Author Archives: Gilbert Maina

The League of Nations

The League of Nations

Hello Kaley Cortellini, I appreciate the good work you have done on League of Nations. The facts you obtained were brainy, impressive and very reliable to any person with the aim of learning about the topic. The League of Nations was as a result of the Paris Conference and i agree with you that the main goal of formation is termination of war thus maintain peace in the society.[1] However, you could have included the members of the committee that governed the league which were France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Japan.[2] The League failed since it was not able to maintain peace and with continued failure it was dismissed.[3]

I agree with your theory that the idea of disarmament of nations all over the world was also a shortcoming since countries would not be able to protect themselves in case of invasion by enemies who would probably refuse to give in their weapons.[4] Your ideas are exceptional and I love the way you air your thoughts regarding the performance of the League of Nations. I am completely sold to your idea that the League would have been more effective before the start of the First World War.

[1] Northedge, Frederick Samuel. The League of Nations: its life and times, 1920-1946. Leicester University Press, 1986.


[2] FerihaKazmi “League of Nations,” OpenStax College, accessed February 13, 2018,


[3] Walters, Francis Paul. A History of the League of Nations. Oxford University Press, 1965.


[4] Danelle Moon, “League of Nations,” Encyclopedia of Activism and SocialJustice,


Human Resource Management in International Companies

Human Resource Management in International Companies

The research was conducted on both Coca-Cola Company and the Microsoft Corporation.

The Coca-Cola Company is a multinational beverage firm that has its headquarters based in Atlanta, Georgia. It is listed on the Ney York Stocks exchange and focuses on manufacturing, marketing and retailing of coke beverages and syrups. The Company functions under a franchise framework where it grants other bottlers in distinct parts of the global distribution and sale of its products in their consequent territories. It is one of the most highly ranked firms regarding performance and profitability in the beverage retailing sector. The company manufactures distinct types of drinks ranging from soda, bottled water, and juices. Human resource management is a significant unit in any company. It serves a base for the future growth and development of the company. Human resource is given an upper hand over technology in the Coca-Cola Company.

Since Coca-Cola is an international firm, it becomes hard to initiate and formulate similar policies for all the firm branches since the company recruits workers from all parts of the world who are characterized by differences in customs and cultures. It is therefore critical for management to plan for the coordination and integration of the human resource function and other organizational resources. Organization of the human resource function involves labour division, job evaluation, and job delegation. The company focuses on acquiring and retaining employees with abundant skill sets and broad knowledge of management. They aim to strongly equip the senior management positions to boost and heighten its performance in the industry. The company ensures its workers have job securities to avoid distraction brought about by future uncertainties.

Human Resource Management within Coca-Cola Company

The Coca-Cola human resource department carries out job analysis, designs jobs, recruits selects, trains and develops appraises performances, compensates workers and manages the employee welfare. The Coca-Cola human resource department carries out job description and analysis by getting their workers information prioritizing on the quality of performance and job requirements (Friedman, 2009). The information obtained is utilized in recruitment and selection processes, appraising performance, training, and development and compensating the employees. The coca cola human resource department participates in organizational planning with the aim of forecasting on the human resource requirements. For instance, if the company aims to expand production, the human resource department sends the plan to the headquarters for commendation. On acceptance, the human resource department begins the process of recruitment.

The process of recruitment begins when the function advertises vacancies in the publications and organizational website (Veale, 1996). After recruitment, the selection process begins where employees candidates are chosen in accordance with the post applied for. After recruitment, the managers are now ready for training. They are trained on the managerial frameworks and organizational technology. The training aims to equip them to start work right away (Friedman, 2009).

Challenges Coca-Cola Faces on Recruiting International Managers

The social and cultural differences between the distinct managers will require the company allocate some period for adjustments and changes. Also, Coca-Cola faces communication challenges where the manager being recruited does not have proper eloquence in the local language. A lot of difficulties may be experienced before he or she becomes familiar with it. At other instances, the local communities may refute and demonstrate against the hiring of a foreign manager. Many prefer someone from their ethnic background, and this may pose difficulty for normal operations.

Coca-Cola Performance Appraisal

Coca-Cola Company carries out its performance appraisal once every year. Employees are appraised in accordance with their performance in trying to meet the objectives of the organization. The employees are enlightened on the goals and targets at the beginning of the year. Management describes rewards for a good performance to the organizational employees.

in Coca-Cola Performance Appraisal

The process of appraising performance encompasses three steps, which are job definition, performance appraisal and response provision (Dusterhoff, 2014).

