Author Archives: Gilbert Maina

Employee Behavior in a Service Environment

Employee Behavior in a Service Environment

The article was written by professors Barry Babin from the University of Southern Mississippi and James B. from the University of Georgia State. Babin and Boles in this study try to examine the conducts and attitudes of workers who provide services while addressing the degree to which relations vary between men and women in the workplace. Even in day to day activities men and females have very different roles in society no matter the position or occupation they are occupying (Babin & Boles, 1998, p.1).

The study alludes to earlier research done on a stress-related market study which stipulates that the customer-contact services in the industry have a critical role to play especially in the service-oriented industries such as hotels, restaurants, and venues among others. They aid in implementing tactical marketing choices and form a platform where employees and clients interact. Their performance can be used to evaluate the quality of a firm’s marketing quality. In employee behavior study, some aspects driving the same are usually overlooked such as gender (Babin & Boles, 1998, p.1).

The study describes how men and women employees cope and respond differently to events in the workplace. The article addresses issues such as gender-related differences and how they are affected by different levels of factors particularly job satisfaction and role stress. Researching on the crucial role of employees in linking an organization to its employees has been stated to be under-researched. It is imperative to know what affects their satisfaction, quitting intents and performance. So, this study tends to focus on another construct that is usually not considered during research that is: differences in relations across gender rather than differences in levels of key constructs across gender.

The study uses two related constructs that include role ambiguity and conflict and various effects on different aspects in the workplace. A careful reader will see that the utilization of these constructs helps to maximize the relevance of the study. The study uses a hypothesized model of behavior that is interlinked. It is evident from previous research that stress is detrimental to both works performance and contentment and has been related to increases in work and non-work conflicts. Aspects such as role ambiguity have been stated to have uncertainty and reduce performance through action delays and reduced effort. Aspects such as job satisfaction are used as hypotheses and are shown to affect job quitting directly. The effect of gender roles on marketing employees is not a popular research area hence there is not enough information to assess how it might alter relationships and constructs. But using existing research gives more details such as women exhibit more emotional fatigue than men.

Women are also committed to higher levels of family tasks hence interfering with their work. The study has brought forward sufficient evidence suggesting that sex-based variation in an individual’s reaction to uncertainty and stress such as the fact that women tend to avoid conflict and are submissive whereas men are more aggressive and authoritative in the workplace. Gender differences also affect job, and life satisfaction and men have been found to be more self-gratified in their jobs hence a sturdier relationship between life and work satisfaction. The study shows women tend to resign more than males due to external factors thus contributing to quitting intents more. The model used in the study was inclusive but the fact that is considered gender-based variances made the data more credible. The results at least provide information for further research on management of client-contact service provider relations.



Babin, B. J., & Boles, J. S. (1998). Employee behavior in a service environment: A model and test of potential differences between men and women. The Journal of Marketing, 77-91.

Environmental pollution


Environmental pollution is a major issue, and it has plagued the world for quite a long time. For living organisms to survive there must be an interaction between them and the environment and are quite dependent on each other. They maintain a balance in nature but increased pollution has led to imbalances in the ecosystem. Factors leading to this include increased population, organic matter decay, deforestation, industrialization, pollutants discharge to water bodies, dumping of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable solid and non-solid waste into water bodies and land to mention but few. Environmental pollution can be categorized into water, air, soil and noise pollution. Pollution poses a grave threat to humans, animals, and plants too.  Most of these pollutions are as a result of reckless human activities such as effluent and chemicals discharge to water bodies and the atmosphere. Greatest effects include the release of GHGs causing global warming and contamination of water bodies not considering that air and water are life’s prime necessities. To ensure survival some of the actions taken to mitigate these problems include proper waste disposal systems, increased research in pollution, raising awareness on the matter to educate the public, afforestation programs, encouraging the use of manure than inorganic fertilizers among others.

