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Reading and writing effectiveness

Reading and writing effectiveness

The process of writing the final critical essay was systematic as I had to make sure that all the points are supported by credible, researched and systematically written facts in line with my topic. To choosing the topic, I had to first do some background study and ensure that all the facts that I had to consider were readily available and that the data was credible and supported to avoid chances of misleading in my essay.

Some of the strengths of the essay are that I have addressed a situation that is critical as it is in the minds of the strategic planners, economists the normal citizens and anyone who has a view of the position of the Americans dream. This is a point of concern as progress is on everyone’s mind and therefore making the topic relevant and in line with the current trends in the economy. The data contained in my critical essay is also very strong as I had to go through the strategic planners articles and the articles talking about the economic position in the present and the past and therefore allowing me to make a comparison in terms of the trend and therefore being in a position to make a future prediction through considering the current trends.

The weakness of my essay is that most of the strategic planners have different views of the American dream realization in line with the current trends and therefore it was hard marrying the different views and still driving my view of the current trend. This made me dig dipper in many previously researched documents to have a positive stated in my essay.

I dwelt more on logos way of persuasion more than ethos and pathos. This is because the American dream is something that can be gauged from the past and the current trend and therefore making it easy to make a prediction. I had to use data from previous research and therefore helping me to analyze the current trend and therefore being in a position to know which position to stand in terms of the economic development as well as the entrepreneurial trends in America as this is the main issues showing the trend leading to the realization of the American dream. The data explaining the past and the current trends in both the government projects, businesses and the general economy were the greatest logic issues that are used in driving my point.

My thoughts about the critical essay are that it has been a great tool of knowledge as I have been able to learn a lot of issues concerning the trends in the American economy and the strides the government and the private sector is taking to make sure that the nation maintains a positive trend. My greatest question in this study would be should the growth be solely in America or can the nation also consider uplifting other neighboring nations? What is the American government doing to ensure that they do not only develop and maintain their dream but also realize the dream at the individual citizen level? These are some of the points I would concentrate on in case of further research.


Routing techniques

Routing techniques

Greedy heuristic is a unique routing capacity that works based on approximation of a series of algorithms which usually follow a specific strategy that involves use of local choices optimization (Toth & Vigo, 2014).  Clark and Wright savings heuristic is the most widely used technique whereby a node is randomly selected and labelled as node 1. Afterward, an assumption is made that some vehicles have to travel from a depot to the node and return to the terminal again.

Sweep technique method mainly focuses on the number of individuals that the vessel is supposed to take. It does not put into consideration aspects of congestion among others (Toth & Vigo, 2014).  The primary purpose of the technique is to ensure that it has attained the maximum capacity of passage on either trip of the vessel.  Edge covering is a method that was developed based on the assumption that vehicles are mostly routed on a network that comprises of links and nodes. Edge covering is based on finding a route that can transverse every connection of a system while node covering is a paradigm that has a lot of distinguishing features from the above approaches whereby it has the ability of reusing the previous routing data in mapping of vehicles. However the method is compelled to have a lot of faulty mistakes that are hardly rectified

Most of the routing technique relies on one another and therefore more than one method is used to accomplish the desired targets. Most of the routing techniques were usually done through a series of algorithms however with the coming up of new technologies some systems have been developed to make this entire task easier (Toth & Vigo, 2014). As an entrepreneur, I would use a sweep method due to the limited number of vehicles present. It will ensure that being able to maximise the margins of the profit that am getting and making it manageable to use a single vessel before shifting to other technique that need a lot of resources.


Toth, P., & Vigo, D. (Eds.). (2014). Vehicle routing: problems, methods, and applications.

Transportation Infrastructure

Transportation Infrastructure

Transportation infrastructure is one of the most prone infrastructures with regards to change in weather, criminal activities as well as other human damaging factors. To limit or completely ensure that the transportation infrastructure is not damaged the following masers and policies should be implemented by both the private and the public sector.

Proper Drainage

Roads being one of the transportation infrastructure developments, proper drainage and frequent maintenance are paramount in reducing the damages. This is achieved through constantly cleaning and clearing the blocked drainages on the roads as well as cutting down any barriers such as growing grass that could hinder the free-flowing water. The police and other security bodies sometime volunteer and do some cleaning therefore cutting down the cost for the nation in some states.

Efficiency and Well Defined Development

There should be proper policies that govern the quality of transportation infrastructure during the construction period. This is because if the infrastructure’s well build based on the recommended materials and mixture, one is guarantees that the infrastructure’s lifespan is extended.

