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Question 1

For a manager to encourage teamwork and collaboration, the manager should create a favorable environment for a group of the workers through the provision of security, financial resources, and time for socializing. Formulation and creating groups among the employees and implementing strategies of rewarding the best group if they make the largest sales is also very important in an organization. Rewarding the successful team will motivate the workers to work together and achieve the target goals (Price, 2004). Instead, of focusing on the personal progress, the workers should consider progress in the company through these groups, and it’s the role of manager to initiate this through the creation of a conducive environment.

Question 2

The words affirmative action means a process where a company increases the participation of protected groups such as women and minorities in the workforce (Connors, 2009). On the other hand, affirming diversity is a managerial process of establishing an environment that utilizes the potential of all employees by considering diversity. The workforce is moving from affirmative action towards affirming diversity to develop an environment that maximizes the potential of all employees by considering diversity (Holzer, 2010). When workforce moves to diversity the company’s profits will increase respectively as compared when the workforce is in affirmative action.

Question 3

The first diversity I have experienced in my workplace is gender. Gender discrimination is a frequent employment violation in my workplace. There is a notion of gender inequality where women are most disregarded as compared to men when it comes to employment. This leads to mistrust, creates tension and decreases production. For instance, when a woman is receiving a small amount of payment as compared to the male employee in the same job rank and qualifications this will create a tense atmosphere.

When workers are not treated with respect, they may lack fairness, and this may lead to decrease in production. However, to solve this problem gender equality should be upheld in all workforce. Equal treatment of workers and respect regardless of gender should be upheld.

Religion is another issue. Religious diversity is another issue that brings about challenges in the workforce. In my company, people have different belief and comes from different denominations while others do not value either. For example, some people prefer not to work during Saturdays since according to their faiths this day is Sabbath, and you are not supposed to work. This contrary affects the production workforce in a company due to absenteeism. In another case if accompany upheld religious faith some people who are non-believers fails to participate. However, for the company to deal with this problem, it has to respect people’s faith and respect them (Holzer, 2010). Each employee should be guaranteed free off day to go and worship according to his or her faith, and this will be respecting their faith in the company.

Thirdly, disability is another diversity issue. Physical, mental, and emotional disability is another affect employee in my area. In my company, we have one employee who faces a lot of challenge to mingle with others since he has shorter leg than the other one. This condition makes him feel uncomfortable to relate to other colleagues. This means he cannot be able to handle difficult works as compared to other normal employees, but the company offers good payment more than other employees. This creates hatred and mistrust among some workmate in the company. In a process to solve this problem, the company should provide opportunities that equally fit people with disabilities different from others and the salary should be harmonized according to employee’s job rank and specification to reduce the mistrust.

Question 4

Diversity enhances benefits in an organizational through the provision of a conducive environment that maximize the full potential of employees.  Through employing all kind of people from the different vicinity, ethnicity, and backgrounds, it provides a room for employees to exercise their potential in the workforce. Also, through diversity affirmative, the company will boast it profits since they employ people from all aspects. Different people bring new ideas that will increase inventions and innovations in the company hence increase in profits. Another benefit is that it provides access to opportunities to many people without excluding any person. This helps to eliminate and reduce discrimination in workforce’s policies and practices in a company.

However, diversity may contribute to the following problems in accompany. First, it may bring about the conflict in the organization when an employee is a victim of gender discrimination. Workers might argue on instances of gender inequality and may have problems relating to each other since the company is unfair to some of the employees. For example, if a male employee is promoted ahead of the female employee in the same job without any considered criteria it will bring mistrust in the management. Another problem is a decrease in production and profits in the company (Schneider & Segura, 2014). The idea of religious beliefs and faith may influence the output of a company as the employees concentrate on their faiths more than the development of a company. Absenteeism will affect the performance of the company. Also, it may incur high cost in diversity management. When an organization is undergoing workplace diversity, it may incur cost during training supervisors, managers, and employees.

Question 5

The statement means that if employees fail to respect and value each other in a code of ethics, they will not cooperate and work together towards the common goal. When employees fail to adhere to ethics in a job, there will be poor communication, mistrust, conflicts which will lead to poor performance in a company. The effect of poor performance is decreased in profits and growth for a company.

Question 6

Workforce diversity is a company with many employees with a wide range of characteristics and experiences. Employees from different areas bring about new ideas and perspectives which when incorporated will increase the productivity of the organization. Increase in productivity leads to an increase in profits and growth of the company.

Question 7

For a company to have a strategic training and development in the workforce, the company must engage the employees in adopting the advanced technology. New skills, equipment and use of modern technics should be taught to employees to enable the company to gain the competitive advantage. Every employee should be familiar with technology including use of computers in production in the organization.

Another point is involving the employee in strategic planning. The company must state its goals, mission, and vision when taking the employee in training and development. Every employee should be trained towards the achievement of the company’s goals and should work to provide the benefits to the firm. Managers and employees should be involved in strategic planning during training to achieve the goals together.

The company management should incorporate this strategy during training such as increased problem solving, innovation ideas, creativity, and system flexibility and this will enable workers to have a diverse thinking and can handle activities in most efficient ways. The management should make provision of necessary resources available to allow workers to function effectively. Incorporation of these skills after training will lead to the development of the organization and gain competitive advantage.