Public Health Triad and Global Health

Environmental Pollution

Pollution has various facets that include water pollution, air pollution, noise and soil pollution. Environmental pollution can be defined as the unwanted alteration in chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water, soil, and air as a result of factors. Air pollution can be attributed to human activities such as industrialization, increasing populations and urbanization. This involves the release of pollutant gases such as Carbon (IV) Oxide CO2, methane, hydrocarbons (HCs), nitrogen oxides radioactive dust and matter into the atmosphere (Khan & Ghouri, 2011). Most of these gases are highly toxic and cause respiratory complications and even death in severe cases of increased concentrations. Most of these gases such as methane are known as greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are hand in hand related to global warming another menace in this age  (Bose, 2010). Most of these gases come from industries. Indiscriminate cutting of trees has also contributed to increasing levels of GHGs as trees tend to act as sinks and absorb these gases.

Water is one of the life’s prime necessities although it is also a limiting resource. Water pollution renders the limited water accessible unfit for use. When there is any physical, chemical or biological change in water, it is considered polluted and bearing in mind that water is needed on a daily basis this lead to health problems which result to death, long term complications, loss of aquatic diversity and so on (Patterson, Smith & Bellamy, 2013). Presence of pollutants like water-borne disease causing microbes causing diseases like typhoid or cholera which are deadly. Toxic effluents from industries reduce dissolved oxygen concentration in the water killing aquatic animals. Agriculture is also affected as plants die due to the toxins present in the water (Shahidul & Tanaka, 2014).

Soil pollution is also another issue that is affecting the globe and has led to the loss of agricultural land or by rendering it unusable to produce food for the ever growing population. These wastes are usually from industries, improper disposal of waste in cities, overuse of fertilizers, herbicides and other chemicals. Deforestation also contributes to soil pollution since the plants are not available for nutrient recycling. GHGs also cause acid rain which pollutes the soils making them acidic and also the water bodies. This leads to reduced plant growth leading to starvation.

Recommended measures to lessen environmental pollution

The government should formulate policies aimed at recycling and proper waste disposal and raise global awareness towards reducing pollution. Research should also be encouraged to come up with pollution combating techniques and also use that information to educate and create awareness globally. For the industries, they should be driven to adopt water and air recycling techniques such as wet scrubbing and electrostatic precipitation. Automobiles should be properly maintained and comply with current-emission control standards (O’Brien, 2012). In the farms, the use of organic manure should be encouraged and compost of yard waste instead of burning it. Encouraging and support of afforestation and reforestation programs for more trees to filter out the GHGs. Proper sewage treatment should be encouraged before release to the water bodies (O’Brien, 2012).


Bose, B. K. (2010). Global warming: Energy, environmental pollution, and the impact of power electronics. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 4(1), 6-17.

Khan, M. A., & Ghouri, A. M. (2011). Environmental pollution: Its effects on life and its remedies.

O’Brien, K. (2012). Global environmental change II: from adaptation to deliberate transformation. Progress in Human Geography, 36(5), 667-676.

Patterson, J. J., Smith, C., & Bellamy, J. (2013). Understanding and enabling capacities for managing the ‘wicked problem ‘of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework. Journal of environmental management, 128, 441-452.

Shahidul, I. M., & Tanaka, M. (2014). Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48(7-8), 624-649.



Maternal alcohol consumption


Maternal alcohol consumption is a preventable health risk that can cause harm to the fetus and cause birth defects. Articles relating to the risk factors associated with maternal alcohol consumption, prevention of the risk factors, and a discussion on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders were reviewed. Several risk factors were identified, but the most prevalent risk factors include poverty, homelessness, substance abuse by a partner, and preconception alcohol use. Several preventative measures and screenings exist to identify women at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy and treatment options for women in need of intervention. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be prevented if early screening and interventions are implemented. However, screenings are often not implemented adequately and in a timely manner because of a lack of knowledge among health care providers. Educating health care providers on the use and implementation of the screenings can identify women at risk for maternal alcohol consumption before irreversible harm to the fetus occurs.


Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are caused by consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. According to current research, about one in 30 women are at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy, which can lead to preventable instances of FASD (Cannon et al., 2015). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders include a number of more specific syndromes along this spectrum, such as: fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND), fetal alcohol defects, and alcohol related birth defects. Some signs and symptoms of prenatal alcohol exposure include behavioral problems, neurological problems, and memory deficits, among many others. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe type of FASD and can cause mild to severe complications (Esper & Furtado, 2014).

