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Managerial Risk

Managerial Risk

What steps can the company take to diversify its portfolio?

The company in question should diversify organically through creation of new business in house or via acquisition of a competitor organization to facilitate competition within the industry, which in turn would improves its performance. In case the organization decides to diversify organically in house, the organization should hire experienced managerial team and employees to promote efficiency and effectiveness throughout its operations. Moreover, the company should identify market gap in the environment. It is a crucial requirement for the organization to ensure that the company identifies customers’ needs and seeks to satisfy them. Further, it is crucial to consider market segmentation within a given region to ensure that the organization produces services or goods based on customer demands to facilitate efficiency (Sikes, 2011). In addition, competitors are crucial drivers towards a business success; however, their operations may also influence the company’s prosperity.

Notably, the company should strive to identify competitor’s strengths and weakness to ensure that it works on the rival organization’s weaknesses to outdo them. The initiative will in turn promote superiority in the market place and consequently diversify its portfolio. In addition, the outfit should create a healthy relation between stakeholders to ensure that the organization is successful by fostering its wellbeing benefits and success through positive contribution and goodwill. Further, a healthy working relationship with stakeholders such as suppliers would ensure that the company operates on loans regardless of their financial position. Moreover, it would be important for the company to observe legal requirements and regulations such as tax payment and licenses. The undertaking would guarantee that the company is legally approved to operate. It would also enhance its reliability as a steadfast enterprise. The said aspect ensures that shareholders such as sponsors are guaranteed of an effective enterprise that is determined to make profit, which maximizes their returns thereby encouraging them to invest in the enterprise.

Define diversification and its necessity in risk management.

Diversification relates to the techniques an organization applies with an aim of overrunning a market or an industry that is different from the company’s core activities. Diversification is a techniques that organizations employ to ensure that they reduce reliability from a small number of income sources. Through diversification, an organization is guaranteed to make profit out of the invested operation based on the identified market needs. In addition, diversification ensures that cyclical and seasonal product fluctuations are eliminated through creation of goods and services that are in demand at a particular time. This aspect strengthens the organization evaluation of market segments and identification of customers’ needs and market gaps that competitors have not invaded yet to ensure that the organization makes maximum profit out of the identified market opportunity. Further, market diversification is necessary since it bases an organization on a higher growth rate to facilitate maximum profit generation.

Also, investing on a different enterprise from the main core activities of an organization ensures that the company competes and invades other competitors market that in turn encourages competition. However, a wide range of challenges characterizes this move. One of the main challenge is that the company may incur losses to lack of sufficient information regarding a certain opportunity. Lack of experience may also impact its efficiency which in turn results to loses (Neuberger & Duffy, 2016). Further, manufacture of cycling goods and services requires capital that may also lead to loses once the produced goods are passed by time. Also, invasion of an existing market place may hinder the business operations due to their long term experience that in turn might trim the company’s targeted profit.

Discuss 5 steps to diversify the card business.

The phases involved in business diversification include acquisition of finances to facilitate funding of an enterprise’s operations. Finances considerations are crucial aspects that require deliberation for the success of a business. The provision of manufactured goods require capital as well as compensation of labor provided in the course of the business operation. The following step requires an organization to consider labor and its employees. This involves hiring of software developers that help in creation of custom programs to facilitate the smooth running of an enterprise.

Moreover, the next phase entails seeking customer support representatives to facilitate provision of guidance and the support needed to help customers as they conduct their business as well as facilitate creation of awareness in usability and to familiarize with the developed systems. Further, the next stage revolves around developing a greeting card software that constitutes of over 50 greeting cards. This will also be facilitated through marketing strategies such as use of an organization website to market its softwares to encourage creation of appeal to customers which in turn would promote enhanced profit margins. The final phase would entail software advertisement through the media to promote its functionality and benefits to its potential customers.

Suggestions of how and where funds can be allocated for new investments.

The company can sell stock via an Initial Public Offering on the primary securities market. The Initial Public Offering of stocks sold for the first time would give rise to increased earnings. The company would use money generated from the sale of stock to finance projects and grow the business. The Initial Public Offerings stocks are offered in common and preferred stock. The underwriting firm will determine the type of stock offered, the stock price, and the appropriate time to sell the stock. Moreover, the company can sell bonds to the public via the primary securities market. The company bond selling can be undertaken directly to the investors to generate funds for the business. If sold, the funds would come from institutional, high net worth investors and individual investors.

A convertible security is a bond or a preferred stock converted into a share of a company’s common stock. Typically, the holder of the convertible security decides if and when to convert the security. The convertible security converts to common stock at a fixed price. The purpose of issuing a convertible security is to raise money. The convertible securities are sold for a specific reason. The company can sell stock directly to individual investors. Once the shares are sold, the investors can be allowed to trade stock on the open market. The initiative will work best if the company is well established.