The management should make provision of necessary resources available to enable workers to function effectively. Incorporation of these skills after training will lead to development of the organization and gain competitive advantage.


Connors, P. G. (2009). Affirmative action. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.

Holzer, H. J. (2010). Enhancing Diversity through Affirmative Action. Equal Opportunities? 211-227. doi:10.1787/9789264086395-9-en

Philpot, D., & Pasquini, L. (2016.). Training and Development. Handbook of Research on Workforce Diversity in a Global Society, 244-261. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-1812-1.ch014

Price, A. (2004). Human resource management in a business context. Australia: United Kingdom.

Schneider, B. E., & Segura, D. A. (2014). From Affirmative Action to Diversity: Critical Reflections on Graduate Education in Sociology. Sociology Compass8(2), 157-171.

Baseline Mechanics

Baseline Mechanics


Baseline mechanics deals with the qualitative methods used to obtain the original data on the particulars of a crime that has been committed. This entails the use of research to obtain a clear view of the behaviour of individuals and the roots behind the acts that are done by that particular person (Hazard, 2014). Research executives are used to finding out the information which in turn forms a strong base for a certain crime. In other words, baseline mechanics refers to methods that are used by crime analysts to obtain original information in the understanding of human behavior about particular crimes being investigated.

Example of Baseline Mechanics

The Locard’s Exchange Principle can be used as a baseline mechanic in criminology. This principle states that the person committing a particular crime brings it into the scene and also must leave something that is of use during investigation due to the contact involved while doing the offence and this will hence be used as evidence against the wrongdoer. These proofs include fingerprints, hair, blood, marks on paint and semen and a good example is in rape cases, and therefore in crime scenes, forensic is obtained by professionals as the baseline of the crime (Hazard, 2014).

An example of a crime where the exchange principle was used is;

Use of hair, fibres and fingerprints

Danielle- Westerfield Case.

A girl named Danielle van Dam who lived with her parents in California was reported missing, and a few days later her body was found where the neighbor Westfield was taken as a suspect although he had gone camping in his RV. This was because hairs of the van Dams dog were found in the neighbor’s RV and fibers from Danielle’s carpet. Fingerprints were also looked into the crime although no traces of their neighbors were found.


Conclusively, baseline mechanics in criminology provides original details to a crime and forms a basis of evaluation of that particular crime. The use of the mechanics gives the investigators clear focal points as to where they should form a base of an investigation.


Hazard, D., & Margot, P. (2014). Forensic science culture. In Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp. 1782-1795). Springer New York.

Medical Group Practice

Medical Group Practice

Forms of Medical Group Practice

According to Kralewski, Rich, Feldman, Dowd, Bernhardt, Johnson, and Gold, (2000), a group practice is a shared responsibility between the patient’s physical scape as well as the care service. The primary objective of group practice is meant to achieve goals like meeting quality metrics and streamlining operations and participation in customer contracts that reward higher quality care and more efficient performance. The following are the various common forms of medical group practices.

Accountable Care Organizations

This model highlights three primary standards, including neighborhood responsibility, shared investment funds, and execution estimation. That implies that the Accountable Care Organizations are comprised of neighboring local delivery systems, are qualified for shared funds when use falls beneath a particular benchmark and are required to report persistent experience information alongside clinical process and result measures.

Medical Homes

A medical home is a way to provide patients with a central primary care practice that will coordinate care across settings and providers. That often means a physician leads a team of clinicians in the delivery of all of a patient’s healthcare services. While this group practice model isn’t new, it’s one that’s been shown to lower costs, improve care, and even reduce burnout among physicians.

Concierge Practices

On the other hand, the concierge practice tries to give more access to doctors by restricting the number of patients at any given time. Customers pay a month to month expense that is charged straightforwardly and consequently increase expanded connection with their specialists, frequently including boundless and more extended arrangements and access using telephone and email. A few practices additionally charge safety net providers for persistent administrations.

For a newly licensed practitioner, the medical home practice is the best medical group practice to implement this is because of the easy to implement it and managed it, and also the cost of operation is cheaper. On the other hand, it is the most straightforward form compared to other group practice approaches

Changes in the Role of Physicians in the Medical Practice

The medical practice is one of the most changed service delivery areas over the past 20 years. This is because of the increased implementation of technology, education management as well as diversification (Collen, & Ball, 2015). For example

Over the past twenty years, the doctor’s role has had significant diversification, based on the doctor’s specification, experience, and expertise. The change has evolved due to the environmental need for specific expertise in service delivery in the health sector/. On the other hand, the physician role has expanded in that a doctor can provide care services through devices such as mobile phones, and computers, where the patient is provided the service remotely. The service has changed to the point that the physician can diagnose and prescribe drugs to a patient. This is mostly influenced by the increased use of technology as opposed to the traditional face to face medical service.

Challenges That Today’s Physicians Face as Members of a Medical Group Practice.

Besides the changes have brought about challenges that affect the physician in the implementation of group medical group practices such as,

  • How to evaluate the cost of service delivered per patient or session
  • On the other hand, the other challenge is how to cope and manage the consistently rising cost of operation in the service delivery process associated with a medical group practice. For example, Managing finances with the uncertainty of Medicare reimbursement rates
  • The other challenge is the lack of EHR interoperability, where physicians are unable to electronically transfer all the information they require or need to share, and when they are able, the practice is too tiring which requires them to switch screens, log in to new systems and manually enter data. According to Collen, and Ball, (2015)., there are very few physicians who can have complete interoperability, moreover, Collen, and Ball, (2015) explains that about 6% of medicinal services suppliers can viably and proficiently share information with different clinicians who utilize an electronic health record (EHR) framework not the same as their own

Competencies That a Physician Should Demonstrate.