Many risk factors are associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy. These include homelessness, substance abuse by a partner, and preconception alcohol abuse. Alcohol use before pregnancy is the biggest risk factor for maternal alcohol consumption (Esper et al., 2014). The solution to preventing FASD is the prevention of maternal alcohol consumption. Screenings can be useful tools for identification and treatment of women at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Examples of these include, brief interventions (Lacey, 2016), TWEAK, T-ACE, 4 P’s Plus, 5 P’s Behavioral Risk Screening Tool (5 P’s), Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) (O’Brien, 2013), and motivational interviewing (Wagner, Garbers, Lang, Borgert, & Fisher, 2016).

This paper will discuss FASD, the most prevalent risk factors for alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and possible solutions for preventing maternal alcohol consumption. Recommendations for implementation of the solutions to prevent maternal alcohol consumption will also be presented.

Literature Review

The research for this paper was obtained by selecting relevant peer-reviewed articles through the search engines EBSCOhost and Galileo. The following search terms were used: FASD, risk factors for maternal alcohol consumption, and prevention of maternal risk factors for maternal alcohol consumption. Selected literature was limited to articles had been published within the last five years and were peer-reviewed.

Risk factors for maternal consumption

Several categories of risk factors for maternal alcohol consumption were identified. They include demographic factors, family and social factors, and psychiatric factors. According to Michael Cannon et al. (2015), in any given one-month period around two-million non-pregnant women in the United States are at risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) and having a child born with an FASD. Many women who consume alcohol during pregnancy often do not know they are pregnant until after the alcohol may have already affected the child (Cannon et al., 2015).

E.L Abel and J.H. Hannigan proposed a model that divides the risk factors for FASD into two categories: permissive and provocative (Esper et al., 2014). Permissive factors can include stress, additive drugs, and low socioeconomic status, among others. These factors increase the vulnerability to ethanol, which is the teratogen in alcohol that can cross the placenta and harm the fetus. Provocative factors increase the susceptibility of the fetus to ethanol. Examples of provocative risk factors include hypoxia and malnutrition. The most prevalent risk factors that put women at risk for maternal alcohol consumption are low socioeconomic status, low education level, older maternal age, poor relationship with a partner, having a partner who abuses alcohol, experiencing an increased number of stressful events, maternal cognitive impairments, family members who abuse alcohol, having previously given birth to a child with FASD, and high level of alcohol consumption before pregnancy (Cannon et al., 2015; Esper et al., 2014; Murawski et al., 2015).

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe form of FASD and has characteristics that make it easier to diagnose than other forms of FASD (Murawski, Moore, Thomas & Riley, 2015). Characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome include growth retardation, central nervous system dysfunction, and craniofacial anomalies. Craniofacial anomalies related to FAS have a specific pattern, which include a low nasal bridge, abnormalities of the ears, epicanthal folds, a thin upper lip, flat midface, short palpebral fissure, wide space between the eyes, and a smooth philtrum (Murawski et al., 2015). Diagnosis of FAS is done by identifying these craniofacial anomalies in individuals, however many people do not exhibit these characteristics despite having FAS. Those who do not meet the criteria are considered to have ARND, which is harder to diagnose because of the lack of facial abnormalities. Diagnosis of ARND requires confirmation of maternal alcohol consumption by the birth mother. Since many children with FASD are in foster care or have been adopted diagnosis of ARND is difficult (Murawski et al., 2015).

Prenatal exposure of a fetus to alcohol depends on the timing of exposure, length of exposure, prenatal nutrition, maternal age, and other substance abuse (O’Brien, 2014). For example, consuming large quantities of alcohol at a fast rate is more likely to affect that fetus than consuming it at a slower rate (O’Brien, 2014). Studies have shown that nutritional deficiencies during pregnancy can cause the fetus to become more susceptible to alcohol exposure (Murawski et al., 2015) and that an older age of the mother has been shown to increase the risk of FASD compared with those of younger age during pregnancy (Esper et al., 2014).