Job definition: Management ensures they have a common agreement with their workers regarding the duties they delegate and the qualities of performance.

Performance appraisal: In this step, management compares the employee’s performances with the benchmarked targets.

Response provision: Here, management discusses the worker’s progressive performance and initiate plans for developing the employee’s skill sets.

The Coca-Cola human resource department gives high priority and attention to their workers by adequately remunerating and compensating them through salaries, bonuses, medical welfare programs and gifts. Management always aims to ensure they consider the welfare of their workers before anything else. The employee will thus be satisfied with the remuneration which will, in turn, be replicated in their performances. Any employee with a burning personal issue or one which is work-related is free to share it with management to help come to a solution.

Importance of Appraisal in Training International Business Managers in Coca-Cola Company

Performance appraisal is used as a metric in assessing employee decision making and liability for promotion, demotion or remuneration changes (Dusterhoff, 2014). Management uses the appraisal in assessing managers who have exceeded performance and are liable for promotion. They also help identify those liable for retrenchment or development. The company is also able to assess abilities and move them to the areas they are most effective.

Human Resource Management in Microsoft Company

Microsoft is one of the best performing software companies in the world. Its success is attributed to the workforce management. Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft Corporation recruits his staff basing on the level of intelligence. He recruits bright graduates from top academic institutions in the country. Immediately after recruitment, the candidates go through the process of selection. The selection process begins with an interview which helps determine the interviewee’s intellect, decision making and analytic capabilities (Cusumano, 1998).

The interview is quite demanding and pushes the candidates to the utmost limit. After the interview, successful applicants receive email messages from the interviewers notifying their hire. The interviewing process encompasses an outsider from the hirers who provides an unbiased opinion on the candidates. The person checks whether the candidate is Microsoft material or not. These aids get the right person on the job rather than just a person for the post. Microsoft also sources employees from other organizations. They allure individuals through dinner invitations and private phone calls. They also place a high priority on retaining their employees through gifts, remuneration, and promotion and worker satisfaction (Thomas, 2000).

Challenges on Recruiting Foreign Managers

The company finds it challenging to hire foreign staff to fill its vacant positions while denying the American graduates a chance for recruitment. Microsoft allows a third of the software is developing and engineering jobs to foreigners. The increasing rate of unemployed American software graduates seems like a violation of their rights rather than a corporate social responsibility.

Performance Appraisal Process in Microsoft

The process begins with an analysis of work on a specific post to help assess the job and all activities associated with the task. It also aids look at the resources and strategies to attain the organizational goals. The process concludes with the specification of knowledge and abilities required to perform the job.

Importance of Appraisal in Training International Business Managers in Microsoft

Appraisal in training acts as a motivational factor that entices the individual to strive to advance their technical abilities (Dusterhoff, 2014). Appraisal in Microsoft enables the human resource department find units compatible with the individual’s skill sets. The company is also able to identify non-performers and take a step to retrench, demote or reduce salary and benefits allotted.

Examining Management Methods of Human Resource Planning and Analysis

Equal Employment Opportunity

The Coca-Cola company is an equal opportunity employer availing opportunities to all members avoiding bias, discrimination, and corruption. The company policy guidelines safeguard the interests of all stakeholders placing a high priority on the employee. The company does not discriminate through race, sex, religion, gender, disability or tribe. On the other hand, Microsoft negates from discrimination by availing equal opportunities regarding recruitment, training, promotion, and transfers. Equity is availed to all without looking at race, sexual orientation, gender, class or nationality.

Health and safety

The Coca-Cola Company pays special attention to the working conditions to curb the occurrence of injuries.  The company has researched the factors that lead to a rise in the occurrence hand of injuries. As a result, there has been a significant reduction in the frequency of occurrence of accidents. The company also offers training to its associates as well as advancing the safety of routes used to transport products to the market. On the other hand, Microsoft also embraces health and safety in that; there is an audit of all the safety risks that can be encountered by employees in their workplace. The workplaces that are offered to employees are assessed to enhance the safety of employees. The company, therefore, embraces employees, and they feel safe when they are working.

Factors Challenging a Multinational Company

Strategic performance and operation for multinational corporations are affected by factors surrounding the organization. They include political, social, economic and technological factors.