Pre Audits for the Infrastructures

Before and after developing the transportation infrastructure, the responsible agencies with regards to the infrastructure should have a well implement frequent audits that would define threats that are probably based on the infrastructures are as well as the climate conditions based on the season. Through such audits, the agencies are in a position to prepare and respond to the damages before they even happen. The police officers are also mandated to see that the facility is used properly and that the rules and regulations set are observed to attain its full potential in terms of durability.

Benefits of the Methods / Policies

Through proper audits, the responsible agents can know probable threats such as soil erosion, portholes and also, dangerous places that would require road signs or bumps to reduce human damage activities. Also, developing policies that maintain quality construction of the infrastructures would help in solving damages brought about by weather conditions such as snow. On the other hand, the issue of proper drainage would also develop effective maintenance and usage of the transportation infrastructure, where in general it protects it for climate, weather and also man developed factors.




The role Twitter plays in mass communication after 2006 among college Students in the USA.

Research question

How does spending a lot of time on Twitter as a student contribute to and influence mass communication?


The research will Study Twitter and its role on mass communication because since people started using it in 2006, it has had its share of influence on how information passes to many people living in different parts of the world. Twitter has managed to attract college students because it provides a platform where they can be able to link and interact with their favorite Celebrities.  Most college students also love fancy clothes, and Twitter has provided a platform where young college students can like and like and follow Twitter updates from their best fashion houses and companies. The research will help further to explore whether the college students only look for specific information from Twitter when they log in, or there is a high likelihood of reading other interesting news that was not part of their original search.

The research will also focus on determining the average amount of time a college student can spend on twitter a day and how it influences the movement of information. The research on how much the college students spend on Twitter is motivated by the fact that most students often spend some time to surf the internet using mobile phones while others like using laptops. It is therefore critical to investigate how often the students use Twitter and its influence on mass communication considering the fact millions of messages are exchanged through twitter with a short duration of time.

Another critical point that the research will consider is the reason why the Students would prefer getting their news from Twitter as opposed to the traditional sources of news like newspapers. The research will explore whether the college students in the United States of America are finding Twitter more reliable when compared to other forms of mass media like television networks and the radio. The research will also seek to establish whether the speed of passing messages and communicating to many people using Twitter has played a role in making Twitter attractive to the college students as medium for mass communication. The research paper will also interrogate the unique characteristics of Twitter that allows makes it have a following among the young people and whether it has the distinct advantage of fitting into their lifestyle.

Another area that the research paper will dwell on is on the impact Twitter has created on the traditional media houses that have embraced it. It is common for media houses to run their twitter pages and the research will be seeking to establish whether the media houses that are not active on Twitter are likely to lose some of the college students that are very attached to Twitter. The paper will further seek to determine whether the number of hours spent on TV by college students before 2006 has reduced with Twitter gaining popularity in the recent years. The research will also assess whether there are some college students that never bother to get information from the traditional newspapers and television networks but instead prefer getting all their news or new information from links provided by different people on Twitter.

The research paper will also seek to determine the role of Twitter in general elections in America since 2006. The paper will seek to explore whether more college students are driven to participate in politics through twitter. It will also find out whether there are groups of college students that have lost interest in politics as a result of the information they sometimes encounter on social media. The research will also seek to find out whether students politics have been shaped by Twitter from 2006. It will explore whether the traditional methods of campaigning using meetings and sports have been overtaken by the use of Twitter. The research will be determining the effectiveness of Twitter in passing messages to many people as well as how it has contributed to the distortion of information and fake news. It will seek to whether college students can differentiate between the truth and fake story on twitter.


The research will consider gathering facts about college students using the available information from both the academic and online sources. The research will also interrogate surveys that have previously been conducted on some colleges in the United States and determine their conclusions. The outcome of the research will be based on the outcome of analyzing information from different sources and come up with conclusion.


Boyd, D., 2014. It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. Yale University Press.

The source will be useful in providing information on how Twitter becomes a part of life for the young people.

Bruns, A. and Moe, H., 2014. Structural layers of communication on Twitter. In Twitter and society (Vol. 89, pp. 15-28). Peter Lang.

The source is key to understanding how information moves along on twitter and whether it has a potential of reaching the masses.

Johnson, J., 2012. The power of Twitter. British Journalism Review23(4), pp.15-17.

The source will be critical in explaining how twitter influences communication.

Junco, R., Heiberger, G. and Loken, E., 2011. The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of computer assisted learning27(2), pp.119-132.

The source will help in showing how some students may be using Twitter to learn and pass information.

Kushin, M.J. and Yamamoto, M., 2010. Did social media really matter? College students’ use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election. Mass Communication and Society13(5), pp.608-630.

The source will be used to determine the role Twitter plays in influencing young voters most of whom are college students.

Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H. and Moon, S., 2010, April. What is Twitter, a social network or a news media?. In Proceedings of the 19th international conference on World wide web (pp. 591-600). ACM.

The source will be used to explain how twitter can be viewed beyond a social site.

Larsson, A.O. and Moe, H., 2013. Twitter in politics and elections: Insights from Scandinavia. Twitter and Society. New York: Peter Lang, pp.319-330.

The source will further help in explaining how Twitter has been used to influence masses and voters.

Lasorsa, D.L., Lewis, S.C. and Holton, A.E., 2012. Normalizing Twitter: Journalism practice in an emerging communication space. Journalism studies13(1), pp.19-36.

The source will be used to compare traditional media houses and journalism has changed after the introduction of Twitter.

McKinney, B.C., Kelly, L. and Duran, R.L., 2012. Narcissism or openness?: College students’ use of Facebook and Twitter. Communication Research Reports29(2), pp.108-118.

The source will be used to explain the behavior of  college students when using Twitter.

Weller, K., Bruns, A., Burgess, J., Mahrt, M. and Puschmann, C., 2014. Twitter and society (Vol. 89, p. 447). P. Lang.

The source is critical in explaining the changes in the society that have been  brought about by the power of Twitter influencing the masses.

Human resource(HR)

Human resource


In every organization, the human resource professionals are entitled to poses essentials skills that enable them to perform their functions efficiently. They are supposed to be innovative, game changers, the capability of building, good leaders, credible activists, technology proponents, strategic planners among many (Butler & Callahan, 2014). Any organization in need of HR personnel will mostly look into the above skills which they need in their company.

Those skills are also necessary for assisting them in making critical outsourcing decisions for the company that they work in.  In essence, when they are capable of practicing these skills they play an essential role in the success of the business that they represent. In this paper, I will efficiently analyze the HR executives’ decisions based on outsourcing together with providing a critical analysis of the skills stipulated by the human resource competency study regarding the impact of the skills in ensuring that the professionals efficiently outsource the agreements among other roles.

HR skills in assessing potential outsourcing partners

Galperin explains a six number of skills that the HR executives should possess, focus on and the specific knowledge that they will impact them. Some of the skills which are highlighted above are not limited to being change champions, strategic positioned and innovators. One of the most critical skills here is the decisive positioner which refers to the aspect of being able to convert business context and stakeholder into a business strategy (Sheehan, 2014).  They should be able to access strategically positioned factors such as social, political, demographic factors that affect the organization. The HR executives should be in a position to identify viable vendors that they can work together in the company for them to even become well. HR as an innovator is entitled to looking for different solutions of organization strategies that will enable them to acquire credible partners to work with for mutual growth. They should ensure that they can cope up with any change in the organization that is entitled to make them better in the activities that they are involved.

HR skills in efficiently managing outsourcing agreements

The HR has a significant role in ensuring that they negotiate for an optimal HR outsourcing agreement. The aid provides that the HR are supposed to be leaders in the organization. A leader is someone who can understand both sides of a party. In our cases, it, therefore, means that the HR executives should be well conversant with the business-related issue. By doing so, they will settle on a price that they negotiated with the other party. An outsourcing agreement will mostly contain fundamental conditions of the contract that both sides should adhere to (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).

The different type of deal frequently used is the master service agreement that is used mainly in large international companies. The main thing that the HR is responsible for is to ensure that the relationship between the two parties who signed the agreement is well managed. HR executives being in possessions of collaborative skills are therefore entitled to bring in vendors and work with them efficiently which at the end will build a proper relationship between the organization and the vendors themselves.

HR skills in advising the CEO

HR executives are supposed to have the competencies of influential skills in the organization. Also, they are entitled to posses cross-functional skills that will enable them to be very conversant with issues that are in contention in a company. A more likely point that will be of contention in an organization is the decision of the CEO on either to outsource or not. Regarding this, therefore, the HR is supposed to bring forth their knowledge and efficiently advice the management on the issues that revolve based on decisions of outsourcing. (Sheehan, 2014) It is important to note that the decisions to outsource might be made by the CEO based on the cost which is only a single factor that should not be used to reach such a critical agreement.

Decisions of outsourcing should be a strategic decision that is made out of the critical analysis that should be done on the pros and cons that may result when such a determination is made. The HR executives are in proper positions to be consulted on issues that are related to personnel outsourcing in an organization. Reasons behind it are that they have been able to interact with the challenges that human resource has been undergoing and also when the need for outsourcing is critical they are at a better position to decide when and why (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).

The rationale for the human resource competency study

The human resource competency study has been able to provide fundamental skills that the HR executives should posses however it’s clear that it has left some gap of skills that are essential in the new error that is based on modernity and technology based. Most of the HR executives over the years have been viewed with the traditional image whereby they have been acting like people who should take orders from top managers. However, that aspect has been proved otherwise since the HR executives should now be capable to not only take part in their departmental mandates but also the functions of the entire organization.