Prevention of maternal risk factors

Several screenings and treatments exist that can be performed to identify women at risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) (O’Brien, 2014) as well as to help treat those at risk.  The SBIRT, 4 P’s Plus, and 5 P’s can reduce continued use of alcohol while TWEAK and T-ACE identify alcohol consumption, risky alcohol consumption, and current consumption (O’Brien, 2014). Motivational interviewing is a treatment that can promote motivation to change behaviors (Wagner et al., 2016).

The SBIRT includes brief interventions and referral to treatment. Brief interventions are short interviews with clients with hope to help the client achieve moderate alcohol consumption that is not as hazardous to the fetus. The two types of brief interventions are the very brief intervention (VBI) and the extended brief intervention (EBI) (Lacey, 2016). The VBI consists of one five to 20-minute interview that provides information and advice to clients who are not directly seeking information and advice. The EBI consists of several 20 to 30-minute interviews that are geared towards clients seeking information and advice. Referral to treatment involves referring individuals at high risk for maternal drinking to an alcohol treatment program (Lacey, 2016).

The TWEAK and T-ACE screenings are used for identifying women at risk for maternal alcohol consumption. However, they are better for identifying heavy alcohol consumption rather than current alcohol consumption. The TWEAK screening is an acronym for questions regarding tolerance (T), worry (W), eye opener (E), amnesia (A), and cut down (K) (O’Brien, 2014). Tolerance questions ask how many alcoholic beverages the individual is able to hold, worry questions ask whether the individual has friends or family that have expressed their concerns about the alcohol consumption, eye opener questions ask whether the individual needs a drink of alcohol in the morning to wake up, amnesia questions ask if the individual has done anything while consuming alcohol that she does not remember, and cut down questions ask if the individual has the urge to cut down on alcohol consumption (O’Brien, 2014). The T-ACE screening asks questions about tolerance (T), how many people have annoyed the individual about drinking (A), cut down (C), and eye opener (E) (O’Brien, 2014).

The 4 P’s and 5 P’s screening tools are used to identify pregnant women at risk for alcohol consumption, and can be used to identify current alcohol consumption and drug abuse. The 4 P’s and 5 P’s screenings ask about a history of smoking, family drug abuse, friends with drug abuse issues or who have problems with the individual’s alcohol consumption, a partner with alcohol problems, difficulty with drugs and alcohol in the past, current alcohol consumption, emotional health, relationship violence, and any positive answers to friends or family having problems with drugs or alcohol (O’Brien, 2014).

Motivational interviewing has been shown to increase the motivation of individuals to cope with their problem. Motivational interviewing can be used with both women who are pregnant or non-pregnant and males. This method incorporates open-ended questions that are client-centered to help the client identify and acknowledge that he or she has an issue with alcohol or drugs. The client controls the conversation, and decides how and when to change his or her behaviors. (Wagner et al., 2016).


According to Peggy O’Brien (2014), SBIRT is not consistently used because health care providers do not have the knowledge to implement this tool, they lack sufficient time, and they have misperceptions about women consuming alcohol. Health care providers are also concerned about not being reimbursed for screening pregnant women about their use of alcohol. To increase the use of SBIRT, performance measures were proposed, including comparing the number of pregnant women screened during their first prenatal visit and all pregnant women seen for their first prenatal visits as well as comparing pregnant women who received a brief intervention or referral to treatment and all pregnant women seen for their first prenatal visit (O’Brien, 2014). Jo Lacy (2016) discussed using brief interventions for pregnant women to help them overcome alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Brief interventions help the individual become motivated to decrease their alcohol consumption by changing their behavior (Lacy, 2016).

Andrew Wagner et al. (2016), discussed the use of SBIRT as well as motivational interviewing, but not specifically in regards to pregnant women. According to Wagner et al. (2016), individuals are motivated to overcome their alcohol consumption and are able to acknowledge that their alcohol consumption is connected with social and physical problems. Evidence-based practice suggests that patients are more engaged when the interviews are patient-centered and the use of open-ended questions are used to allow the patient to open up about his or her feelings (Wagner et al., 2016).

