. For a research that is likely to take a long time, it is always advisable to uncheck the whole message box from inside the database. Many GCU databases are dictated to reduce the output to the full message automatically thereby turning the reducer off expands the results (Mbabu et al., 2013). One can use the InterLibrary Loan to ask items not found in the GCU library. ILL is also able to locate items that the library does not own. To get the articles that are not present as full-text one is required to submit the request through (https://library.gcu.edu:2443/login?.  The staff can get the article.

The second one is LopeCat. This involves electronic and print books. A researcher is required to click “Find Books” from http://library.gcu.edu and then search. The researcher should then click on the view resource and feed in the username and password to start reading (Mbabu et al., 2013). The print books are located on the 4th floor at the student union point.

Why the two databases are better than Google Scholar is

The use of the library databases instead of Google Scholar is much better. Google scholar is not able to know the particular sites searched thereby not comprehensive. Contrary, when in the database, it is clearly defined and the dates included (Mbabu et al., 2013). Moreover, in google scholar, the entire text articles are not free while in the library database, the readings are free since the library has paid the publishers.

Reference

Mbabu, L. G., Bertram, A., & Varnum, K. (2013). Patterns of undergraduates’ use of scholarly databases in a large research university. The Journal of Academic Librarianship39(2), 189-193.

   Cybersecurity

   Cybersecurity

Introduction

Cybersecurity threats have risen with the continuous growth of digital age and sometimes they are considered as the modern warfare that different form of industries are experiencing (Cesar, 2015). In 2013, Forbes projected that expenditures on IT security would increase tenfold over a period of ten years (Stiennon, 2013). The US government current spending on IT security is over $37 billion dollars. Despite the significant growth of Cybersecurity industry, NAICS a standard system developed to define and classify business establishments based on similarity of processes does not have definitive codes for the cyber security industry (Cesar, 2015). NAICS is a hierarchical classification system composed of two and six digits which are assigned to business based on their core or primary activities (NAICS, 2017). NAICS standard codes are important due to reasons such as, a firm can use them to identify competitors and customers using the industry codes and people use them when seeking jobs in government agencies (Fields, 2015).

Analysis

            Most of our direct competitors are categorized under NAICs codes 44- retail trade, 51- information industry, 334-computer and electronic product manufacturing and 54- professional, scientific and technical services industry.  The company’s product features match with the four NAICS classification codes. We manufacture network sensors whose characteristics fall under NAICS prefix 334 of computer and electronic manufacturing. Under this prefix our competitors uses sub categories 334112 (computer storage device manufacturing) and 334118 (computer terminal and peripheral manufacturing).The prefix only describes the capabilities of combined hardware to detect, collect and store data but does not accurately define Cybersecurity and the services it can offer. Our company also generate big data analytics, which aligns well with NAICS code 51 (information technology). NAICS prefix 51 has partial features of Cybersecurity which do not specifically define Cybersecurity. Our company’s purpose is to integrate the hardware (network sensors) and software (big data analytics) to provide advanced Cybersecurity threat detection. This is a service that aligns with the NAICS code 54 of professional, scientific, and technical service industry. Some of our competitors use subcategories such as computer system design services whose code is 541512.  Our products and services are sold to our customers whose features align with NAICS prefix 44 of electronic stores. Electronic stores are major outlets for most of our competitors (443112).

Recommendations

Identifying and understanding the best NACS classification codes to use for our Cybersecurity company is central to determining the relationships the company will form with other business partners, competitors and government agencies (Fields, 2015). As such I recommend that the company use the NAICS prefix 54 classification of the professional, scientific and technical industry, in particular the NAICS code 541690 that classifies security consulting services. It is the most appropriate code because it does not limit its classification only on retail trade, or software programming or the manufacture of hardware. Additionally, it conveys to our stakeholders that we do not only manufacture and sell products but also services.

Conclusion

            Indeed Cybersecurity is an industry despite the fact that it doesn’t have a definite prefix to identify it in the NAICS codes. NAICS standard codes are key in identifying the company’s competitors and customers and provide opportunities for competitive bidding for government contracts. Cybersecurity industry offers of a wide variety of products and services to counter Cybersecurity threats. As such it has features that align well with existing codes such as prefixes 334, 44, 51 and 54. Our company integrates hardware and software to provide advance Cybersecurity threat detection. Hence, it will be accurately represented by security consulting services category (NAICS 541690).

References

Cesar, M.-L. (2015). Cybersecurity Becoming a Major Industry for Investors. Retrieved February 8, 2017, from nasdag.com/article/Cybersecurity-becoming-a-major-industry;for;investors-cm503813

Fields,J. (2015). It’s Time the industry focuses on something constructive: Reg SCI & Cybersecurity. Retrieved from market media: Http//www.marketsmedia.com/its-time-the-industry-focuses-on-something-constructive-reg-sci-cybersecurity/

NAICS Association (2015). NAICS Search Results. Retrieved February 8, 2017, from NAICS.com: http://www. Naics.com/naics -search-results/

NAICS Association (FAQs). (2017 February, 8).  Frequently Asked Questions. February 8, 2017, from NAICS.com: http://www. Naics.com/naics- frequently -asked questions/

NAICS (2017). NAICS update process fact sheets. Retrieved on February 8, 2017, from; https://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/reference_files_tools/NAICS_Update_Process_Fact_Sheet.pdf

Stiennon, R. (2013). IT Security Industry To Expand Tenfold. Retrieved February 8, 2017, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/richardstiennon/2013/08/14/it-security-industry-to-expand-tenfold/#304db1dd1d82

 

Cultural depictions of sin in “Scarlet Letter”

Cultural depictions of sin in “Scarlet Letter”

Introduction

Through his book ‘Scarlet Letter’, Nathaniel Hawthorne has demonstrated a deep bond with the Puritan ancestors by creating an interesting story that both describe their human strengths and weaknesses. Hawthorn has also been able to show an insightful knowledge of their beliefs at the same time admiring their unique human strengths by indicating his concerns regarding their oppressive and rigid rule (Hawthorn, 2004). Moreover, ‘Scarlet Letter’ clearly indicates his attitudes towards Boston’s Puritans through his portrayal of the story’s plot, themes highlighted in the story as well as the portrayed characters.  The paper will summarize Hawthorn’s cultural depiction based on the defects of sins in his book ‘Scarlet Letter’ and seek to place the human brokenness of sin the Christian doctrines.