For a practice manager to be successful, effective and efficient communication is one of the critical aspects to have, this is because a fruitful practice director must have the capacity to impart and tune in to their staff. Practice supervisors set the tone of the workplace by showing how best to communicate with patients and representatives. Achieving objectives, exhibiting appreciation, and making yourself accessible to your staff are fantastic approaches to create a positive and gainful workplace. On the other hand, practice managers should be specialized as well as specific to their profession in that they can provide the quality service as well as answer directly and confidently patient question about their illnesses as well as the medical practice in general. The other competencies are that practice managers should be well vast with their environment, in that they should learn the systems thoroughly, through acquiring experience through understanding their daily activities efficiently.

Hurdles That a Physician Might Face In Group Practice.

  1. Busy Schedules

Physicians in any practice are challenged with the task of having to deal with patients during the day and filling in reports and physical paperwork concerning their future schedules and other activities. At times, the physicians can be tasked with additional administrative work, thereby reducing the time for the nurses and physicians to relax or be with the patients. The busy schedule, therefore, affects their productivity in various sectors.


  1. Software Certification Clarification

Technology is dynamic and changes as time progresses. The IT department in the healthcare system face these changes, and there is need to abide by the software and technological clarifications in the given industry. It is important to follow the regulations to be well-informed in creating the high-level of competency required with the advanced technologies. The healthcare system is expected to ensure they understand the products and services they offer and how the technological advancements are done to benefit their system. Certification criteria that are published by the Electronic Health Network Accreditation Commission should be agreed with as argued by the Modern Healthcare Systems.

  1. 3. Issues with Audits

Tracking patient information from paper records becomes hard as the time progresses since the papers may be lost or torn. There is software with the capability of creating and holding patient records for an indefinite time, which can be useful to be used for long-term and short-term. This data can be stored in external hard drives and other cache sites.


Functions of HRM Necessary to Attract and Retain the Type of Employees Required

According to Pope, Kautter, Leung, Trisolini, Adamache, and Smith, (2014), for the human resource management in medical practice to maintain high retainment standard of the practitioners to implement the following

  1. Providing the employees a platform where they can air their views as well as share their discomforts to the employee without discrimination or subjection. As a result, the employees feel included in the institution and also develop the sense of belonging
  2. Implementation of fairness and equitable treatment of all employees where there is no favoritism in work allocation as well as the remuneration process should be implemented with regards to qualification and experience for the practitioners. As a result of this implementation, the employees fill motivated since their performance is measured by the quality of service delivered meaning that future success is guaranteed.
  3. Appreciation of the practitioner’s service delivered to the institutions. For example, promotions from internal recruitment, gifts as well as bonuses for brilliance in performance.

Consumer Behaviour That the Physician’s Practice Management Should Consider

Improve Patient Flow.

A productive and effective customer schedule is one of the major factors to consider. For example, establishing a maximum scheduled time for every patient, such that the physician is expected to utilize about 20 minutes per patient. As a result, the physician can eliminate boredom as well as overloading themselves for efficient service delivery.

Improve Communication through Handouts.

The physician should minimize the unnecessary phone calls for simple questions through using brochures. This is because they can concentrate on both clinical subjects as well data about the training. Through the use of handouts about their patients’ conditions or medicines can likewise help center the visit with the goal that essential data is suitably communicated

Empowering Through Education

Health data tends to be most useful when users are searching for particular facts or information. In any case, the manner by which data is offered can restrain its effect. Purchasers can be befuddled by comparative, yet not indistinguishable, data from numerous sources that frequently vary in quality. As a result, the practitioners should improve implement the empowerment practice as a marketing approach.


Kralewski, J. E., Rich, E. C., Feldman, R., Dowd, B. E., Bernhardt, T., Johnson, C., & Gold, W. (2000). The effects of medical group practice and physician payment methods on costs of care. Health services research, 35(3), 591.

Collen, M. F., & Ball, M. J. (Eds.). (2015). The History of Medical Informatics in the United States. Springer.

Pope, G., Kautter, J., Leung, M., Trisolini, M., Adamache, W., & Smith, K. (2014). Financial and quality impacts of the Medicare physician group practice demonstration. Medicare & Medicaid research review, 4(3).


Real Estate

Real Estate

Real Estate Organization Management

A real estate is a form of tangible assets which may be considered to be buildings, buildable land including warehouse, apartments, offices and retail space. Also it may be termed as land and all fixed and immovable improvements like buildings (He, 2014). Challenges facing real estate may be based on their characteristic which may affect their value either positively or negatively.  Features of real estate are divided into both economic and physical characteristics. Economic features include improvement, scarcity, permanency and area preference. Physical features, on the other hand, include non-homogeneity, immobility, and indestructibility (Mera & Renaud, 2016). The scarcity of land is a significant challenge that real estate organization faces in the manner that supply of land is limited and cannot be produced more than what exists in it.