Maternal risk factors and FASD are discussed by Cannon et al. (2015), Esper et al. (2014), and Nathan Murawski et al. (2015). The articles listed the most prevalent risk factors for consuming alcohol during pregnancy as well as other risk factors. The other risk factors were not mentioned in every article and included, being single during pregnancy, being less religious, pregnant more than three times, living in a rural area, and beginning drinking at an early age, other children with FASD, use of tobacco and other drugs during pregnancy, fewer prenatal appointments, and complications during previous pregnancies or miscarriages (Esper et al., 2014). These risk factors can all interact to cause a higher risk of consuming alcohol pregnancy, which causes an increased risk for having a child with FASD (Esper et al., 2014).

According to Murawski et al. (2015), studies suggest that women who consume alcohol during pregnancy have nutritional deficiencies. Nutritional deficiencies can lead to abnormal development of the fetus during pregnancy and this lack of nutrients can cause the fetus to be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol. Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy can help reduce the effects of alcohol. However, studies suggest that even small amounts of alcohol can cross the placenta and cause damage to the fetus. Therefore, alcohol should be avoided altogether during pregnancy (O’Brien, 2014).


Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a group of major health problems that can be prevented and maternal alcohol consumption can be treated if caught before it causes any harm to the fetus. The timing of interventions to prevent adverse effects of maternal alcohol consumption is crucial to prevent harm to the fetus and mother. Screenings, including SBIRT, TWEAK, and T-ACE, are reliable evidenced-based tools that can be used to screen women for alcohol consumption risk and their level of alcohol consumption (O’Brien, 2014; Lacey, 2016). These screenings should be used more often and at every first prenatal visit to help reduce the occurrence of maternal alcohol consumption and FASD. Those at risk can be identified through these screenings and can be referred to treatment programs (Lacey, 2016). Screening women who are intending to become pregnant should also be performed to assess risk factors that can put them at a higher risk for maternal alcohol consumption.


The articles selected for this research paper thoroughly discussed the risks of alcohol consumption by pregnant women, non-pregnant women, and women who had intentions of becoming pregnant. They compared the results and determined risk factors for maternal drinking as well as tools that can be used to help the women recognize and acknowledge their problem. The authors made recommendations as to how health care providers can increase their use and knowledge of tools, such as SBIRT, TWEAK, and T-ACE in order to provide quality care to women who are at risk for alcoholism or who are currently drinking.


The article by Andrew J. Wagner et al. (2016) was written about the general population instead of just women and non-pregnant women. Although the tools can also be used to treat alcohol consumption in the general population, the focus of this paper was on alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Many health care providers are not implementing SBIRT, TWEAK, and T-ACE, which results in a lack of research regarding the success of these tools. Limited research has been done on the interactions of the risk factors and how they all contribute to an maternal alcohol consumption. Many women do not report their use of alcohol and health care providers do not know how to bring up the use of alcohol, which contributes to the lack of implementing the tools that can be used to help these women.


This research has yielded a number of recommendations. Recommendations include the promotion of the use of SBIRT at every first prenatal visit and the use of TWEAK and T-ACE is implemented if SBIRT shows signs of a high risk for maternal alcohol consumption. Lack of knowledge of these tools and how to implement them is one of the main barriers to increasing the use of these tools. Studies should be conducted that evaluate the interactions of the risk factors in the development of maternal alcohol consumption and FASD. Comparing the results of these studies could lead to interventions to help prevent the development of the risk factors associated with maternal alcohol consumption. More education regarding alcohol and its effects on the fetus should be provided to women who intend to become pregnant because many women continue to drink until they know they are pregnant. Alcohol can affect the fetus in the first weeks of life and can cause irreversible damage during those weeks. Those who intend to become pregnant should stop drinking alcohol to prevent risk of damage to the fetus. Many women use this time to stop risky behaviors and become more aware of their risky behaviors. This heightened awareness can be used to help encourage women to stop drinking and provide assistance to those who need it.