The company can finance the funds through a bank loan. The loan will carry a fixed interest rate, monthly or quarterly repayments and established a repayment date. The bank will offer intermediate and long-term loans. The intermediate loan is typically less than 3 years and repaid on a monthly basis (Bornstein, 2014). The long-term loan is typically between 3 and 10 years, but the term can be as long as 20 years. The loans typically require quarterly or monthly payments and backing by a collateral. The company can obtain funds via a Small Business Administration (SBA) guaranteed loan. The SBA typically guarantees 80 percent of the loan principal. In addition, the bank or commercial lending institution will give the customer a 10-year term. The SBA guarantees roughly $12 billion per year in loans. By obtaining an SBA backed loan, the payments will be lower and allow the company to obtain a loan with inadequate collateral.


Bornstein, M. (2014). Bank-Term Loans. Burr Ridge [etc.: Irwin.

Neuberger, E., & Duffy, W. J. (2016). Direct Public Offerings. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Sikes, E. R. (2011). Diversification: Business strength supplement. New York: Holt.

War is Kind by Stephen Crane

War is Kind by Stephen Crane

It is a lengthy poem authored by Stephen Crane. It revolves about the social encumbrances that arise because of war. He talks about family separation and loss of a loved one. He somewhat uses a paradoxical theme as he continues alluding to war being kind after highlighting the calamities. The poem itself is a mixture of various stylistic devices and a unique form of storytelling (McBryde et al., 25).

Part one-How is War Portrayed

The way the poem’s speaker has portrayed war makes it so far from desirable. He has cited countless death tropes throughout the length of the poem. The first one can be found just at the beginning of the poem. The speaker is addressing a maiden, the maiden seems to have had a lover who was sent to war. This is openly revealed in the second line, which the speaker says, “Because your lover catapulted his hands into the sky wild hands toward the sky and the affrighted horse galloped on alone”; the line depicts a scene on the battleground. The maiden’s lover might have been fighting the battle on a horse. The phrase “Because your lover threw his hands into the sky” suggests that he might have been shot or stabbed, raising his hand in the air while falling from his horse. This, in turn, makes the horse anxious thereby making it run away alone (McBryde et al., 25).

He concludes by telling the maiden not to worry because war is kind. The maiden has just lost her lover and hence cannot see the kindness in war. Adding to her misery is the fact that her lover suffered a gruesome death. The speaker is somewhat employing a paradoxical theme toward the entire course of the poem as he highlights some tragic happenings attributed to war but later on concludes by telling the tragedy bearers not to worry because war is kind (McBryde et al., 25).

Another set of lines, which shed some light to the depiction of war in this poem, is the twelfth to sixteenth lines. The speaker addresses another female whose father might also have been deployed to fight in the war; however, true to the theme of tragedy that is depicted throughout this poem, he ends up meeting his demise (McBryde et al., 25). The speaker goes on to elaborate how this came about using the lines “Because your father tripped into the ditches,Raged at his chest, gasped and succumbed,” This is a rather graphical description of someone’s death. The speaker goes on to conclude with his predominant ending, “Do not cry for war is merciful.” Throughout the entire scope of the poem, war has been portrayed as the cause of pain and separation between loved ones.

Part 2- Rupert Brooke’s the Soldier Analysis

Contrary to the depiction of war by Stephen Crane, Rupert main theme in his poem is the patriotism that is a part of war. The speaker spends a large portion of the poem talking about how ready he is to serve and die for his home country that is England (McBryde et al., 25). He sees that death is the only way to repay his homeland for all the good it has done for him; hence, he would readily die in war for its cause.

In the first lines of the poem, “If my death should ensue, have these thoughts of me, that there’s an area in a foreign land that will remain forever England.” The line goes on to depict that the spot in which the speaker (Who is presumably a soldier) dies on will become England. This can be translated to mean that whichever spot his English blood, flesh or bones will touch, it will automatically become English land. According to McBryde et al., (25), this shows how much he has valued the English land that he has already considered part of himself, a sign of absolute patriotism. The above also shows that Rupert has used the style of symbolism in his poem. Symbolism is the act of using an object or a word to represent an abstract idea (McBryde et al., 25). To put this into concept, he has employed the body of the speaker to represent the land of England. Symbolism contributes to the imagery aspect of the poem as one can actually relate to the significant importance the speaker’s homeland is to him.

The style of anthropomorphism is also evident in the poem. Anthropomorphism is defined as the stylistic device attributed to giving non-animate or inanimate objects human characteristics (McBryde et al., 25). Rupert has well used this device in the following lines of his poem. “Body of England’s, breathing English scents, washed by the streams, shined upon by sun rays of home”. England is said to have a body and breathes fresh air, which are all characteristics of animate objects. Therefore, the act of characterizing inanimate objects with human-like characteristics is what constitutes anthropomorphism. It is also used with the same intent of inducing imagery (McBryde et al., 25). The poet has also used some forms of alliteration like consonance to help achieve rhythm. This can be found in the line, “And think this feeling al,” There is a repetition of the sound |th|, which help in giving the poem some effect of musicality.

Part 3-Comparison with Stephen Crane’s “War is Kind”

The two poems have conflicting depictions of war. Stephen Cranes’ depiction, as glossed over above, associates war with tragedy, separation, and loss of a loved one. The speaker addresses two women who have lost loved ones due to war, that is, a husband and a father respectively (McBryde et al., 25). Rupert Brooke’s depiction, however, sees war as a vessel of redemption. The speaker in the poem is willing to die as long as it is in service of his home country that is England. He sees war as the chance of displaying patriotism and commitment towards one’s beloved country.