Non-homogeneity of land is another challenge facing real organizations businesses in the sense that some parcels of land which may seem similar are not usually alike. For example, a 40 acres land in one region may have a higher value than another same size of property in another place. Therefore, the real estate managers will work tirelessly to ensure they obtain pieces of land in areas where many people may prefer to purchase lands such as outskirts of capital cities. Immobility of land is a challenge to real estate businesses in that property cannot be moved as it is immobile. This physical feature affects real estate law and markets.

To enhance productivity, engagement, and morale by managers, they should ensure that they apply the following strategies;

  • Improvement. The building of companies in isolated areas where there are few or no industries will lead to increased standards of living due to the introduction of jobs. This value will impact on the neighbouring community and hence, increase the value of real estate there as well.
  • Permanency. Real estate management should include infrastructures such as drainage, electricity, and sewerage in their buildings such as apartments and offices as many people will prefer places with foundations intact.

Managing property by real estate managers is not easy despite how long an individual has been in that business due to day-to-day changes. Some of the management challenges experienced include; dealing with aggressive and abusive owners and tenants whereby, while dealing with both the owners and tenants in incidences of finances, the crisis may arise. Drug-Addict tenants are another challenge whereby, it becomes hard for the manager, to deal with the tenant (Head & Alford, 2015). The potential impacts of these problems on organizational success are that, due to hardships experienced by managers while dealing with owners and tenants, one can quit the job no matter how best he or she was in it. Once the best manager has resigned from work, the productivity of an organization may decline and might take some time before going back to where it was initially. With dropped productivity, organizations’ revenues might go down which might lead to some employees losing their job positions.

As a manager of real estate organization, I would recommend effective communication between managers and individuals who have invested with them. With two-way communication, the managers will be able to tell their expectations to those who have invested with them. Also, the people who have invested in their organization will be able to express their feelings hence ensuring a better relationship which will lead to a better working environment for managers. I would also recommend that managers should increase investor’s satisfaction by providing satisfying services to their investors (Epstein & Buhovac, 2014). One of the examples as stated above, apartments should have utilities such as drainage, sewerage and electricity to ensure their comfort.

A manager can take various actions to enhance employee productivity, engagement, and morale which includes; designing economic incentives so that both senior and junior workers in an organization can benefit from them. With incentives to all the workers, all will feel recognized thus, working to their capabilities in their assigned duties. Respect workers as individuals in addition are another action by a manager of the people. The feeling of being respected is good (Renigier-Biłozor, Wisniewski, Kaklauskas & Biłozor, 2014). With respect to both parties within an organization, productivity will increase as a result of high levels of engagement by workers toward achieving the set goals due to morale created within them by respectful managers.

One of the insights gained from effective people management is that leadership is all about impact, influence, and inspiration to all. The impact is about getting results; influence involves spreading the passion for one’s work. Finally one should inspire fellow employees and target group.

The manager’s role in encouraging employee productivity and engagement include keeping people motivated and engaged through giving feedback, empowering employees, and holding one-on-one meetings with employees. A good manager should bring the best out of people by helping them realize something within themselves which they did not know existed through leading by example and being selfless. A good manager has an understanding of what people expect from him or her (Baronin, Yankov & Bizhanov, 2014). He or she knows what to do in the morning once he has arrived in the workplace and what to finalize with as he leaves the work, he knows what his employees are supposed to do each day thus, ensuring a successful organization.


Baronin, S. A., Yankov, A. G., & Bizhanov, S. A. (2014). Assessing the cost of real estate lifecycle contracts in Russias present-day economy and the characteristics of the European experience. Life Science Journal, 11(8s), 249-253.

Epstein, M. J., & Buhovac, A. R. (2014). Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

He, B. (2014). Chinese intellectuals are facing the challenges of the new century.

Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2015). Wicked problems: Implications for public policy and management. Administration & Society, 47(6), 711-739.

Mera, K., & Renaud, B. (2016). Asia’s financial crisis and the role of real estate. Routledge.

Renigier-Biłozor, M., Wisniewski, R., Kaklauskas, A., & Biłozor, A. (2014). Rating methodology for real estate markets–Poland case study. International Journal of strategic property management, 18(2), 198-212.


Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler is a renowned figure in the German political arena. He was Nazi’s political leader and chancellor in the 1930’s. The Nazi party was based on a totalitarian system of governance where authority from the constitution and parliament was not recognized


The occurrence of the great depression in Europe paved the way for Adolf Hitler into power. The people placed their faith in the Nazi and communist parties in eliminating democracy as it served to weaken and demean authority. Weimar’s difficulty in solving the economic issue initiated loss of faith from the public and enhanced Adolf’s rise into power. Adolf aimed to restore economic welfare in the region and to enhance employment in the state


The high population of European Jews also enticed Hitler to seize power. The Nazi party layout policies which were racist and anti-Semitic. The party laid blame on the Jews for all misfortunes that befell the Germans.[3] They believed that the Jews were the backstabbers and had led to German’s defeat in the First World War. Adolf Hitler authorized the death of more than five million people in camps during his reign in Germany both Jews and slaves.