Political factors: The political factors refer to the policies, laws and legal frameworks laid out by the local governments on trade. For instance, the local government in a quest to regulate foreign trade may impose quotas, tariffs, taxes and customs duty. All these factors regulate the performance of a multinational company operating in that region (Gupta, 2013). Political stability is another element to consider when operating in a foreign nation. Multinational companies face difficulty in operations during tense election periods for fear of civil wars.

Economic factors: Certain economic elements have a significant impact on the operation of a multinational company in a host nation. The elements include interest rate, inflation, and exchange rate. Taking the case of exchange rates, different countries have distinct currencies and thus different exchange rates which consequently fluctuate. When the fluctuations occur, the returns deviate and so do the costs.

Technological factors: Some of the host nations lack the proper technology to avail production and performance for the multinational companies. Such elements may include internet connectivity or the technical knowledge. Technical knowledge in most of the nations is determined by the level of technological advancement in that country (Gupta, 2013). Regions with lower technological advancement will thus have few technical experts. Companies in these areas will have low performance.

Social factors: Demand and supply in most parts of the world are affected by the cultural practices and religion. For instance, coca cola once branded different individuals names to their products depending on the regions when trading in Africa. The name may have different meaning based on the different tribes and may limit sales to a certain level (Gupta, 2013).

The programs for recruiting managers vary from company to company. However, there are set standards that are set when recruiting managers. They will, therefore, be similar for all companies, for example, the qualification levels. Customized programs include the age specifications which may differ from company to company.



Cusumano, M. A., & Selby, R. W. (1998). Microsoft secrets: how the world’s most powerful software company creates technology, shapes markets, and manages people. Simon and Schuster.

Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader-member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of business ethics, 119(2), 265-273.

Friedman, B. A. (2009). Human resource management role implications for corporate reputation. Corporate Reputation Review, 12(3), 229-244.

Gupta, A. (2013). Environmental and pest analysis: An approach to the external business environment. Merit Research Journal of Art, Social Science, and Humanities, 1(2), 13-17.

Thomas, S. L., & Ray, K. (2000). Recruiting and the web: high-tech hiring. Business Horizons, 43(3), 43-43.

Veale, D. J. (1996). Mentoring and coaching as part of a human resource development strategy: an example of Coca-Cola Foods. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 17(3), 16-20.

Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)

Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)

What is ‘Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)’

Capital expenditure, or CapEx, are funds used by a company to acquire, upgrade, and maintain physical assets such as property, industrial buildings, or equipment. CapEx is often used to undertake new projects or investments by the firm. This type of financial outlay is also made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations.

Capital expenditures can include everything from repairing a roof to building, to purchasing a piece of equipment, or building a brand new factory.

BREAKING DOWN ‘Capital Expenditure (CAPEX)’

In terms of accounting, an expense is considered to be a capital expenditure when the asset is a newly purchased capital asset or an investment that improves the useful life of an existing capital asset. If an expense is a capital expenditure, it needs to be capitalized. This requires the company to spread the cost of the expenditure (the fixed cost) over the useful life of the asset. If, however, the expense is one that maintains the asset at its current condition, the cost is deducted fully in the year the expense is incurred.

CapEx can be found in the cash flow from investing activities in a company’s cash flow statement. Different companies highlight CapEx in a number of ways, and an analyst or investor may see it listed as capital spending, purchases of property, plant, and equipment (PPE), acquisition expense, etc. The amount of capital expenditures a company is likely to have depends on the industry it occupies. Some of the most capital intensive industries have the highest levels of capital expenditures including oil exploration and production, telecommunication, manufacturing, and utility industries. For example, Ford Motor Company, for the fiscal year ended 2016, had $7.46 billion in capital expenditures, compared to Medtronic which purchased PPE worth $1.25 billion for the same fiscal year.

Capital expenditure should not be confused with revenue expenditure or operating expenses (OPEX). Revenue expenses are shorter-term expenses required to meet the ongoing operational costs of running a business, and therefore they are essentially identical to operating expenses. Unlike capital expenditures, revenue expenses can be fully tax-deducted in the same year in which the expenses occur.

Using Capital Expenditures in Multiples for Relative Valuation

The cash flow to capital expenditure ratio, or CF/CapEX ratio, relates to a company’s ability to acquire long term assets using free cash flow. The cash flow to capital expenditures ratio will often fluctuate as businesses go through cycles of large and small capital expenditures. A ratio greater than 1 could mean that the company’s operations are generating the cash needed to fund its asset acquisitions. On the other hand, a low ratio may indicate that the company is having issues with cash inflows and, hence, its purchase of capital assets. A company with a ratio less than one may need to borrow money to fund its purchase of capital assets.