The two depictions are in great contradiction of each other. While one is patriotic and selfless, another is tragic and undesirable. The poets have employed the themes based on their attitudes towards war. This also sheds some light to the predominant themes of the poem, one being tragic and another being patriotic. Both of the poems have used the style of narration, where the speaker engages in a monolog conversation with other characters within the poem itself or with the audience (McBryde et al., 25). The poem by Stephen Crane has used the style of contradiction or paradox in a significant portion of his poem hence that can be safely presumed as the predominant style. Rupert however, has employed the use of symbolism as the predominant style

Works Cited

McBryde, J. M., et al. “English Literature.” Modern Language Notes, vol. 21, no. 1, 1906, p. 25, doi:10.2307/2917683.

Organizational Change and Implications 

Organizational Change and Implications 

A major organizational change that will have implications for the organization’s culture will have to be the strict rules that Trump’s organization needs to implement as soon as possible. Changing an organizations culture is one of the most difficult tasks to accomplish in any kind of business. When it comes to all of the negative circumstances that Trump has with his employees and partners with the Russians, the reputation of his companies are almost down the drain. By having his partners participating in crimes that they may not even be aware of dealing with, the overall organizational structure is poor and will continue to go on a decline for fulfilling the full potential of the business. Trump organization will face the change of transformational change. Transformational change starts with the very top of management and will trickle down all the way to the employees who are in the lower divisions. “These changes are usually implemented with an intention of improving the workings, profit margins and overall bottom line of the company in question.” (Smith 2014)

A major organizational change when it comes to transformational change will implemented for trump organization’s employees. Management within Trump organization must follow the path of always having employees know where they fit in with the overall picture of the assigned assignments. Communication is the second factor to the organization change. If an employee feels an unfit, unsecure, and unethical decision are being made within the organization, they must speak up in order for management to convey the conflict to a better resolution. The forces that are driving this change in the organization are because of the unethical morale that Trump holds in his organization. The real estate businesses are relating to unethical decisions and deciding upon themselves to cause a negative reputation. These forces are both external and internal in the means of various employees committing the acts and not just one designated manager.

The specific business needs driving the change (4-B)

            The specific business needs that are driving the change are being implemented towards the management of each individual business within the trump organization. By providing the needs of the employees with the new organizational change and culture of the entire organization, the employees will be able to grasp and achieve the satisfaction of the goals that need to be made. Trump organization has various components of what needs to be changed for the integrity and reputation for the entire company. Trump is the most well-known name in America with him being our president, he cannot afford to have any more crimes under his belt within his own businesses.

When it comes to the specific business needs in order to drive the change is simply the crisis that s burning the reputation of Trump Organization in his realty businesses. Another need to drive the change is putting the employees and the consumers in the heart of the transformational change. By doing so, Trumps employees will be able to engage in a more trustworthy environment to adapt to the new culture. The employees need to know the skeptics behind changing the culture so that they can implement the thought process of remembering that different actions can lead to different results. With these distinct needs, the overall productivity of changing Trump’s reputation will start to alter in a more adaptive, positive manner.

Controlling (4-E)

            The controlling of the new organizational structure of Trumps Organization will be implemented by the top management in accordance with the lower branch employees. It is critical that upper management portrays a high degree of guidance and control to earn the trust and productivity of their employees. All of the controls in the new culture must be held to a strict standard of commitment. By implanting this, all of the controls will clarify all of the new ethics, goals, and moral of the company in regards to saving the organizations reputation. There will be charts posted to each employee to help with communication and tasks. By doing so, employees will have a more ease of mind who the top decision makers are in their work place and who to go to for any concerns against the new implications of the organizational structure.

Communication Plan (4-E)

            Breaking the new organizational structure to the employees will take effect by implementing meetings. The over-all morale of the meetings will bring a positive upbringing to the employees and will define a new line of trust for the organization. The meetings will communicate the expectations, changes, and new guidelines for the overall enhanced organizational structure. Some variables within the businesses will need to conduct more than one meeting depending on the sizes of the team. Management should be having separate meetings before hand in order to prepare a visual and verbal presentation for their employees.


Trump’s organization is a huge success in various types of businesses and will continue to strive in the right decision with the organizational structure that allows a huge corporation like Trump’s to succeed. By changing public perceptions by implanting the best strategies for transformational change, the unethical businesses are going to change around their moral for the better. Donald Trump and his business partners will do their best to change the allegations that have negatively impacted their culture and to transform their culture into something more humane for all of the employees. Every business has the potential within this organization to succeed and will strive to develop the course of actions that need to be implemented. The road map for Trump’s organization transformational change is going to allow better adaptation for the employees and will reach out to consumers that the organization is ethical and trustworthy.


Belias D. (2014). The impact of leadership and change management strategy on organizational culture.  European Scientific Journal. March 2014. Edition Vol. 10, No. 7, ISSN: 1857-7881 (Print). E-ISSN: 1857-7431.

Dorell O. (2017) Insight on recent news with Trump Organization: Retrieved from> Date Accessed. 31st March 2017.

Fernandez S. & Rainy H. G. (2006). Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector. Public Administration Review. Retrieved from> Date Accessed. 31st March 2017.