The most critical role is the administrative function that makes them to not only be policy implementers in a company but also involved in coming up with policies that will assist the entire organization to improve fully (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).  They are supposed to be experts of innovations which make them come up with different designs of management of systems that will ensure proper coordination of various departments.


Regardless of the competency skills that the HR executives might have, the task always falls on the organization itself which is supposed to ensure that the HR professionals are upgraded. Upgrading of HR officials will involve introducing them into training based on the skills that they need which will make them improve in quality. Organisations will need people who are capable of understanding the business, adaptable and those who possess personal credibility that will enhance the day to day activities of the company.


Butler, M. G., & Callahan, C. M. (2014). Human resource outsourcing: Market and operating performance effects of administrative HR functions. Journal of Business Research67(2), 218-224.

Galperin, B. L., & Lituchy, T. R. (2014). Human resource development in service firms across cultures. Human Resource Development Review13(3), 336-368.

Sheehan, M. (2014). Human resource management and performance: Evidence from small and medium-sized firms. International Small Business Journal32(5), 545-570.


Teaching about Diabetes

Diabetes has become one of the chronic conditions and contributing to a huge number of deaths all over the world. This, therefore, has raised concerns not only in the healthcare sector but also in the nation at large and therefore creating the need to promote or rather create awareness on the condition, therefore, helping reduce its effects through training and teaching people about the condition and how to control it. Diabetes leads to an abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevation of levels of glucose in the blood. Diabetes can be categorized into Diabetes type 1and Diabetes type 2. In this paper, two articles concerning Diabetes type 1 and Diabetes type 2 will be considered, and an annotated bibliography of the two articles will be intensively assessed regarding their content and their contribution towards teaching about Diabetes.

Annotated bibliography

Wherrett, D. K., & Daneman, D. (2009). Prevention of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics in North America, 38(4), 777-790.

Type 1 diabetes is a disease which destroys the pancreas’s beta cells leading to the production of a low quantity of insulin (Wherrett & Daneman, 2009).  This makes a patient’s ability to monitor insulin levels to decrease.

  • The pathogenesis of T1D is a framework that is very important in making considerations on prevention and curing the disorder.
  • Susceptibility to T1D is inherited through a series of genes, these relate to the HLA class II locus of chromosomes, and this has a lesser contribution for other genes, and also includes the insulin gene, CTLA4, and others.
  • The susceptibility genes are vital but cannot fully explain the immune system pathogenesis of T1D as most people with this disability have not been in a position to discover the disorder.
  • In understanding the treatment of type 1 disorder, one has to also understand that an exposure of one or more environmental triggers changes the immune system and this converts the susceptibility to pathophysiology, therefore, leading to the destruction of beta cells.
  • The numbers of factors that are associated with clinical trials are small despite the intensive search for environmental triggers.
  • In type 1 diabetes the first metabolic disability to be diagnosed the loss of the insulin secretion, and this is about a load of intravenous glucose.
  • The levels of glucose remain normal in response to changes in meals and the glucose tolerance only develops late.

At this point, an increased effect leads to the next phase which is clinical diabetes. Understanding the various phases and of the disorder is vital as one knows the stage at which intervention can be made and the effect it would have on someone’s health. This, therefore, makes it very critical in diabetes training session. This article is relevant in the study as it tries to explain how the disorder affects the body and also the sequential changes that occur once someone has the condition, therefore, moving the condition from one level to another. This, therefore, makes it critical when explaining the scientific issues that are associated with the disorder during the training session.

Pratley, R. E. (2013). The early treatment of type 2 diabetes. The American journal of medicine, 126(9), S2-S9.

Type 2, diabetes has become a major concern globally as it is one of the leading causes of mortality rate and this is mainly due to micro and macro-vascular complications that are associated with the condition (Pratley, 2013).

  • An early intervention however as soon as there is the discovery of glucose levels abnormalities are discovered greatly assist in minimizing the burden of the condition.
  • The disease management, however, is challenging as during the early stages the disease is asymptomatic and therefore making the diagnosis process hard.
  • The article discusses the early intervention in the condition and emphasizes on the trials in showing the progress of type 2 diabetes.
  • The article goes further to show how the pre-diabetes condition can be addressed. This is done through the existing evidence-based guidelines developed to make an optimization of the standards of care at the pre-diabetes and also over type 2 diabetes stages.