CF to CapEx is calculated as:

CF/CapEx = Cash Flow From Operations / Capital Expenditures

Using this formula, Ford Motor Company’s CF/CapEx = $14.51 billion/ $7.46 billion = 1.94. Medtronic’s CF/CapEx = $6.88 billion/$1.25 billion = 5.49. It is important to note that this is an industry specific ratio, and should only be compared to a ratio derived from another company that has similar CapEx requirements.

Capital expenditure can also be used in calculating free cash flow to equity (FCFE) to a firm with the following formula:

FCFE = Earnings Per Share – (CapEx – Depreciation)(1 – Debt Ratio) –  (Change in Net Working Capital)(1 – Debt Ratio)

or alternatively:

FCFE = Net Income – Net CapEx – Change in Net Working Capital + New Debt – Debt Repayment

The greater the capital expenditure for a firm, the lower the free cash flow to equity.


Capital Expenditure

Capital Expenditure

Hello Amber, I appreciate the good work you have done on the topic: Capital Expenditure. I agree with your argument; cash flow analysis is an essential component of capital expenditure budgeting as it shows changes in cash amounts (Hayes, 2017). Therefore, the need to pay critical attention on flow assessments will help explain the deviations between the income statement and the balance sheet. I think it is very hard to assess organizational performance without properly analysing the cash flows (Shim & Siegel, 2012).

Your post on effects of cash flows to the human resource department was very thoughtfully. I agree the human resource department uses the cash flow analysis in order to know when to train the workers. However, you could have mentioned the impact cash flow analysis on the functionality of other departments. For instance, the production department uses the cash flow analysis information in determining which quality material to order, amount to produce and whether to add overtime hours on the normal hours allocated (Klychova, 2014). I agree with your reasoning on the importance of comprehending components of the capital budget policy as they help the department understand what is significant for them.


Hayes, C. A. (2017, November 17). Capital expenditure (CAPEX). Retrieved from,

Shim, J. K., & Siegel, J. G. (2012). Budgeting basics and beyond (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Klychova, G. S., Faskhutdinova, М. S., & Sadrieva, E. R. (2014). Budget efficiency for cost control purposes in management accounting system. Mediterranean journal of social sciences, 5(24), 79.

Responses to the Ethics Dilemma
  1. Develop written responses to the Ethics Dilemma found in Chapter 6 on page 148.

When it comes to an organizational setup, it is so crucial for every worker to avoid conflicts with their counterparts in matters that will become advantageous to own interest. In our case, it is so confusing for what the salesperson will do since the ethical line that he should not pass is so blurry. However, regardless of it there are advantages and the disadvantages of the decision that the salesperson will take and both of them will have consequences which might affect him individually or as a company. The salesperson will have the tickets to entice their friends, but also he will have violated the ethical culture of the company which provides that employees should not accept gifts from the supplier.

  1. Develop written responses for the following Questions and Problems from page 170 in the textbook: Q&P 1, 3, 6, 12, and 13.
  2. Review the John Deere case study that opens the chapter. From this case, identify examples of different key terms and concepts covered in the chapter. For example, when MetoKote built a paint plant right next door to John Deere’s manufacturing plant, this was an example of a relationship-specific adaptation.

Deere and MetoKote are close companies that have close buyer relationship in that, MetoKote specializes in the protective coating applications while the Deere Company have its all products coated in the MetoKote facility. Also, Deere Company has ensured a machine finder set up a website that enables its customers to find the second hand of their products which are being sold. Deere is identifying some of its market in India, Brazil and South America as the best to expand their business due to extensive juice exports that they make. They have therefore introduced their products to the countries to increase their returns and expand their market share.

  1. In your own words, explain how the buying behavior of business customers in different countries may have been a factor in speeding the spread of international marketing.

The buying behavior of customers from different countries has increased the marketing of similar products worldwide. In some instances, we find customers from foreign countries who are in need of certain products that are not produced in their country, and therefore they outsource from foreign countries of their choice. Through it, international marketing has been boosted by suppliers to ensure that such customers are tapped.

  1. If a nonprofit hospital were planning to buy expensive MRI scanning equipment (to detect tumors), who might be involved in the buying center? Explain your answer and describe the types of influence that different people might have.

In such a situation the buying center will involve several people who might include doctors and engineers who will mostly interact with the equipment. The purchasing manager who happens to be the buyer of the organization and the deciders who might be the board who should work together to decide on the kind of product they want to buy. Engineers might influence the equipment based on its specification and the compatibility of the machine with other equipment’s.