Summary of ‘Scarlet Letter’

Since the Puritans sought to purify the Church of England, they left the Old World. Among their central concern was the simplification of the church’s services, arguing that there was a need to have a religion that developed deep personal relationship between God and an individual (Hawthorn, 2004). The complains were of deep concern since such a relationship was dictated or mediated by the government and the clergy. The Church of England considered any open defiance to the existing traditions a grave sin and felony (Hawthorn, 2004). Consequently, the Puritans were persecuted while another group fled to neighboring countries such as Holland and later, to the New World. It is while there, that the Puritans hoped to build and establish a city that became to be known as ‘A city upon a hill’ (Hawthorn, 2004). The puritans strongly believed that God was going to protect them as long as observed His teachings and committed their works to glorify Him.

However, it is worth noting that this novel seems to disclose the Puritan society in several places such as in Chapter 7 and Chapter 21 during the New England holiday. In Hawthorn’s depiction, the Bellingham’s walls are decorated with several portraits of the ancestors who are demonstrated wearing formal and stately type of clothing of the Old world. In this respect, Hawthorn describes such portraits to be more like ghosts of men rather than pictures as the forefathers seem to have faces showing severity and sternness (Hawthorn, 2004). Hence, according to the author, the harsh and intolerant gazes of such portraits seemed to display their displeasure and harsh criticism towards the Puritan’s pursuit of a life worth enjoying.

The church allowed only the male members to engage in voting processes. In addition, the church ministers demonstrated a close relationship between the churches. The state guided the elected members of the colony. Hawthorn has successfully demonstrated this through certain characters such Mr. Roger Wilson who is a church minister representing the government’s two branches while the Governor’s character depicted through Bellingham who represents the state at the church (Hawthorn, 2004). The Bible was a significant and powerful book that developed both ethical and spiritual standards among the Puritans. Thus, anyone found defying the rules set therein was penalized and punished both severely and publicly. Moreover, there were heavier punishments to the individuals who disagreed with the colony’s laws since the individuals were persecuted, banished or even executed publicly.

Depiction of Brokenness/Sin into the Framework of the Christian Doctrine of Sin

            Scarlet Letter successfully highlights the brokenness of the Puritans based on their stern beliefs regarding sin. The Puritan society is thus repressive and stern and gives little or no room for anyone to practice individualism. According to their stern beliefs, a path that is extremely narrow characterizes the trof righteousness. Moreover, religious teachings were taught through extremely stern and warning sermons, which concentrated on sin and guilt. It is important to remember that they believed that the sin committed in the Garden of Eden was the basis for a sinful mankind. Therefore, only a few souls were to receive salvation not based on their actions or beliefs but by God’s choosing.

However, the author has employed certain stylistic elements such as irony as way of demonstrating his displeasure in such religious beliefs. The irony is shown through private and public actions that seem to clash in Scarlet Letter’s characters. For example, in the book both Chillingworth and Dimmesdale are sinful characters (Hawthorn, 2004). However, they are both revered and valued members of the Puritan society or community, which is repressive. This means that the community is characterized by poor human conditions that are conditioned to acting, dressing and behaving in a certain way. Additionally, although individuals follow thoroughly the laws of the land and of the church, they are not guaranteed to go to heaven. This story further highlights a community that is ruled by men with iron fists who are responsible for keeping such conflicts alive (Hawthorn, 2004).

Penance and public appearances have been heightened as very important parts of the traditions, cultures and customs of the Puritan community. It is important to note that these early Puritans seemed to faithfully follow the writings and teachings of John Calvin, who was a French Protestant and reformer. Through such teachings, they believed that the world was as grim as the existing war between Satan and God. Additionally, through his writings, Calvin believed that people need to introspect themselves in a constant manner as it is through that process that people are able to know if they are God’s elect. This means that God had only selected or chosen certain individuals to receive salvation as opposed to the common belief that all people are called to receive it. Therefore, the Puritans believed that only a few people would be saved even after the death of Jesus Christ, the son of God who was called to die for the sins of man.

The rest of the people who are not chosen by God for salvation would be damned eternally (Hawthorn, 2004). Those who were able to settle in Massachusetts Bay Colony believed that because of Adam and Eve’s fall, all mankind was sinful and depraved. In addition, it was at the Garden of Eden that humankind received curse of depravity as both Adam and Eve had willfully disobeyed God’s commandment (Hawthorn, 2004). In modern Christianity, this curse of depravity is referred to as the Original sin. For this reason, Puritan schools began their teachings by illustrating the original sin brought about by Adam and Eve’s fall in the Garden of Eden. These teachings illustrated the fact that most of the Puritans were condemned to eternal punishment in hell, as only a few elected souls would go to heaven.

 

References

Hawthorn N. (2004). The Scarlet Letter. London. Book Point Publishing