Hitler’s entry into power was not based on public welfare but rather from political greed and thirst for power. A dictatorship characterized his political reign. He overthrew all other parties and killed many innocent civilians. His reasons for power were not valid but only sentiments to allure the masses to his side. He only surrounded himself with those leaders who effected coercion and dictatorship in their governance and eliminated those who sort to embrace democracy and sympathy.[4]

[1] Payne, R. (2016). The life and death of Adolf Hitler (Vol. 8). Brick Tower Press.

[2] Burnham, W. D. (2016). The 1930s realignment of German politics shows that in times of crisis, political equilibriums can quickly fall out of balance. USApp–American Politics and Policy Blog.

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid

Production methods

Production methods

The alignment of production methods is very significant in determining the effectiveness of the staff employed in a particular firm. Therefore, the structure of production employed should be convenient and compatible with the needs of the staff as well as evolving market needs. Batch processing can be considered a performance of a job with reduced human interaction. The method saves any firm time and money which renders it viable (Jacobs, 2014). On the other hand, line processing is where the operations are undertaken by one department to the other in a sequence (Heizer, 2016). In an organization, the determination of the most convenient structure helps in gaining a competitive advantage over other firms hence achieving success in the evolving market.

Batch process helps in completion of a specified number of jobs by a specific department before they are forwarded to another department (Jacobs, 2014). To speed up the rate of production, all the products are completed separately in line process. When the process of production is being converted from batch to line, there is the likelihood that efficiency and reliability of production will be achieved (Stadtler, 2015). However, changes will be made in the layout of the production department, the level of technology, resources being utilized and method used for training staff. Upholding these changes will lead to the success of the new process.

Different departments will have to adapt these changes to boost efficiency. These departments include marketing, finance, human resource, accounting, and information systems. Since the marketing department is essential in raising awareness on the changes made by an organization, they should be well prepared to point out the positivity line process will bring to an organization so that smooth transition will be achieved. The marketing department will need to focus on pricing, distribution channels, the volume produced, market segmentation and new products being introduced.

Employee’s relations like selecting, recruiting and training employees is a responsibility of the human resource management department. Employees are an important part of any organization since they will be running the production process. Training will hence be important to the employees to achieve a smooth transition from batch to line processing.  If employees are not adequately trained, the new line process method may be rendered ineffective since errors might be encountered upon implementation of the process (Cummings, 2014).  The human resource department has to be well prepared to ensure no errors are made by the selected employees. The human resource looks into training, job design, number of employees and the type of task

Change of the structure of an organization whether in production or any other activities directly affects the performance of the accounting and finance departments. Bookkeeping will be affected since original entries will differ from that input when the batch process was used. Accounting department will hence lean towards process costing, net present value and measurement of operations (Cummings, 2014). The finance department which is responsible for the dispatch of financial resources will restructure its budget to fit the requirements of the line process. The finance department will look into the availability of capital, level of investment and budgeting.

Upon the change of production structure, information systems that had been earlier used in the batch have to be adjusted to be in line with the new process. Application of new software and data systems to track the production process will be adapted to ensure high productivity (Groover, 2016). The information system will be keen on the development of software, needs of the line process, design of the systems and acquisition of hardware. Looking into all the departments will hence ensure a smooth transition from batch to line processing since they will be prepared in their area of concern.


Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.

Groover, M. P. (2016).Automation, production systems, and computer-integrated manufacturing.Pearson Education India.

Heizer, J. (2016). Operations Management, 11/e. Pearson Education India.

Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R. B., &Lummus, R. R. (2014).Operations and supply chain management (pp. 533-535). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Stadtler, H. (2015). Supply chain management: An overview. In Supply chain management and advanced planning (pp. 3-28). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.




corporate board of directors


Ownership and control of the modern publicly held corporation are separated. All stakeholder groups must be involved in the firm’s decision making because they have a stake. Shareholders retain some degree of control when it comes to electing directors, and they may adopt, amend, and repeal the corporation bylaws (Evan& Freeman1988).

Responsibilities of Corporate Board of Directors

The corporate board of directors runs the firm to benefit all their stakeholders to maintain their stay at the firm. They ensure the rights of all these stakeholders are respected and allow them to participate in decisions that significantly impact their welfare.

They oversee the corporation’s management and represents stakeholders’ interests. They attend all board meetings and those of committees for advice and counsel between formal meetings. They have the responsibility to select a chairperson of the board among the directors to serve the needs of the corporation.

The corporate board of directors prioritizes to defending all stakeholders’ interests. They set the values and standards within the firm through decision making regarding strategy, incentives, and internal control systems. Working according to the expectations of firms ensures their survival, safeguarding future stakes of all groups.

The corporate management groups running the corporation oversee all the firm’s everyday executions. They have diverse duties and have authorities to perform on the firm’s behalf.  The board of directors has the overall responsibility of appointing the management personnel with specific positions varying from one firm to the other. The top corporate manager is responsible for the firm’s duties, and signing of contracts and other official documents; they report directly to the board of directors. The role of the management is to safeguard the welfare of the corporation as an abstract entity. They do this by balancing the multiple claims of conflicting stakeholders to improve the corporation’s health and make more financial returns to sustain customers, employees, and the local community. They act on their fiduciary duty, as interpreted by the board or court of law to safeguard innovation, and research and development.