  1. Would a tool manufacturer need a different marketing strategy for a big retail chain such as Home Depot than for a single hardware store run by its owner? Discuss your answer

Yes. The kind of marketing strategy that a business will use will depend on the scope of the consumers of the p [products. In the case that a manufacturer has a large home depot, he/she will need to device marketing strategies that will both cater to local consumers and the retailers who will purchase goods from the store. The manufacturers should ensure that he/she integrates modified strategy of marketing through e-commerce that will capture most of his customers.

  1. How do you think a furniture manufacturer’s buying habits and practices would be affected by the specific type of product to be purchased? Consider fabric for upholstered furniture, a lathe for the production line, cardboard for shipping cartons, and lubricants for production machinery.

The products that a manufacturing company will purchase will affect the buying habits based on its quality, Manufacturing companies always buy products in bulk and m, mostly from a single supplier. When they buy a specific product which they later realize that quality was compromised in most cases, the decision makers tend to change the habits to bring in abiding purchasing habit. It involves a situation whereby different companies offering the same type of product competitively bid for supply of product such as fabric for upholstered.

  1. Develop written responses for the Online Toolkit exercises found in Chapter 6 on pages 153 ( ) and 162 (click on “Find Your NAICS Code” link). Use the required format as provided in the Online Toolkit example at the course home page including the “Application to Chapter Topic” response.

Online toolkit. Pg. 153

At the buyer’s guide, there are some links that get a customer to the products that they feel they can buy. We have products such as business phone systems, digital copiers, payroll services, POS systems, and forklifts all together on one site. The best thing about buyer zone is the fact that it is good for customers to buy different items from the site since different supplies try to win the customer by providing different competitive products that suit customer’s needs. Such a site is useful for marketing managers since customers can easily access the products that are new in the market by quickly logging into their account.

Online toolkit pg. 162

The NAICS code is 333992. It’s a company concerned with welding and soldering equipment manufacturing. Most firms use the method to find customers then look the code for similar companies that need same foods and services. It is a form of business data that classify industries for easy tracing

  1. Develop written responses for the Application Exercise found in the Assignment 6 Folder.

Situation 1

The potential customer has been selling a very successful line of upholstered furniture for some years. The company has not been using a stain-resistant fabric. But furniture retailers have recently complained that the furniture gets soiled very easily. The potential customer thinks that your stain-resistant fabric could be used instead of the fabric it gets from its supplier.

The level of problem-solving is a new task buying whereby the company has a new need that is not being satisfied by the previous company. It brings out the product specification of a stain-resistant fabric. The nature of buying behavior of the firm would be the alternative identification of the product that suits their needs. My firm should focus on adjusting the product in the marketing mix through ensuring that customers know about their uniqueness in being stain resistant which will make customers to increase the purchase of the product.

Situation 2

The customer has been purchasing a similar fabric from one of your firm’s competitors for several years but is dissatisfied with its present supplier’s delivery service and technical support.

The level of problem-solving that the firm is in is modified rebuy whereby it wants to get products from another competitor after the initial one started providing poor delivery services. The firm, therefore, is in a situation whereby they want to evaluate alternatives of other suppliers who they expect to provide better delivery of the products and any proper technical support that they need. The firm, therefore, should ensure that they integrate a marketing mix that ensures customers who are the people are emphasized on. Based on giving them nice services such as after sales services.

Situation 3

The customer has been purchasing all of its fabric from one of your competitors on a regular basis for several years. No change in this procedure is expected.

The firm, therefore, is in a state of straight rebuy which provides that it has been purchasing products from the same supplier over and over without changing the supplier. In this situation, the probable nature of buying is to need awareness which the firms finds and start purchasing what they need. Multiple buying here would affect the kind of products that the firm is used to purchase based on the quality. The firm can introduce a more similar but competitive product that will make the company change its suppliers. The product can be introduced in the market using a penetration pricing that will attract them.