Smith, C. (2017, April 13). 5 Types Of Organizational Change – Change Management Tools. Retrieved April 21, 2017, from

Weiner J. B. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Journal of Organization Management. 2009 Oct 19. doi:  10.1186/1748-5908-4-67

Legislative initiatives in Georgia State

Legislative initiatives in Georgia State

In light of bringing about health reforms, there have been health provisions which include the Patient Protection and Affordable Act otherwise identified as PPACA, which is patient oriented. This act advocates for active participation in the healthcare marketplace or all operations that involve healthcare exchange, expansion of Medicaid programs as well as opening personal health benefits that include contraceptives (Goudreau & Smolenski, 2013). Mr. Governor, while this initiative is an important strategy for addressing the health disparities that exists in the residents of Georgia State as a result of socioeconomic, ethnic and racial factors, it is yet to be approved by the legislators. This act is critical in the process of improving the quality as well as the effectiveness of patient care and safety.

Mr. Governor, another reason why I firmly believe the act should be approved is that it is the best strategy for addressing quality health in Georgia State. This is because it makes it possible to achieving the goals of increased access in regards to quality and improved health care for all the residents of Georgia State. Moreover, it is worth noting that this health act contains three critical aims in the health sector. They include; healthy communities, better and affordable care which are again supported by health priorities such as care coordination and effective communication, prevention and treatment of causes to mortality and morbidity, developing safe care, family and individual care, well-being and health of the community and finally improving the affordability of quality care (Goudreau & Smolenski, 2013).

However, I am propelled to applaud you following the passing and consequent signing into law Act 10 on April 20, 2011 (Goudreau & Smolenski, 2013. The state of Georgia adopted Health Care Compact that is interstate in nature. This act is beneficial to the residents of Georgia since it provides all the member states to have control over broad regulatory authority and health care decisions. According to the act, this is only functional if these countries adopt into law health provisions that define health care in regards to Health Care Compact. This includes group or individual plan which pays or provides the cost of health services, care, and suppliers. I find this to be an important step towards improving accessibility to quality health as it allows such a group or an individual to access federal money (Spiegel & Karaler, 2009).

Moreover, I support your real office towards this strategy as it will eventually allow more Americans to obtain federal money for health care services. This is since there are still a few individuals who have failed to get health insurance that bars them from receiving medical services (Holtz, 2008). In essence, this legislative is more likely to improve the National Quality Strategy whose main aims include access to more affordable care as far as the community or individual levels are concerned as well as in the effort of reducing health disparity. Consequently, increased health care access will avert the development of health care outcomes that are unequal. I believe that this strategy has contributed immensely towards developing a more dynamic environment as far as health care is concerned (Holtz, 2008).

Moreover, Mr. Governor your real office signed into law a regulation that strictly prohibits state action as well as agencies from adopting any actions that would lead to expansion of Medicaid or agree to federal grant money in any form with the intention of establishing a health exchange program that is state-run (Goudreau & Smolenski, 2013). This legislation creates a legal barrier towards the establishment of critical health care programs into health care marketplace at the expense of patient care in Georgia State.


Goudreau A. K. & Smolenski M. (2013). Health Policy and Advanced Practice Nursing: Impact and Implementation. New York. Springer Publishers.

Holtz C. (2008). Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. Burlington. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Spiegel D. A. & Kavaler F. (2005). Risk Management in Health Care Institutions: A Strategic Approach. Massachusetts. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


Approaches to Local Ordinance Reform

Approaches to Local Ordinance Reform

A description of a local law in your community that is high profile or controversial

Preemption is a judicial or legislative agreement where governments of higher-level stops lower governments to exercise their mandate over a peculiar subject area (Cornell & Limber, 2015). On policy that is smoke-free, preemption naturally adapts the nature of the law of a state or a ruling by the court preventing implementation of local smoking limitations that are stricter than the standards set by the state. The preemptive laws by the state can also restrain other control standards related to local tobacco; they include restraints on the access of tobacco products by youths and limitations on the promotion and marketing of tobacco commodities (Havard Law Review Association el., 2015).

Some state preemptive requirements apply to all domains or several. There is a large agreement among public health practitioners and advocates that contribute to the control of tobacco that preemption contains an adverse effect on efforts of the control of tobacco. Preemptive laws of the state hinders local governments from implementing measures to offer protection to individual from the well-known adversities of tobacco consumption and exposure from secondhand smoke (Mowery, Babb, Hobart, Tworek & McNeil, 2012). This is a huge loss because the most powerful and most effective smoking restraints and policies that regulate the control of tobacco in general often emerge first at local level.

The difficulty by the tobacco sector to influence policymaking is a typical ability to carry out at the state level the undertakings that have made the industry lobby for forceful smoke-free legislations preemption (Mowery et al., 2012). Regarding documents that are internal, concern has been raised by the tobacco industry that strict smoke-free regulations will result to less acceptability by the undertaking of smoking and reduced sales of cigarettes. Locals have often viewed preemptive laws to be a straight reply to the progress of policies of smoke-free framework. The tobacco industries usually introduce such legislations immediately after the thoughtfulness of the ordinances in a state of smoke-free local environment.