Interests of stakeholders in the stakeholder model

Shareholders have stakes in firms, and the performance of the firm dictates whether they fail or succeed. Their central work is to make sure that they obtain favorable returns on their stake. They are mainly interested delivering a superior shareowner performance and ensuring the firm operates to produce quality. They build the firms’ reputation with workers and the society for improving the firm’s returns, and profitably increasing their shares. The model gives the managers duty to maximize the returns of shareholders. The model requires stakeholders to prioritize their interests in the order of importance to drive them in the engagement strategy. That allows them to direct all their capabilities on the highest groups of concern while issuing sufficient information to keep the firm’s operations moving.

The corporate law gives shareholders a pre-eminent position of the owners of the business. They have the mandate to elect most members of the board responsible for hiring or firing a senior executive. The board can also approve or reject fundamental firm strategies and policies. Stakeholders communicate to the management by controlling the board to ensure the firm respects their legal and contractual obligations. The stakeholder bill of rights allows all stakeholders to have rights and freedom of speech, and right to grievance procedures within the firm or court.

Their power of influence in electing directors meets their interest in profit growth, and increment of share prices and dividends


Evan, W. M., & Freeman, R. E. (1988). A stakeholder theory of the modern corporation:   Kantian capitalism.




Reflection: I found the article interesting in regards to the response given by the participants to the questions and the manner in which the jury rendered decisions in court without using criminal evidence. The author’s utilization of questionnaires and jurors gave balanced perceptions. The article was easily comprehensible and straightforward. However, the members of the jury are Caucasian which may instill bias or prejudice in rendering a decision. The limited diversity only serves to reflect the current state of the Nations justice system.

Holmgren, J. A., & Fordham, J. (2011). The CSI effect and the Canadian and the Australian jury. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(s1).

Keywords: Forensic science, CSI effect, forensic evidence, Canadian criminal justice, Australian criminal justice, DNA evidence, jurors, juries, judges

The focus of the article: The article place emphasis on the effects of CSI and aims to find out if television shows such as CSI and Law and Order have any impact on jurors in Australia and Canada.

Methodology: The authors, that is, Holmgren and Fordham used surveys that had been provided to Australian and Canadian jurors to determine the relevance of CSI.

Summary: The members of the jury in Australia and Canada were the target group that helped in the completion of the survey. The number of surveys completed in Canada was 605 where majority expressed that they have had no previous experience with criminal trials, but they had watched shows being aired on television which are crime-related. The attitudes of people towards crime scenes are established in the survey since there was room for opinions created for individuals who participated in the survey. A majority percentage of 76% expressed that DNA examination is the widely used and most reliable evidence in a criminal case. Eventually, it was discovered that CSI effects had already been understood.

Reflection: The article provides a clear view to any person desiring to learn the effects of CSI in different nations. A broader perspective and a great number of individuals have been used in the survey which makes it unbiased. The inclusion of personal thought that had been obtained in the survey makes the article become concrete, relevant and more reliable. The reason behind this is that people can freely express their thoughts and recommendations which make the research more viable and interesting. The article was easy to comprehend and analyze the details included leaving one satisfied with the whole research.


Decision support system
  1. Develop written responses for the following Questions and Problems from page 194 in the textbook: Q&P 4, 8, 10, 11 and 12. (Note: You may want to refer to the U. S. Statistical Abstract, the Census Bureau website, and resources available at the UT Library Web site.)
  2. In your own words, explain why a decision support system (DSS) can add to the value of a marketing information system. Give an example of how a decision support system might help.

Decision support system (DSS) has been integrated by marketing managers to ensure that information found in the marketing information system is correctly interpreted. It provides more exceptional details from which the manager can quickly come up with decisions based on the marketing strategies that they could employ to ensure the success of the business. For instance, an integrated marketing dashboard might show most customers on hold which will make the manager call in more staff to pick up their calls.

  1. How is the situation analysis different from the data collection step? Can both these steps be done at the same time to obtain answers sooner? Is this wise?

Situation analysis is the step whereby the manager tries to find the causal factor of the problem that is in the business. In most cases, it involves proper scrutiny of the marketing information system (MIS) to dig dipper on the reasons for a decline in a profitability aspect of the business. Through the process, the reasons for the problem might be directly the same data collected for the next step.  Both steps can be done at the same time, and it ensures, that answers are gotten as early as possible.

  1. With so much secondary information now available free or at low cost over the Internet, why would a firm ever want to spend the money to do primary research?

The difference between the two source of obtaining data and importance of one over the other is the fact that secondary data are mostly related to general issues that affect the business. There are the issues which run across most of the companies and do not cut down into specific problems that a company is facing. The primary data is always essential since the managers are in a position to solve the current issues that face a company.

  1. If a firm were interested in estimating the distribution of income in the state of California, how could it proceed? Be specific.

The firm should look into the United States census bureau statistics and find out the total population of California State. Income distribution, in this case, will refer to an economy which is usually calculated by dividing the gross domestic product of the state by the total population which is found in the data. Gross domestic product refers to the value of all goods and services that are produced in the state in that particular year.

  1. Develop written responses to the Online Toolkit exercises found in Chapter 7 on page 180 and page 183 using the required format.