If it’s one author

(Gilbert, 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert (2017) at the beginning of a sentence

If its two authors

(Gilbert & Beatrice, 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert and Beatrice (2017) at the beginning of a sentence

If its three authors

(Gilbert, Beatrice & Charles, 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert, Beatrice and Charles (2017 at the beginning of a sentence

If they appear again in the body of your work

(Gilbert et al., 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert et al. (2017) at the beginning of a sentence

If they are more than seven authors

(Gilbert, Beatrice, Charles, Ndegwa, Peter, Reuben, Mwangi…& Kenedy, 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert, Beatrice, Charles, Ndegwa, Peter, Reuben, Mwangi…and Kenedy (2017) at the beginning of a sentence

If they appear again in the body of your work

If they are more than seven authors

(Gilbert et al., 2017) at the end of a sentence

According to Gilbert et al., (2017) at the beginning of a sentence

Capital Expenditure Budget Response

Capital Expenditure Budget Response

Hello David, thank you for this post. I am impressed by the work you presented as it is very commendable. I accede with your argument that capital expenditure budget compiles the capital assets to be obtained, transferred to other people or disposed. The amount of money to be used to invest in capital assets will be listed on the budget (Shim & Siegel, 2012).

I love the way you gave detailed information on the topic which is very intelligent since any person, with or without a financial background can understand clearly. Your argument on acquisition of assets is well thought and i agree that the level of activity will determine the amount of assets purchased (“Capital Expenditure Budget”, 2017). Human resources are directly involved by projects in an organization since number of employees to handle the project may be increased or reduced. As per argument, which I agree, training is required upon implementation of a new project which is also a human resource responsibility.

I concur with your idea that there is need by an organization to focus into the future so as to meet the changing market demands.


“Capital Expenditure Budget”.  (2017). Retrieved from


Shim, J. K., & Siegel, J. G. (2012). Budgeting basics and beyond (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.


Internal Labor Market Description

Markov Analysis and Forecasting

Internal Labor Market Description

Job Stability

Job stability refers to the degree of retaining ones functionality in a department or unit. For instance, remaining in full time sales, part time sales, assistant sales manager position or the regional managers position (Heneman& Kammeyer, 2012).  According to the probability figures, DoortoDoor sports Equipment Company experienced 50% to 80% employee stability.

Exit (Turnover Rates)

Turnover rates refer to the degree of employees exit from the company or shifts to other institutions for rudeness, poor performance, low appraisal ratings, undervaluing employees, lack of mentorship, poor decision making and ability inadequacy (Heneman & Kammeyer, 2012). The company experienced turnover rates ranging from 5% to 35%.

Promotion Paths

Promotion refers to the shift from a lower position to a higher position due to excellent performance ratings, proper decision making, mentorship and coaching (Heneman & Kammeyer, 2012). In accordance to DoortoDoor sports Equipment Company, there are three functional levels.  Shifts in position only occurred within assistant sales manager to regional sales manager (ASM to RSM), full time sales people to assistant sales manager (SF to ASM) and part time salespeople to assistant sales manager (SP to ASM).

Transfer Paths

Transfer refers to limited movement of employees within the same functional level (Heneman & Kammeyer, 2012). Movement only occurred within the first level where full time sale persons moved to the part time sales unit (SF to SP) and where employees from the part time sales unit moved to the fixed sales unit (SP to SF).

Demotion Path

Demotion refers to the shift from a higher function to a lower function in an organization. In DoortoDoor sports Equipment Company, only two movements occurred, that is, Regional sales manager to assistant sales manager (RSM to ASM), assistant sales manager to part time sales (ASM to SP) or assistant sales manager to full time sales unit (ASM to SF).

Number Forecast in the Different Doortodoor Job Groups In 2013

Transition Probability Matrix

Job Category Level SF SP        ASM           RSM            Exit
Sales, Full Time (SF) 1 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.35
Sales, Part Time (SP) 1 0.05 0.60 0.10 0.00 0.25
Ass Sales mgr (ASM) 2 0.05 0.00 0.80 0.10 0.05
Regional sales mgr (RSM) 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70 0.30


In order to get the probable workforce outcome, multiply the current workforce by the column probability figures as illustrated on the table below.

Illustration of 2013 Forecast Manipulation



Current Workforce SF SP ASM RSM Exit
SF 500 500(0.50)=250 500(0.1)=50 500(0.05)=25 500(0)=0 500(0.35)=175
SP 150 150(0.05)=7.5 150(0.60)=90 150(0.10)=15 150(0)=0 150(0.25)=37.5
ASM 50 50(0.05)=2.5 50(0)=0 50(0.8)=40 50(0.1)=5 50(0.05)=2.5
RSM 30 30(0)=0 30(0)=0 30(0)=0 30(0.7)=21 30(0.3)=9


Sum up the figures at the end of the column to get SF (260), SP (140), ASM (80), RSM (26) and Exit (224). The employees amounting to two hundred and twenty four is predicted to leave the company and will not be available for 2013 operations.