The information in this article is relevant and helpful in the diabetes training as it explains how the condition can be controlled. Creation of awareness has been a great challenge in the condition as most people do not understand the effect of the type 2 diabetes and therefore the article has come out clearly and explained the various stages of the type 2 diabetes. The treatment process of the various stages is also varying critical as lack of information is the greatest contributor to the escalation of the condition.

In conclusion type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are a great threat to the people’s health worldwide greatly contributing to the mortality rate. This is also a great challenge to the health sector and the government at large as there is increasing rates of the condition worldwide and managing the condition is a bit expensive. The analysis of the articles, therefore, will be helpful in providing the vital i9nfrmation about the conditions and therefore making it easy to train.


Wherrett, D. K., & Daneman, D. (2009). Prevention of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics in North America, 38(4), 777-790.

Pratley, R. E. (2013). The early treatment of type 2 diabetes. The American journal of medicine, 126(9), S2-S9.





Forced migration can be defined as the movement of people from their domicile to another. This movement can be enhanced by factors such as natural tragedies including drought, floods and famine (Gemenne, 2014). Another cause of migration can be search for better opportunities especially in the western countries where many believe there are many viable opportunities. Civil wars can also force people to move from their original lands. These wars may be caused by political situation, race and religious beliefs. There are many people who have migrated due to political induced situations such as post-election violence. When a government intends to develop an area, it may displace the residents of that area for instance when building roads, mining in that area and building of airports. In essence, these people are mostly paid huge amounts of money and as a result may opt to migrate to their coveted western countries without much thinking.

Outline of the Essay

Migration in the recent days has become a threat to security in the countries where people migrate into. With the increase in number of immigrants in western countries such as the United States of America, United Kingdom and other developed countries, there is tendency to increase the level of crimes. Immigrants may consider turning into criminal activities in cases where they feel unappreciated in the new country. Also, when these people do not find what they were aiming to get in the new country, they may adopt bad behaviors such as prostitution and robbery. This happens when they lack the opportunities such as jobs in that country.

Security can be considered in many aspects. A country’s security can be risked in terms of; inadequacy of resources. When there are too many immigrants in a country, the country may lack enough resources to feed all of them which may render a country being unable to provide (bankruptcy) and a shame to other states. This is considered as instability of the country since its not able to maintain its people. Another threat is that too many people in a country who might be jobless may lead to crimes rising in these countries (Lazaridis, 2016). Western countries are considered more productive and thus immigrants may turn to robbery and murder crimes to generate money. Since these states are expensive to live in, they find that engaging in criminal activities may be an easy breakthrough. They may also form gangs that threaten the security of these countries.

There are also societal security threats. These are influences that immigrants may have on the residents of that state. Some immigrants may be demoralized and this may hence influence those residing in the state they have migrated into. This will lead to the adoption of bad cultural activities and immorality increase which is a threat to the society at large (Lazaridis, 2016). The traditions of that community are hence lost in the long run. For example, communities that uphold honesty and respect may be corrupted by immigrants who come from societies that do not regard respect highly. The society may adapt to these trends and end up losing their dignity in the long run. Corruption of behaviors may make a particular state to lag behind since even in professional sectors; there will be influence of this bad behavior.

This essay will hence focus on all these threats that are brought about by immigrants into the western countries in particular. These will be explained in detail and remedies to these security threats will be established since security is a large aspect.


Lazaridis, G., 2016. Security, insecurity and migration in Europe. Routledge.

Gemenne, F., Barnett, J., Adger, W.N. and Dabelko, G.D., 2014. Climate and security: evidence, emerging risks, and a new agenda. Climatic Change, 123(1), pp.1-9.

Nonverbal Feedback

Nonverbal Feedback

Nonverbal communication plays a critical role in one-on-one interaction. Nonverbal communications act as a complement to the verbal communication channel and therefore making communication effective (Baack, 2017).

Some of the nonverbal communication cues include Kinesic cues, space, touch, appearance, artifacts, and paralanguage (Baack, 2017). The way people sit, make eye contact and pay attention to an individual can be said to be nonverbal feedback. This is used to determine the level of understanding and interest an individual has on the message being passed. To effectively communicate the nonverbal cues must match with the verbal communication. Analysis of nonverbal feedback application can be addressed in considering the nonverbal cues that are used and how effectively they make communication feedback easy. For example, if an employee does a good report and presents it to the boss the wards ‘job well done’ and accompanying this with a handshake and a smiling face can help drive the message in a strong way to the employee.

Nonverbal feedback helps in making sure that a message is relayed and understood by the target audience. The tool is effective in that it helps the sender in effectively conveying the feelings and is complemented by the verbal communication. Nonverbal feedback also has a direct link between the emotions and empathy of an individual. This, therefore, helps to effectively share the meaning of the communication intended to be communicated. It is easy for an individual to effectively detect if there is a mismatch of the nonverbal and verbal feedback in the different situation where it is applied. A good example can be in the case of a training session where all the employees can show that they fully understand what is being thought through the facial expression and the different body language. The nonverbal communication cues can be incorporated by individuals to make message conveying and effective.