Explain a strategy you would take to reform the law and explain why you chose it

            Creating public awareness would be an effective way of reforming the controversial law. When communities are thinking of implementing smoke-free ordinances, the discussions and debate can raise awareness about the effects to the health effects of secondhand smoke and the importance of policies that support smoke-free areas and encourage public attitude change concerning the acceptability of smoking by the public (Mowery et al., 2012). The discussions and debates also promote coverage by the media. Research has shown that increased coverage by the media on tobacco issues has been associated with a decreased consumption of cigarette annually, decreased sales of cigarettes weekly, and an increase in adult tobacco consumption cessation (Olson, 2015). Secondhand smoke issues coverage by the news media is also credited with an increased implementation of local smoke-free legislations.

Describe which agencies in your local community you would collaborate with to accomplish this and explain why

To accomplish the target of reforming the law, there will be need for the collaboration with the health department and the news media services. In order to get facts about the numerous disadvantages of secondhand smoke, the health agency needs to be involved because the institutions experience first-hand the effects of secondhand smoke and how bad the adversities are. The health agencies will offer well researched studies and the exact extent of the issue (Hames & Ekem, 2015). The news media will also play an important role in creating public awareness. It is easier to reach numerous people through media coverage than when employing any other means. Through news media coverage, many people will get the information and push for the reformation of the law that supports smoke-free policies.


Cornell, D., & Limber, S. P. (2015). Law and policy on the concept of bullying at school. American Psychologist, 70(4), 333. doi:10.1037/a0038558. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

Hames, J. B., & Ekern, Y. (2015). Legal research, analysis, and writing (5th ed.). Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall

Harvard Law Review Association, et al. (Eds.). (2015). The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (20th ed.). Cambridge, MA: Author

Mowery, P. D., Babb, S., Hobart, R., Tworek, C., & MacNeil, A. (2012). The impact of state preemption of local smoking restrictions on public health protections and changes in social norms.Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012, 632629. Retrieved from

Olson, K. C. (2015). Principles of legal research (2nd ed.). St. Paul, MN: West.

Leadership assessment

Leadership assessment

How leadership assessment helps in reflecting on one’s strengths and weaknesses

Hynes (2016) states that assessing one’s leadership style and methods helps in determining which direction your team is taking and the farthest the group can go. The leadership assessment helped me identify my leadership qualities needed to lead a group in the path required (Nobbe & Soria, 2016). It assisted me in determining the areas that I have been lenient on and has caused slow or poor coordination in the business or place of work that I am heading. The assessment guided me in determining what I need to change or add to my leadership style in a bid to improve the quality of leadership.

One of such leadership assessment is the 360 assessment which gives one an objective feedback on the effect you are causing on the individuals around you (Islam, 2014). The leadership assessment assists the leader and the workers to look in the same direction that the company or industry aspires to move in. Moreover, it helps the leaders practice what they tell others to do and also assists the manager as well as workers to work in coordination.

Importance of Leader Managing his/her Team

As a leader, it is important to manage your team as this will lead to harmony among the team members. The role will also result to good and improved work as well as personal relationship between the members and their leader (Hynes, 2016). This means that it is important as a leader to introduce an assessment and in the process make sure it fits all the workers without victimizing or criticizing some members. To achieve this harmony, it will be best for the leader to divide the group into subgroups of people with same qualifications so that one can apply an assessment that fits all (Roberts & Bailey, 2016).


Hynes, S. (2016). Assessing Leadership Using National Assessment Tools. New Directions For Student Leadership, 2016(151), 67-78.

Islam, G. (2014). Identities and ideals: Psychoanalytic Dialogues of self and leadership. Leadership, 10(3), 344-360.

Nobbe, J. & Soria, K. (2016). Leadership Assessment from an Institutional Approach. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2016(151), 93-105.

Roberts, D. & Bailey, K. (2016). Setting the Stage: The Intersection of Leadership and Assessment. New Directions For Student Leadership, 2016(151), 7-18.



Handling Difficult Conversations

Difficult conversations are an inevitable part of dealing with management processes. For this reason, when an individual anticipates such a conversation, there is a great need of having adequate preparation by employing the right words and gestures when dealing with a difficult matter (Bohn, 1996). In a personal experience at the work environment, I was expected to inform a ‘difficult’ client regarding anticipated delays in the delivery of services. As I expected, I was upset and nervous beforehand however, I framed the conversation in a less binary and positive manner to create a constructive conversation with the client on development. The strategy is important as it helps an individual develop alternative solutions rather than just explaining the grim circumstances of events. It is important to note that difficult conversations are more likely to have negative consequences if a person handling it assumes it normal.

Moreover, before engaging in an anticipated difficult conversation I would ensure that I am centered and calm by having regular deep breaths (Gergen & Gergen, 1988). It is achieved by having regular breaks of practice throughout the day as mind-full breathing plays a crucial role in the process of refocusing thoughts. Therefore, an individual will handle difficult moments by absorbing them effectively without panic (Bohm, 1996). In addition, the technique helps individuals plan strategically by jotting down important notes before that anticipated conversation (Bohn, 1996). However, it is important to jot down the key points that are flexible as the conversation may go any direction. It is because the counterpart is more likely to go off script, but may be contained by maintaining a language that is simple, neutral, clear and direct.