Available Forecast

Job Category Current Workforce SF SP ASM RSM Exit
SF 500 250 50 25 0 175
SP 150 7.5 90 15 0 37.5
ASM 50 2.5 0 40 5 2.5
RSM 30 0 0 0 21 9
Sum 730 260 140 80 26 224


The constant percentage changes are as a result of human resource frameworks and protocols which were in operation between 2012 and 2013. The probability figures enable transitional forecasting for the organizational employees over the operational period.

Forecasted Shortages and Surplus in the Doortodoor Company

Job Category Current Number of Employees Forecasted Number of Employees
SF 500 260
SP 150 140
ASM 50 80
RSM 30 26

The sales full time forecast deviates from the current number of employees by 240 employees indicating a shortage, that is: 500-260=240 employees. The sales part time also forecasts a shortage of 10 employees, that is: 150-140=10 employees. The Assistant Sales Manager post indicates a surplus as 30 employees will be moving into the post, that is: 80-50=30 employees. The Regional Sales Manager position has a shortage of 4 employees, that is: 30-26=4 employees.

Possible Limitations to the Forecast

The following are the limitations associated with the above forecast.

Population Size

It is recommended to obtain   a number of employees exceeding twenty for each function in the organization as the figure is used in calculating transitional likelihoods. In cases where the numerator deviations are small, minute population sizes will have significant deviations in the transitional probability figures (Carpinone, Giorgio, Langella & Testa 2015). Thus, when forecasting future occurrences, manipulating probable change on minute population’s results in unstable forecasting which may not be reliable in decision making.

Interval Movement Ignorance

Markov analysis only concentrates on two periodical extremes, that is, t and t+1. It only looks at the workers positional changes at the start and end of the operational period. It ignores the fact that constant movements occur in between the operational period and thus minimizes reliability. In order to reduce the unnoticeable movements, the gaps between the periods should be minimized, for instance, less than two years.

Combining functions

An organization is characterized by an integration of different functions which operate to reach and attain similar goals. When determining the probable future outcomes, extreme functions may be used, for instance, Regional Senior Management and Sales Representatives part time and full time. Where these positions are distinct and have a difference of more than one level, utilizing the figures may disagree with stipulations and visions of the human resource and planning function (Carpinone et al., 2015).

Outcome Reflection

The resultant probabilities only show the likely movements of the workers in the organization. It fails to outline comprehensively the reasons for the positional changes. In calculating the probable forecast, all the workers are assigned the same probability of positional change. In reality, management takes into account several factors before making any decision to allow transfer, promotion, demotion or exit. Some of these factors include punctuality, job quality, personal presentation review results, and positive client response and individual appraisal outcomes (Carpinone et al., 2015).  Including these functions in decision making will differentiate the probabilities of positional change among the organizational employees.

Advantages of Internal Recruitment and Disadvantages of External Recruitment

When considering for internal recruitment, the organization benefits include:

Employee Turnover

Reassigning best performing employees into other functions within the organization motivates them which in turn improve their performance. The employees are able to develop their skill and abilities (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006). On the other hand, sourcing externally will instead lower the morale of the current employees. They will feel unconsidered despite the hard work and effort they have put in to ensure performance.

Accuracy in Assessment

The human resource department always has a track record on the performance of the organizational employees. They already have clear information on the abilities and expertise. The interviewers have a guarantee on performance and behaviour of the candidates (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006). On the other hand, external recruitment will require thorough assessment and the interviewers will only rely on the individuals documented achievements, certifications and eloquence. They do not have clear knowledge on the individual’s performance and behaviour.

Expenditure Position

When the organization has internal candidates who already qualify for a post, it does not have to advertise for the position which saves on advertising costs and time for interviews. The organization is thus able to utilize the funds in other viable areas. On the other hand, recruiting outsiders will incur costs for the organization, for instance costs for advertising job vacancies in newspapers and carrying out interviews (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006)..

Advantages of External Recruitment and Disadvantages of Internal Recruitment

Talents and Abilities

When the company carries out interviews for top management positions, it is assured of experienced, skilled and knowledgeable professionals who are able to handle the positions better and have more expertise on the area. On the other hand, sourcing internally means limited knowledge and abilities. The internal candidates thus need close monitoring and exposure to be able to handle the position. The internal candidate is bound to follow what the former candidate used to do which inhibits change in the organization (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006).