The purpose of this research paper was to identify risk factors associated with FASD and to describe interventions that can be used to help prevent the risk factors. The most prevalent risk factors included poverty, homelessness, substance abuse by the partner, and preconception alcohol use with alcohol use before pregnancy being the biggest risk factor for maternal alcohol consumption (Cannon et al., 2015; Esper et al., 2014; Murawski et al., 2015).  The literature cited in this paper determined that several screening methods can be used to identify the risk of consuming alcohol during pregnancy and the level of drinking during pregnancy. Maternal alcohol consumption screenings are not performed in many cases. Educating health care workers in preventative screening techniques has the potential to greatly reduce the number of cases of FASD. By providing screenings at every prenatal visit identification of those at risk can help to target preventative measures at those in need. This will help to decrease the prevalence of maternal alcohol consumption and FASD.


Cannon, M., Guo, J., Denny, C., Green, P., Miracle, H., Sniezek, J., & Floyd, R. (2015). Prevalence and Characteristics of Women at Risk for an Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: Estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(4), 776-782. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1563-3

Esper, L., & Furtado, E. (2014). Identifying maternal risk factors associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(10), 877-889. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0603-2

Lacey, J. (2016). Reducing alcohol harm: Early intervention and prevention. Community Practitioner, 89(2), 26-29. Retrieved from

Murawski, N. J., Moore, E. M., Thomas, J. D., & Riley, E. P. (2015). Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 37(1), 97-108.

O’Brien, P. (2014). Performance Measurement: A Proposal to Increase Use of SBIRT and Decrease Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 18(1), 1-9. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1257-2

Wagner, A. J., Garbers, R., Lang, A., Borgert, A. J., & Fisher, M. (2016). Increasing Follow-up Outcomes of At-Risk Alcohol Patients Using Motivational Interviewing. Journal Of Trauma Nursing, 23(3), 165-168. doi:10.1097/JTN.0000000000000200



Product/Service Launch Strategy and Planning

Product/Service Launch Strategy and Planning


Noble and Durmusoglu (2015) explain that it is imperative for businesses to integrate Operations Management. The concept determines market quality and product standards. While different factors affect an organization, products developed by the firm must meet customer needs while aligning with market standards. In this regard, launching a new product or service in the market must consider market needs, availability of resources, and problems that the product will solve in the market. Moreover, product development strategy and marketing are vital components of consideration (Noble & Durmusoglu, 2015). This report is developed to pitch a new product for Adam Burke and PBM Plastics that the company can introduce on their list for improved sustainability to meet consumer needs. The study provides a detailed process of product development, design Gantt chart to be used in product development, and describe critical stakeholders involved in manufacturing of the product pitched. The document concludes with a summary of the significant facts deliberated in the report.

Rationale for the Case Selection

PBM Plastics is a company that works under the industrial sector to manufacture rubber and plastic goods. The firm was founded in the year 2000. Its line of business engages in manufacturing of plastic and laminated coated bags.The selected organization has its base on the production of products that targets tender aged children. While many firms provide similar products and services, Adam Burke and PBM Plastics target a specific segment of consumers. The primary product development goals purposes to find remedy to problems faced by customers (Noble & Durmusoglu, 2015). The aim is to ensure that challenges are solved efficiently. An additional primary rationale for selecting this case is due to the products developed by the firm directed towards babies. Moreover, despite the company targeting these specific children, products designed by the firm need improvement. The said organization is selected because products intended are helpful in not only meeting consumer demands and needs, but also in ensuring that the specific segment enshrining children has products that improve their wellness and beauty. In this regard, the product to pitch to the company will meet and align with the strategies and product development approaches without incurring huge costs. Moreover, the product will conform to the firm’s culture that purposes to solve consumer problems thereby making the organization competitive in the market (Saladis & Kerzner, 2009).

Description for the New Product

Children at tender ages require feeding from their parents or other guardians mandated by the parents to guard and care for the child. While feeding, it is almost impossible that these children will fail to dirt themselves with food they eat. In this regard, the new product proposed for Adam Burke and PBM Plastics to integrate into their production is the Disposable Baby Bibs. The baby bibs are garments worn on the neck. It prevents clothes from being dirty while eating. These collars also protect children from getting messy spills on their chests. However, majority of the napkins are not disposable as the material used to develop them is cloth. Disposing off these disposable baby bibs will save mothers from carrying huge luggage thereby reducing overall load for parents (Saladis & Kerzner, 2009).Moreover, disposing of these products will not harm the environment. It will maintain, conserve, and observe the firm’s social corporate responsibility positively.