What I have learned about myself and my likely Inferences about Others that to improve my reflective leadership

Reflective leadership is the approach taken by leaders when they intend to lead their personal lives with personal mastery and presence (Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2003). During this course, I have learnt that it is critical to be present, to be attentive and aware to any experiences that I encounter with people throughout as by doing so, I focus on reflective leadership. This means that human experience is the main perspective that is used in practice and study of effective leadership. Reflective leadership is typically based on the science of phenomenology coupled by self-awareness (Harvey, 1974). However, I have learnt that I need to be aware of my own experiences as well as the experience of other people as this improves the level of communication that can in turn improve reflective leadership. This essentially means that effective reflective thinking is determined both extern and internal processes that seek to promote improved critical thinking as well as in the process of self-understanding (Dirk, 1999).

Social and Psychological Impediments in Work Environment

Two main social and psychological impediments are capable of inhibiting my understanding of work ethics and leadership as discussed in this course. The two main impediments are the physical work environment as well as my cultural beliefs (Dirkx, 1999). The two inhibitors are critical determinants in my level of creativity that may contribute positively towards the development of innovative outputs that could enable my organization’s performance and hence improve its competitive edge (Gregory & Romm, 2001). However, there are other indirect barriers towards the application process of the concepts learned in this course such as time pressure, level or risk taking, freedom or autonomy (Edmonson, Bohmer& Pisano, 2001). The Left Hand Column and this case have played a critical role in the process of embracing necessary and meaningful activities, perceptions or ethics as far as my inner and outer engagements are concerned.


Alvesson, M. & Sveningsson, S. 2003. Good visions, bad micro-management and ugly ambiguity: contradictions of (non-)leadership in a knowledge-intensive organization, Organization Studies, 24 (6), pp.961-988.

Bohm, D. 1996. On dialogue. New York: Routledge.

Dirkx, J.M. 1999. Invited reaction: managers as facilitators of learning in learning organizations, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10 (2), pp.127-134.

Edmonson, A., Bohmer, R. & Pisano, G. (2001) Speeding up team learning, Harvard Business Review, 79 (9), pp.125-132.

Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. 1988 .Narrative and the self as relationship. In: Berkowitz, L. (ed.). Advances in experimental social psychology. Vol. 21. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp.17-56.

Gregory, W.J. &Romm, N.R.A. 2001 .Critical facilitation: learning through intervention in-group processes, Management Learning, 32 (4), pp.453-467.

Harvey, J.B. 1974. The Abilene paradox: the management of agreement, Organizational Dynamics, 17 (1), pp.17-43.




Separate Corporate Personality is a concept with which companies are signified as a separate legal formality, which is distinct from the shareholders of the firm. The company bears the liabilities, but the shareholders are not affected by the same[1]. Therefore, the business lacks the physical existence but maintains a legal existence according to the company law. On the other hand,  according to Andreas and Wooldridge, Limited liability is a situation where the investment that one has on business or partnership is limited to a fixed sum of money, and thus if the company under judgment, the investors, and owners are not liable to the sue, and thus they exist as distinct persons from the enterprise[2]. The intention of this paper is to debate the implications of Kahn-Freund to business formation according to the concept of Separate Corporate Personality and the Limited Liability.

Discussion of Major Concerns

According to the Kahn-Freund, traders or groups of traders are tempted by the enforced law to register their business under the alias of a limited company since there is no risk of being sued in cases where outside parties sue the firm. Kahn-Freund argues that the formation of the limited companies has become an easy path of evading taxes and liabilities of the business. [3]Therefore, business owners hide behind the covers of the limited companies and conceal the primary interests of the firms, their main goal being to evade the liabilities if they may occur. According to Mancuso, the shareholders are not liable for the debts of the company other than the invested amount to the company and for any shares that remain unpaid. Although the stated is true, the investors are still liable for their acts such guarantees for debts, which they will be responsible for as explained by McLaughlin.

When regarding the cooperate personality, Kahn-Freund argues that firms exhibit a separate identity from that of the shareholders, but the law recognizes the entire company as a member of the trade association[4]. He poses questions asking whether it is ethical to let business persons assume the responsibility of co-operating owners regarding beneficial aspects and refrain from the blame when the liabilities are to be levied on the company. Mancuso argues that the regularity of piercing the veil of the corporate is applied by the court of law to impose the exception of to the separate legal identity principle. Therefore, the court can regard both the shareholder and the firm as one person[5]. In such cases, the shareholder is held responsible for the actions of the corporation as if it is they are the actions being undertaken by a legal person. According to Samad veil of incorporation may be lifted in cases where the company is charged with an abuse of separate identity or there is a suspicion of fraud within the cooperate.

Regardless of the two twin cases of Separate Corporate Personality and the Limited Liability, some limitations exist, and they may cause adverse effects in cases where the owners of the firms have a separate identity from that of the Company[6]. On other terms, Law has the permits to uncover the veil and regard the two entities as one party depending upon given cases.


Andreas, M., and Wooldridge, F., European Comparative Company Law, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Kahn-Freund, O., Some Reflections on Company Law Reform’s The Modern Law Review, 1944, pp. 54-66.