The business world always changes with time. As time passes, companies always adopt new ways of doing things and carrying out their operations. Sourcing externally assures the company gets fresh talent capable of instituting change into the work place (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006). They bring in new people to help increase the levels of innovation and ease operations. Carrying out internal recruitment only stagnates the company in terms of ideas, operations and culture. The company becomes predictable and finds it hard to survive in a tough dynamic competitive industry.

Worker development

When company employees have knowledge of promotional opportunities on top positions, they may want to compete with the external candidates by taking part in training and development programs. The training programs will assure them an advantage over the external candidates. Training and development will thus be a gate way to better abilities and expertise. On the other hand, recruiting from within the organization will not allure the employees into bettering themselves. Lack of competition reduces the motivation of improving one’s self through development training (Bayo-Moriones & Ortín-Ángel, 2006)

Human Resources

Human Resources

An essay in Human Resources
Topic:  recruiting process in startups.

Like what’s the state of the art at the moment?

How do startups recruiting, what’s effective.

The paper should have approximately 900 words and because it’s an academic work I need it with citations.

The sources should not be older than 5 years.
I already did the basic work like how a normal recruiting process look like etc.

honestly its not even close to what I asked for.

I told you that I need an essay about recruiting process in startups. Like whats the state of the art at the moment, how do startups recruiting, whats effectiv. And not about recruiting agencies.
It should be about how startups recruit new employees. How the process looks like.
And I told you I dont need an abstract or an intro bc I already cleared basics.

For me a startup is:

A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged, fast-growing business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around an innovative product, service, process or a platform. A startup is usually a company designed to effectively develop and validate a scalable business model

And I need the state of the art of how startups do recruiting, what are they doing to get qualified employees, how does the recruiting process look like, which instruments do they use, whats effective, how does the selection of personal works for startups

I never talked about recruiting startups. Further if you cite, the page numbers must be specified, otherwise I can’t use it


And as I stated in one of my first messages, I dont need a introduction or an abstract, I already have that bc the state of the art is just a small part of my work. I already discussed how a formal recruiting process in normal companies looked like etc. and know I just need to state how it is in Startups bc at the end I’ll show that the recruiting process for startups need to be modified. Maybe know its more clear


in text citations (Nicolai 2016, p. 67)


The Great Depression in Germany

The Great Depression in Germany

I decided to pick the topic as it is an exploration of Germany in the 20th century. It place special attention to the significance of the First World War. The purpose of the research is to determine the causes, depth and impacts of the war and how it has imposed change in the economy. The research focuses on the Great Depression that took place between the First World War and the Second World War. During this period, Germany experienced years of war, strenuous alterations, economic downfalls and political oppression. The research will therefore assess how far the economy can decline.

Despite the loss of relative importance of the European nations such as Germany, their political, economic and social innovations influence the other nations in the globe to date. The approach i will be using on this research will include prominent ideologies and economic theories explaining the Great Depression in Germany. Basis will be laid on the causes, effects and recovery as well inclusion of an analytical approach on Germany as a European country, placing emphasis on how different phases of time came together during the epoch.

It will help unsnarl why European countries such as Germany have continued to impact and affect the lives of many individuals to the present day. The aim of the research is to help understand the root initiators of the depression in Germany in the twentieth century, assess humanitarian suffering inflicted by the different government eras and the implications of the First World War on the economic situation in Europe as a whole. The role of women and household economics will be discussed further and a great focus will be on Germany since it was one of the most affected countries.

Primary Sources

Bernanke, Ben S. The macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A comparative approach. No. w4814. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.


Cole, Harold L., and Lee E. Ohanian. “New Deal policies and the persistence of the Great Depression: A general equilibrium analysis.” Journal of Political Economy 112, no. 4 (2004): 779-816.


Eichengreen, Barry, and Jeffrey Sachs. “Exchange rates and economic recovery in the 1930s.” The Journal of Economic History 45, no. 4 (1985): 925-946.


Holderness, Clifford G., Randall S. Kroszner, and Dennis P. Sheehan. “Were the good old days that good? Changes in managerial stock ownership since the great depression.” The Journal of Finance 54, no. 2 (1999): 435-469.


Kreyenfeld, Michaela. “Uncertainties in female employment careers and the postponement of parenthood in Germany.” European Sociological Review 26, no. 3 (2009): 351-366.


Romer, C. D. (1993). The nation in depression. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2), 19-39.


Romer, Christina D. “The great crash and the onset of the great depression.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 105, no. 3 (1990): 597-624.

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