Using the baby bibs will help children remain clean and free from dirt caused by food spills. The said product aligns with production of disposable feeding bottles developed by the firm. In this regard, customers are most likely going to purchase both the disposable feeding bottle and the disposable baby bibs, hence improving the overall revenue base for the company. Moreover, the disposable baby bibs will act as complementary for the disposable drinking bottles, which were previously developed by the company, thereby ensuring that customers will purchase the given two products to complement each other. In addition, product marketing will be undertaken under one umbrella since salespersons will target the same segment of consumers for similar purposes. Product marketing approach will hence incur less expenses and increase firm’s profitability. According to Saladis and Kerzner(2009), the strategy will, therefore, improve the overall company profit margins.

Problem Solved or Opportunities Embraced

The problem noted in children’s feeding is playing while eating. Some of the tender age kids desist from eating. Therefore, feeding them is undertaken forcefully. In the process of feeding these babies, it is impossible that the meals will not spill to the kids. Therefore, introduction of the new product, that is, disposable baby bibs, will help solve this particular problem. Two different scenarios are of crucial interest in the solution provided. One of these situations is when children are left home to be fed, or are learning how to feed themselves. In this process, children always spill food on their clothes thereby dirtying them. For instance, children play while eating and in the course of their playing bump into meals which dirty children clothes. This is a major challenge that parents contend. The pitched product will help avert this problem since the bibs would prevent meals from dropping on baby’s clothes. In light of this, mothers will have less laundry to deal with especially if they are busy parents. Caretakers left with children will have ample time feeding the children without fear of meals spilling on their clothes and spoiling them.

The second scenario applies to parents who choose to take their children along with them on journeys or work. With the disposable baby bibs, it is possible to feed children and ensure that their clothes remain clean. Parents can dispose of these baby bibs efficiently. For instance, while traveling or on occasion, being presentable is paramount. For children at tender ages, their presentation is also outstanding. The disposable baby bibs will keep the children’s eating behavior on check and maintain their presentation aspect. Moreover, since this product is compatible with disposable feeding bottles that the company already manufactures, customers will find this new product useful. Customers will experience the practical use of the said product when the babies feed. This is another reason that qualifies development of this new company’s product (Saladis & Kerzner, 2009).

How the Product fits with the Company’s Culture and Competitive Marketplace

Adam Burke and PBM plastics plan to penetrate the market with development of disposable children feeding bottles. These bottles target specific markets involving children who require feeding. In this line, the developed merchandise will target the same market for disposable feeding bottles. The disposable baby bibs will help to reduce dirt spills affecting kid clothes. They are considered as complementary products to disposable feeding bottles. Customers purchasing the disposable feeding bottles may thus choose the additional product and therefore increase revenues gained through selling the said products. Moreover, the firm will benefit from spending less while marketing the two products since the product’s marketing, targeting, segmentation, and positioning will be similar. The undertakings can be executed under one umbrella, consequently increasing company profit margins (Saladis & Kerzner, 2009).

On the other hand, the firm’s culture purposes to develop products that solve problems faced by consumers of a given segment. For instance, the disposable feeding bottles help solve the children’s problem where toddlers lack specific drinking items. The products are custom designed to meet customer needs. Through the approach that entails developing such bottles, children will not only use them to drink, but will also serve as play toys and learning tools to educate children on how to hold such items, thereby improving their cognitive growth aspect. Children, therefore, develop their abilities and physical skills, which fosters growth. In light of this information, introduction of disposable baby bibs will serve a similar purpose in the market, thus aligning correctly with organization culture.

Competitively, disposable baby bibs will reach out to broader markets and efficiently compete with few vendors of the same and similar products. This is because few companies manufacture disposable baby bibs. Therefore, competition is anticipated to be slight relative to other baby products such as diapers (Saladis & Kerzner, 2009). The product, therefore, will reach many consumers and solve problems faced by many parents while feeding their children. Moreover, the children’s parents benefit from product development. A high likelihood exists that product reception by parents will be positive. In this regard, the product will provide a new competitive force in the market to other firms offering similar products and ensure that Adam Burke and PBM plastics gains a competitive advantage over the market for related products.