Mancuso, A., Your Limited Liability Company, Berkeley, California: Nolo, 2013.

McLaughlin, S., Unlocking Company Law, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2015.

Samad, M., Court Applications under the Companies Acts, Haywards Health, West Sussex: Bloomsbury Professional, 2013.

[1] Andreas, M., and Wooldridge, F., European Comparative Company Law, Cambridge University Press, 2009.

[2] Kahn-Freund, O., Some Reflections on Company Law Reform’s The Modern Law Review, 1944.

[3] Mancuso, A., Your Limited Liability Company, Berkeley, California: Nolo, 2013.


[4] Mancuso, A., Your Limited Liability Company, Berkeley, California: Nolo, 2013.

[5] McLaughlin, S., Unlocking Company Law, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2015.

[6] Samad, M., Court Applications under the Companies Acts, Haywards Health, West Sussex: Bloomsbury Professional, 2013.




Application of relationship and comparison of general variables is the principle motive behind sampling and quantitative data representative of a given set of data.  According to Brown (2011, 47), collection of data, purposes to provide figures that have information value. Data collection process is a procedure that requires caution in the collection process to avoid room for errors and collection of incomplete facts. However, the author asserts that accuracy is not guaranteed during data collection process due to factors relating to method of data collection used, the environment among other human aspects (Brown, 2011, 37). Data collection is therefore an essential aspect applied in variant research studies. The paper therefore seeks to analyze data collection methods by developing specific measurements to address questions formulated for the provided case. Moreover, the paper defines a sample considering the budget allocated for the provided scenario and proposes strategies for research conduction considering location, background and the associates stipulated by the provided case.

Formulation of workable research question in the given scenario

Notably, the paper focuses on the DBA university graduates that attained their degree in 2020 at the university of Liverpool to conduct a survey that seek to find out if the degree is useful to them in their careers. According to Dowling (2010, 159), formulation of workable research questions involves the constructing of a grant proposal that helps map up a research strategy. The author asserts that good research questions identifies the phenomena that requires statement to facilitate the development of ideas that frame effective research questions based on the research topic. The author observes that formulation of research question based on ideas is facilitated by the consideration of factors such as the field and its literature. Moreover, other crucial aspects include essentiality of the questions to the selected field, the areas that requires further studies, the gap that the study fills as well as the period required for the answers and the impact of the study on the selected field. Therefore, the research demands that the selected questions be based on ideas centered on the DBA degree offered in the University of Liverpool (Dowling, 2010, 176). The scenario facilitates the effectiveness of the research by ensuring the study focuses on the areas that are crucial to the study to ensure the study is time effective and remains focused on the target community, which is the university students. The provided scenario will therefore ensure that the research questions are based on ideas that pass the “so what” test, to ensure that they are specific to the study and provides solutions to the research purpose by making sure that the research questions are not merely definitive statements.

Similarly, Richard (2010, 319) states that formulation of research questions requires thoughtful ideas that lead to the generation of hypothesis that examines the predictions which responses from the phenomena. The undertaking facilitates the provision of more specific outcomes about a relationship of variables that enhance experiences based on testable and miserable experiments (Richard, 2010, 336). The formulation of the research questions that are effective for the provided case should therefore be facilitated through the provision of hypothesis that are based on rationale to provide alternatives that avail possibilities that could be tested to choose the most effective questions (Bartlett, Kotrlik & Higgins, 2001, 45).

            Choosing data Collection Methods and Developing Specific Measurements or Instruments to address the Question

According to Leavy (2010, 563), data collection methods are crucial requirements that have an impact on the evaluation process along a given continuum. The author asserts that quantities data collection methods are dependent on random sampling and structural data collection equipment that fit a given experience into predetermined phenomena (Leavy, 2010, 558). Data collection methods therefore produce summarizable results, compared and generalized in the process of delivering a theory that interest a given phenomenon. Glicken and Robinson (2013, 42) state that various gathering strategies are employed in the collection of fact and figures if the research requires employment of probability sampling methods to select a given number of participants from a large population. Notably, the number of graduate students at the University of Liverpool is large and requires statistical control for dependability purposes of the outcome facilitated by the feasibility study (Glicken & Robinson, 2013, 41). The application of data gathering techniques such as interviews, questionnaires and observations are therefore the most effective data collection methods for the provided scenario as they facilitate the great deal of time. The researcher requires recording of any potential data that is essential in a thorough, accurate and systematic manner that facilitates efficiency and the effectiveness of the research (Kerlinger, 1973, 35).

            Sampling Definition

According to Bernhard and Glantz (2012, 558), most research studies are bounded by limiting factors such as time, money as well as workforce that makes random sampling almost impossible. Kish (1965, 53) observes that due to the limitation of such factors, application of other sampling techniques such as non-probability sampling is essential due to their accessibility benefit and the enhancement of positive judgment possibility by the researcher.  Non-probability sampling technique therefore facilitates accuracy that eliminates the generalization factor within a given population. The factor therefore saves on time, and cost due to the inclusion of subjects that are available making the sample an effective representation of the entire population (Cochran, 1974, 73).