Online toolkit pg. 180

The activity tracker with the most favorable sentiment is Fitbit with 16, and the one with the most negative opinion have a tie of 2 that runs in all of them. The ratio of positive to negative sentiment of Acer liquid leap stands at 7:2 while that of Fitbit is 16:2 and the one for Garmin Vivo smart are 6:2. Garmin Vivo smart negative sentiment is based on a review from a customer about the lousy quality of the hybrid watch. Negative opinion on the Fitbit is a concern that questions whether the Samsung gear 2 is worth. The client brings a concern that 200 dollars might be a lot of money to purchase it. Lastly about the Acer liquid leap the main negative sentiment is based on the limited availability of the product. Through an analysis of the measure of strength, sentiment, passion and reach based on Fitbit analyses it is clear that the information could be used by the marketing manager to ensure that the product awareness is extended and production of more competitive products to increases its competitive advantage.

Online toolkit pg. 183

The most important thing about the use of survey monkey to conduct the survey is the fact that they people can fill the questions asked at their own convenient time and place. It will only require them to have internet access for that to happen. The other import thing is the fact that most of the people who will complete the questionnaire are learned and are in a position to provide credible information to be used by the researcher. However, most of the questionnaires are not finished. The respondent rate which is the number of people who respond is meager. Most of the research problems that are tackled by an online survey such as the survey monkey is the customer satisfaction in business among others.

  1. Develop written responses to the Ethical Dilemma found on page 191.

As a marketing manager, I will ensure that the respondents are taken back to the question and have a proper understanding of the issue. After that, I will ask them to answer the question afresh to ensure that the research questions can be accounted for. Through this, it will provide that I get information from the respondents of the most critical reasons for the research. The data will be so fundamental for the salesperson to deduce the strategies that might have been brought forward.

  1. Develop written responses for the Assignment 7 Application Exercise found in the Assignment 7 Folder.

Situation 2

Ms. Perez tried the searches given in the example above, but each search has returned a report with hundreds of links. To help narrow things down for an initial look, she has decided to try to find only marketing plans that reference the SiLube brand.

Search Term: ‘marketing plan’    SiLube

Explanation: the search above will open all sites that will relate to marketing plans that the SiLube brand has used. The key word is starting with the marketing plan then the name of the brand.

Situation 3

Ms. Perez was talking with another manager about trying to improve the new-product development process for SiLube brands. Her colleague said, “I got a flyer on a new-product development conference that’s going to be San Antonio, or maybe it was Dallas, next month. It might be a good place to get ideas. But, I don’t remember the details about the conference, and unfortunately, I threw the flyer away.”

Search Term: SiLube ‘product development.’

Explanation: the search should find all pages on the internet that has any information about SiLube product development. It should not only see pages that concern products development of other goods but should be just about the SiLube brand.

Situation 4

Jacob Mann is the marketing manager for a biotech startup firm that is developing a new medicine for treatment of respiratory disorders. Its first product is showing promising results in first stage clinical trials with patients, but it will be some time before the firm will be able to get approval from the Food and Drug Administration to release the drug. Mann has learned from a contact at the American Lung Association that another firm, United Therapeutics, is working on several products in the same area. Mann is interested in finding out anything he can about United Therapeutics or its LungRx subsidiary.

Search Term: United Therapeutics ‘LungRX subsidiary.’

.Explanation: the search term will ensure that Mann can find all the information that relates to a lungRx subsidiary in the United Therapeutics. It will involve all the activities that have been undertaken based on the lungRx subsidiary.

Situation 5

Greta Cheney is evaluating the market for various types of household appliances and wants to see if there is Census Bureau data available on the Internet for how many households have microwave ovens, air conditioners, trash compactors, and dishwashers.

Search Term: census bureau ‘household’s appliances’

Explanation: the search word will ensure that Greta is provided with information based on any census data that relates to household appliances which are ovens, microwaves among others

Situation 6

Ira DeBerry is the sales manager for Midwest Ford, a large Ford dealership with facilities in some cities. In the past, the Ford Taurus was one of the firm’s best-selling models, but since the Taurus was redesigned and the list price was raised, sales have been slow. DeBerry’s salespeople have complained that they keep losing sales to the Toyota Camry. DeBerry wants to prepare a sales kit to give his sales reps a lot more information about the Taurus, including information based on what favorable product reviews have said. He did an initial search of the Internet to look for automobile reviews. His search on the word Taurus produced many thousands of links, but as he started reviewing the links in detail he found that most of them were to web pages concerned with astrology (where Taurus was usually referenced as one of the astrological “signs.”)

Search Term: Ford Taurus ‘automobile review.’

Explanation: when DeBerry clicks the search word above it will directly take him to sites that are related to the reviews of the automobile where he wants information from. The links will be based on what people and manufacturers have said before about the vehicle but not about the astrological sign

Situation 7

DeBerry (case above) has decided to refine his search to see if he can find Web pages that discuss both the Taurus and the Camry and that discuss crash tests.

Search Term: Taurus and Camry automobile ‘crash test.’

Explanation: the above term will ensure that DeBerry gets the information about the crash test of the two motor vehicles but not any other information apart from that.



Branding Of Products

Chapter 8 Branding Of Products

  1. Develop written responses to the Ethical Dilemma found in Chapter 8 on page 201.

Offering a quality work will depend on the effects of the outcome based on the decisions made by the stakeholders. Therefore I would consider informing the commissioner of what happened and being in a position to wait for the outcome of whether the contract will be terminated or not. Being honest and revealing the truth will place my company in a position of being trusted when other activities on the contract come up.