Baack, D. (2017). Organizational behavior (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from


Apple Inc.

Apple Inc.


Apple Inc. is one of the biggest technology companies in the world as well as one of the best with regards to revenue and sales over the years. The American based firm was established in 1976 by Steve Job and other two members. The firm’s main force was to develop personal computers at first which has changed over the years with the introduction of other technological gadgets such as iPhone, iPod, and services such as iTunes, as a way to increase its relevance in the industry and also customer satisfaction.

Impact of Apple’s vision, stakeholders, and mission statement

Based on the success that Apple Inc. has developed over the years it is contributed more by the company’s mission and vision statements. Also, the mission statement has been changing over the years based on the companies shift in their perspective and priorities in the technology industry. For example, the company’s mission statement states that “Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.” The mission statement philosophy of the company has been achieved through the constant and improved technological gadgets that the company produces. Additionally, the company has proved to be the biggest innovation center in the technology industry. As a result of the innovation and product quality, the company has been able to breach the gap between what the customers want and prefer and what they provide in the market. According to Blenko, Waldron, Cornelius, Nespoli, and Lee, D. (2016), Apple Inc. is one of the leading companies with regards to customer satisfaction which is as a result of the mission statement.

Additionally, Apple’s vision statement is “We are constantly focusing on innovating.” The company has over the years invested a lot regarding innovation and creativity, which as a result the firm can produce quality technological products. Moreover, the vision statement also focuses on simplicity and collaboration which is achieved through collaborations in the development of gadgets such as the smartwatch, as well as applications such as iTunes which are user-friendly and simple yet provide quality service to its users.

On the other hand, Apple values it, stockholders, a lot which is one of the major factors of its success. The firm’s stockholders include investors, customers, suppliers, and distributors as well as its employees. This is portrayed through the salaries and allowances paid to the workers, where the company was voted as one of the best employees because on how they treat their employees, as explained by Kramer, (2017). According to Asquith, and Weiss, (2016), Apple is one of the most profitable firms in the world; this is because of the inverters relationship with the company. For example, over the years the investors have prioritized their interests based on the profit maximisation factor of Apple Inc., as a result of the strive towards attaining the responsibility the company, on the other hand, improves regarding success. The suppliers and distributors of the company are as well considered by the company, for example, the frequent contract reviews and the strictness on the company. For example, the company monitors a lot with regards to its supplier’s remuneration and job security for the employees. As a result, the suppliers tend to comply with the high expectations of Apple which in turn develop into effective and efficient performance towards success.

The Five Forces of Competition

According to Rothaermel, (2015), the five forces of competition consist of, industrial competition, the bargaining power of suppliers, threat developed by substitute products, and customers bargaining power and also the threat of new companies in the market. The five forces impact Apple Inc. as follows:

Customers bargaining power

At this point, organizations focus on collective customer bargaining power and the single bargaining power. However, as for Apple, the single customer bargaining power has no impact towards the company’s revenue. But the collective customer bargaining power based on the market forces could Couse the company significant effects. To effectively control the competition force, Apple continues to develop new and innovative products to its customers, meaning that the customers have a variety to choose from as well as the increased features that keep that eliminate the threat caused by customer barging power.

 New Entrants to the Marketplace

The threat that new companies in the technology industry is relatively law based on Apple Inc. this is because the competition in the tech industry is very stiff as well as the capital to invest for a new company to compete with Apple is too high to manage. On the other hand, the new companies would take a lot of time, energy and financial support to develop a bigger brand name such as Apple, to develop competition. However, the company keeps on developing new and high-quality products for its customers in a move to establish customer loyalty to avoid competition.

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The competition impact with the suppliers bargaining power at Apple is significantly low. This is because Apple has an extensive variety of suppliers to choose from as well as the suppliers in the industries as most of them are willing to work with Apple. On the other hand, Apple controls the supplier’s bargaining power through subdividing their responsibilities meaning that one supplier is responsible for on product or service, for example, one supplier only develops computer processors. Additionally, the company is strict on its requirements and responsibility of the supplier’s which helps the company to counter check the suppliers.

Threat 0f Substitute Products

Substitute products are the biggest threat among the five competitive forces for Apple. This is because the technology industry keeps on changing based on the fact that innovation and creativity are high in the sector. As a result, Apple challenges the substitute products by providing increased capabilities of its products and services the company offers. As a result, the firm can remain relevant in the industry as well as maintain its customers.