            Proposing conducting Research and Aspects to consider when conducting a    Research

Bernhard and Glantz (2012, 565) observe that data collection process is facilitated in consideration of codes compliance with freedom of information and confidentiality protection regulation.  The undertaking facilitate the protection of credibility and reliability of data as well as information to be gathered adhering to the accepted data collection methodologies. Identification of issues and opportunities for data collection is essential for the determination of the next step. The initiative facilitates the assessment of the internal and the external understanding of what is transpiring inside and outside an institution.


Bartlett, J. E., II, Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. 2001. Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50

Bernhard, J. G., & Glantz, K. 2012. Staying human in the organization: our biological heritage and the workplace. Westport, Conn, Praeger, 557-600.

Brown, A. 2011. Considering research: reflecting upon current themes in architectural, 500.601.

Cochran, W. G. 1974 Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.

Dowling, P. 2010. Doing research/reading research: Re-interrogating education. Routledge,        157-204.

Glicken, M. D., & Robinson, B. C. 2013. The Serious Problems in the American Workplace. Treating Worker Dissatisfaction during Economic Change, 39-78.

Kerlinger F. N., 1973. Foundations of Behavioral Research. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York

Kish, L. 1965 Survey sampling. New York: Wiley.

Leavy, P. 2010. Handbook of emergent methods. Guliford press, 550-710.

Richard, M. 2010. Social work research and evaluation: foundation of evidence-based practice.Oxforduniversity press, 300-340.

Additional Findings on the Physical Exam

Additional Findings on the Physical Exam

Intake of ferrous sulfate and over the counter calcium is a perfect indication that the patient could be suffering from anaemia, inadequate iron medications, and hypocalcemia, that characterize calcium deficiency. Pocock, Richards & Richards (2013) suppose that an additional physical examination of  the patient’s arms, face, moods, muscles, nails, bones, skin, chest condition  and breath is required. The individuals coldness and prickling in the hands, feet and face,depression, phantasms, frail and brittle nails as well as easy breaking bones serve as a proof of the ailment. Moreover, Ain and Rosenthal (2011) assert that short breathes with actions, dizziness, irregular chest discomforts and cold and damp skin are signs of the ailments. Hypocalcemia  intensifies the danger of developing diseases like osteopenia and osteoporosis. It is disastrous to take an overdose of calcium. Ain and Rosenthal (2011) note that it is only advisable to take the prescribed amount of calcium for each day through the food that one eats be it vitamins or supplements.

Implications of High TSH Levels

TSH level of 4.2 mIL/L. is a slightly elevated level. WebMD postulates that, augmenting thyroid arousing hormone levels indicate an underactive thyroid gland, a condition termed as hypothyroidism. According to Ain and Rosenthal (2011), symptoms include feeling frail, exhaustion or miserable, brittle nails, constipation, memory complications, and sensitivity to cold as well as heavy and uneven periods.

Additional signs include a reduced metabolism, swollen face, mysterious weight gain, croakiness, reduced heart rate, weak muscles, raised levels of cholesterol, weakening hair, and bulging, aching or rigidity in the joints. Young individuals showcase symptoms such as delayed puberty, poor growth, retarded development of permanent teeth and poor psychological growth. Curing high TSH levels revamps health firmness, cuts down calories levels and energizes the heart’s strength to pump blood.

Therapy to Institute

Supplementation of diurnal with synthetic thyroid hormone helps treat an underactive thyroid. I would recomend therapies such as cognitive behaviour therapy to help manage the client’s condition. The therapy would play part in minimizing the symptoms severeity. The recommended therapy would also help neutralize the negative implications of the disease symptoms. Intake of an apt dosage in line with prescription of the oral medication drastically lowers the rising hormonal levals  to normal and reverses the symptoms of hypothyroidism as well. Synthetic thyroxin is employed to treat hypothyroidism. Precise dosage is determined by the patient’s weight and age, how severe hypothyroidism is, the existence of other health complications and whether a patient undergoes other treatments that might affect how the body uses thyroid hormone (Ain & Rosenthal, 2011). The therapy instituted would act as a problem solving technique for the patient. Pocock et al., (2013) note that the oatient would establish an emotional wellness through the interpersonal laboratory sense of the therapy.

TSH levels should be checked within six to eight weeks after a patient starts taking thyroid hormone and the dose is accustomed consequently. Blood tests should be taken at six months and then yearly after the dose is steadied

Adjustments Required for Thyroid Medication During Pregnancy

A patient should continue taking thyroid medication during pregnancy under close examination. Treatment of hypothyroidism is the most common reason as to why expectant mothers take thyroid medicine. Levothyroxine, an artificial form of thyroid hormone that is safe for a baby, is the typical medication. It has no harm to a developing foetus.  Thyroid gland has to yield about 40 percent more thyroid hormone for both a mother and a developing foetus, during pregnancy (Pocock et al., 2013). Preterm delivery, preeclampsia and miscarriage are some of the complications. Women who do not receive enough thyroid hormone during pregnancy are most likely to contract the malady. Children born to mothers with insufficient thyroid hormone during pregnancy have lower IQs.


Ain, K. & Rosenthal, M. (2011). The complete thyroid book (1st ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pocock, G., Richards, C., & Richards, D. (2013). Human physiology (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford    University Press.

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