  1. Develop a written response to the Online Toolkit Exercises found in Chapter 8 on pages 204 and 210 using the required format.

Pg. 204

Nike Company has added services such as providing its clients with applications such as Nike training club, Nike running club app which ensures that their clients who are runners can receive training on making themselves better. The company also provides services such events which make runners come together for competitions and also having fun together. Through this, the company is placed in a better position of getting good reviews and hence increasing their competitive advantage.

Pg. 210

When it comes to cheering, individual branding is evident, and the target customer for the product is a household who usually cleans their clothes using a washing machine. The main enticing factor regarding downy is the branding of its fragrance that makes customer have its choice. The target customers are mothers with small children and a family too. Drift  laundry is similar to downy as it targets mothers with small children. Gain is also a cleaning product from plant material and mainly targets people who want soften clothes after washing.

  1. Develop written responses to the following Questions and Problems from page 223 in the textbook: Q&P 2, 5, 9, 11, and 15.

  2. Review the Under Armour case study that opens this chapter. Using three different consumer product classes as an example, describe how a customer would think about and buy Under Armour products. Then examine the marketing mix considerations in Exhibit 8–6 for each of the product classes you chose. What would Under Armour need to do to support the marketing strategy for each?

Under Armor is a company that developed the unique t-shirts for sports to supply to team players and coaches. Based on the consumer product classes a customer could purchase a product from them to be the end user at an impulse due to its features, it refers to unplanned purchase. On another view, the team can buy the product based on the heterogeneous aspect of the product. Some customers will also buy the product based on its specialty and ability to withstand adverse weather conditions for the player.

Regarding exhibit 8-6, based on the specialty of the product the company should ensure that they do not overprice the product for customers to buy in bulk. Regarding the heterogeneous aspect and class of products, the company will need to invest more in promotion through personal selling which will make customers buy through being convinced. Lastly, on the impulse class of the product, the company should focus on the distribution of the product and ensure that they are easily accessible and available.

  1. What products are being offered by a shop that specializes in bicycles? By a travel agent? By a supermarket? By a new car dealer?

A shop that specializes in bicycles will mostly offer bicycles spare parts such as tires and rims. The shop will also sell cycling kits like reflector, helmet and cycling shoes. A travel agent will sell tour packages to tourists and organization interested in traveling. A supermarket on the other side will sell household products such as laundry detergents, electronics, and home furnishings.

  1. Is a well-known brand valuable only to the owner of the brand?

A brand that is widely known is not only valuable to the owner of the brand but also to the buyer. Shopping for well-branded products always makes shopping easier for buyers. In most cases, the buyers are directly connected to the products. The good brand also changes the image of a company. The customers are also in a position to make buying decisions easily due to the branded products.

  1. List five brand names and indicate what product is associated with the brand name. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the brand name

Adidas for Adidas shoes, Michelin for motor tires, puma for puma shoes and clothes, coca cola for soft drinks such as Fanta and yahoo for browser engines. Adidas has been associated with a strength of being long-lasting products together with Michelin. Puma shoes are known for good quality regarding enduring rough terrain. Yahoo browser engines are known for their safety from malware during browsing. However, they face the weakness of being slow while browsing. Coca-Cola has been widely recognized for being unhealthy although it is consumed globally.

  1. You operate a small hardware store with an emphasis on manufacturer brands and have barely been breaking even. Evaluate the proposal of a large wholesaler that offers a full line of dealer-branded hardware items at substantially lower prices. Specify any assumptions necessary to obtain a definite answer.

The best part of the deal is that I will be able to obtain better earning from the manufacturer’s brands since their brands are strong and sold at a lower price. Integrating the products with strong brand names increases the chances of customers purchasing the products since they recognize the products which make buying easier. Also, the manufacturer will also ensure that there is the heavy promotion of the brand that will not need adequate marketing for the products he/she sells.

  1. Develop written responses as required for the MARS COM Application Exercise for Assignment 8 found in the Assignment 8 Folder.

Item 1

The target market is a household that contains young children who can be able to read and eat for themselves. The product represents a kid’s seat that they can use to feed on or study. The kind of branding represented is a generic brand that features a single product that does not have a brand name. The branding, in this case, is being done by the manufacturer while the classification in which thee products falls is under convenience product.

Item 2

The target market is the patients who might be suffering from dental related issues. The ad represents a branding of healthcare services offered to patients. The product is branded to enhance the efficiency of customers using their insurance coverage. In this case, the person who is doing the branding is the dealer who is the doctor Hashmi. The product falls under the business product which concerns on how the consumer thinks about what they are offered.

Item 3

The target market of the ad is a farmer who owns a tractor or other farming machinery or someone who does business using the mechanism. The product includes lubrication oil for the machinery used by farmers while conducting different activities on the farm. Philips 66 is a product used by farmers to lubricate the wheels of their tractors and other parts to ensure that they are maintained. The element of branding represented is the individual branding whereby a single product is branded on its own. The product classification of the ad is the business product since they are bought to be able to produce other products.

Item 4

The ad is targeting the adults who might have experienced cough and cold illness. The products explain that it relieves a patient from mucus, cough and nasal congestion which patients might be suffering from. The branding of the product is based on consumer branding since the end product is consumed by the customer entirely while the person doing the branding is the manufacturer of the product. The product is under family classification since it provides different products with different capabilities.