SWOT analysis for Apple Inc.


The company has shaped a strong brand name in the market for all its products due to the quality and the constant upgrades of its products depending on the needs of the customers. The company has a robust and developed center for its research and development compared to its competitors. The Apple company has the resources, based on the financial gains and revenue collected from the wide variety of products, which all post success regarding profits from the market. This is because the company has been able to fight the current market pressure to reduce the cost of its products. Based on the quality of products the company has produced, it has got a larger number of loyal customers for its products and services. The other strength is that the firm is a pioneering company in the world, giving it lead into the un-ventured markets (Khan, Alam, & Alam, 2015).


The charges of the Apple products are high, and it poses a threat and gives an advantage to the competitors, who price their products cheaper yet with the same aspects and quality. Decreases in the market share also bring the problem of less revenue and relevance in the market. It is mostly caused by the closed encryption of the Apple system, like the iOS.

Other businesses in the industry blame the Apple Company for not following the patents, which damages its reputation. The death of Steve Jobs and later exit of Scott Forstall and John Browett impact the company negatively.  The company expects fall due to the competition and the pricing aspect of the Apple product. This is because the company only sticks to the same products, like the iPhone, yet the tech industry is experiencing changes.


The technology industry provides a lot of opportunities on a daily basis based on the changes and the evolvement of the sector. As a result, Apple is one of the notable companies, opportunities such as the firm can improve or upgrade the ITV features could easily eliminate competition and increase sales based on the company’s brand name. Investing more in online stores, compared to the current situation in the market. For example, iTunes could also provide movies instead of just music. The other price is the reconsideration of its product by providing cheaper gadgets in the market yet with high quality. And lastly, Apple Inc. can increase the mobile phone adverts features, having allowed the company advertisements to run on their product


Intense competition is one of the threats affecting Apple Inc. The major competitor of iOS is the Android OS in the mobile market. Financial emergencies hurt Apple deals since shoppers do not spend excessively in basic circumstances. iTunes is also recognized as a threat as it is a free platform for downloading music and it may affect the benefit and successes of Apple online store. The escalation of tax renews in the USA also affects the Apple’s growth. For example, Samsung is a particular case which provides application processors to the firm, and it has grown the pay and advanced the purchasing costs. Apple pays more because there are no possible substitutes who could provide it with the application processors.

Strategies for the company to capitalize on its strengths and opportunities

One of the strategies to implement is using the company’s brand name to market its products. For example, the company does not need a lot of marketing for its new products compared to new entry companies. Also, the company should take advantage of its innovation and creativity center since it is one of the best in the industry. As a result, the company should innovate new features continuously to eliminate competition and increase its revenue.

Increasing its target market into new markets is another strategy to implement. The company should not only be comfortable with the high sale of its product but focus on dominating the market. For example, the company should forces on Africa as a target market. Moreover, the company should consider reducing its selling price since most of the products are too costly for most people to purchase. As a result, the firm would increase sales as well as profits.

The Types of Strategies Apple Inc Can Implement For Increased Competitiveness and Profitability

One of the major strategies to implement is the innovation aspect of the company; Apple Inc. should be the pacesetter for creativity and innovation of new features and products in the technology sector. As a result, the company would remain relevant and on the other hand eliminate competition (Khan, Alam, & Alam, 2015).

Additionally, Apple Inc. should adopt the Wallmart strategy so selling more products at a lesser price. This is because the company will make a profit as well as dominate the market based on the quality of its products.

The communications plan to implement the recommended strategies

Since Apple is an international company with branches all over the world, the communication strategy to implement would be newsletters as well as meetings. This is to be achieved through sending a newsletter based on the recommended strategies that the firm wants to implement, in all its branches departments as well as the suppliers (Khan, Alam, & Alam, 2015). After the news later is received the heads of the companies or departments are to hold a briefing meeting to its employees about the recommendation. Additionally, each employee should have a copy of the strategies to effectively perform their duties towards the set objectives and also the copy should act as a referencing point for all the stakeholders involved.

The adopted corporate governance mechanisms at the firm

One of the adopted cooperate governance in the company is that the  Apple board members oversee the CEO of the company as well as other senior management posts, in a move to instill competency and ethical practices in the firm. Also, the board is responsible for auditing as well as making sure that the interests of its stockholders are achieved efficiently, and also the practice is maintained for continuity

On the other hand, the major strategies of the Board are formulated and implemented by the company’s Corporate Governance Guideline additionally; the firm’s executives are trusted upon to take into account proactive measures, as a centered approach to deal with their responsibilities. Also developing measures that assure the Company is focused based on its obligation and attainment of the firm’s objectives.

The effectiveness of leadership within Apple Inc

Apple Inc. CEO the board has solid control, of the company based on the authoritative structure that the company adopts. This means that the company practices the autocratic type of leadership. This is evident based on the fact that pioneers such as Tim cook have control over every activity happening in the organization, to the point that they have the mandate to stop or kick-start a project without having consultations with other managers, and employees. The leadership structure also practices the top-down approach to communication.

However, Apple as a company has developed the rigidity between the employees and the management team. As a result of this, the employees, as well as other stockholders at Apple, do not have a chance to contribute to their ideas and opinion. If the company were to transform the authoritative aspect of leadership and accommodate everyone’s opinion the company would increase and succeed at all platforms such as brand name, revenue, customer satisfaction as well as eliminating competition (Heracleous, & Klaering, 2014).

Apples ethical responsibilities

Apple has over time majored in decreasing energy or power consumption of its products as a move to protect the environment. As a result, the firm has established 100% renewable energy branched in over 23 countries. According to Clarke, and Boersma, (2017), Apple is the only company to win the clean energy index award towards the environment.


Asquith, P., & Weiss, L. A. (2016). Dividend Policy (Apple Inc.). Lessons in Corporate Finance: A Case Studies Approach to Financial Tools, Financial Policies, and Valuation, 239-259.

Blenko, D., Waldron, K., Cornelius, J., Nespoli, G., & Lee, D. (2016). ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS: APPLE RETAIL STORES.

Clarke, T., & Boersma, M. (2017). The governance of global value chains: Unresolved human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas in the Apple supply chain. Journal of Business Ethics, 143(1), 111-131.

Heracleous, L., & Klaering, L. A. (2014). Charismatic leadership and rhetorical competence: An analysis of Steve Jobs’s rhetoric. Group & Organization Management, 39(2), 131-161.

Khan, U. A., Alam, M. N., & Alam, S. (2015). A Critical Analysis of Internal and External Environment of Apple Inc. International Journal of Economics, Commerce, and Management, 3(6), 955-961.

Kramer, M. (2017). Brand purpose: The navigational code for growth. Journal of Brand Strategy, 6(1), 46-54.

Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic management. McGraw-Hill Education.

Deference between the Qualified CV and the Unqualified

Deference between the Qualified CV and the Unqualified

At first, the unqualified CV is more limited with information meaning that, the individual is more reserved than the qualified CV. As a result the unqualified CV loses expression skills which is required for a competitive job vacancy, the verifying team’s first impression and mostly the job vacancy in question of a Project Manager at Deloitte US | Deloitte & Touche LLP requires expression abilities to be well fashioned to fit in the position since it is more of a public relation position than an office one. On the other hand, the academic qualification of the unqualified CV is a bit shallow, and also some of the requirements are not achieved. For example, Deloitte US | Deloitte & Touche LLP requires a proven track record of five-year work experience, where the unqualified has two years work experience compared to 12 working years of the qualified CV. In addition to the limiting factors of the unqualified CV, it portrayed no technology experience as the job being offered requires.

Deloitte US company Performance Appraisal

Project managers’ position

At Deloitte, the company aims at developing your and innovative minds towards attaining there career goals and objective, through providing equal opportunities, resources and also good working conditions for the employees to exercise their abilities both local and internationally. The following is a performance appraisal of the Project managers’ position

Key Areas of Evaluation


The job requirements are moderately achieved with regards to the employment contract as well as the job advert for the project manager’s position. Areas such as technology implementation, knowledge and use are still underperformed. On the other hand, time management is still an issue that requires immediate improvements for the organization and the employees to succeed. However, output levels, decision making and solving complex situations are well performed.

Communication skills

It is one of the best-performed areas in the organization; this is because communication, as well as information flow, has been effective for both up down and down up with regards to the organization’s structure. Consecutively, the section would require a bit of improvement based on communicating the organization’s culture goals, and requirements to new employees to foster a conducive working environment

 Innovative Thinking

Poor performance with regards to creativity and innovation of both ideas as well as working strategies. The area needs significant improvement for its to attain the organization’s expectations as listed in the job requirement document.

 Strategic Planning

This section involves plans as well as effective implementation to towards the organization’s objectives. The employee has shown commendable efforts to attaining there set gals as well as effective strategies for archiving them. However, communication in this section needs improvement; this is because not every employee is conversant with the long-term plans of the organization as they are with the gaols to be attained in the short termgaols.


Praiseworthy efforts have been noted over the past work duration, for example, punctuality, communication, teamwork and also the supervisory role of the organization’s project. As a result, the employees are appreciated for their endless effort in working towards the organization’s goals. But also, time management, creativity and communication sections don’t seem to improve, which requires immediate action to resolve the problems experienced in the section.