Proposed Approach to the Product Development

The proposed product development approach will be affected through integration of technology and clothing design. Nanotechnology will be combined with design of clothing to foster development of the bib and ensure that it conforms to the market standards and meets quality desired by the company. Employed technology will involve Nanotechnology and microstructures to absorb liquids. These two aspects are essential. Notably, due to the small nature of elements, they can be integrated in the disposable baby bibs easily.

Technology will be employed to incorporate and embed microstructures in the baby bibs capable of absorbing liquids and molecules at a fast rate. Nanotechnology will be useful in ensuring the developed disposable baby bibs are capable of manipulating the particles of atoms to provide garment dryness. According to Saladis and Kerzner, (2009), nanotechnology is essential and appropriate in developing these disposable baby bibs due to their tiny sizes.

The neck section of the disposable baby bib will be designed to have some padding around to give the child ample time while eating without chocking. However, it is to be filled with a stretching material, loosely tightened to fit many sizes of children’s different necks, hence targeting a broader segment. An essential aspect of the product development strategy will be the design of prototypes to be reviewed, tested and feedback gained from potential customers. According to Bushnell, Drucker, Abell, and Hammond, (2015), prototypes refer to products which are in design phase that have been developed and found to meet specific product standards produced, but lack final touches. They are adopted to understand how the product will function, their overall outline, the look and feel of the same. During production stage, feedback from consumers is imperative. The initiative helps meet customer needs and requirements. Moreover, the product rapid development will be imperative to ensure that the product reaches intended customers at the fastest time possible. However, quality standards are to be considered in the process (Noble & Durmusoglu, 2015).

The product development project will be handled in small bits, with each of these little amounts of work done on the product being tested and evaluated for effectiveness of the product itself. Production is to be divided into different sections from gathering raw materials, technology and personnel to work on the product, designing baby bibs structure and prototype development. The prototype will be availed to customers purposely to solicit insights on the same and recommend any changes that clients would feel are essential to the product. Further, after the feedback, product development will ensue. After prototype reviewing by customers and feedback incorporation in the development, waterfall-methodology will be adopted in product manufacturing. Prototypes will be designed in large quantities. Ultimately, actual disposable baby bibs will be manufactured from the prototypes.



Methodology and Planning

The prototypes will be used along with customers in the first phase to gain client feedback. However, the same will be developed later on to ensure realization of massive production approach. Accordingly, the production will match market baby bibs demands. This will also ensure that the company does not run into operational loses based on overproduction. At the same time, the approach will ensure that quality is maintained during manufacturing of the new product (Basu, 2016). The waterfall method will give the company an adaptive structure regarding market factors response. Therefore, the company will be in a position to provide customers with large quantities of products that meet quality standards set by the firm.


High-Level Planning Gantt chart


Key Stakeholders Involved in the Project

For the project to integrate the baby bibs, key stakeholders will be incorporated in the process. The purpose of the stakeholders will be to ensure that product development and launch within the company is successful and meets all intended needs. These stakeholders are described below.


Customers are of crucial importance to the company’s product pitching. Customers have the choice to use disposable baby bibs or other excellent alternatives. While the product is under development, customers will play a significant role in the prototype phase where by providing recommendations on the prototype and feedback of what should be adjusted on the same. Similarly, customers will help understand and effect baby bibs sizes, colors and materials to use in developing the products. In this regard, customers will be key stakeholders in product pitching.

Sales Team

The sales team will be involved in later stages when the product has already been developed and introduced to the market. However, the team will provide regional and local customer requirements, reasonable baby bibs prices, and variations to include in the rates. On the other hand, they will ship back feedback from customers after providing the product in the market. The input will be useful in deciding the changes needed to fit the product with specific customer needs. Moreover, the sales teams help gain information from potential customers concerning product prototype. In this regard, the sales team will be key stakeholders in product pitching.

Marketing Team

According to Noble, and Durmusoglu, (2015), the marketing team is also a key stakeholder in the project. The purpose of the marketing team is to segment the market and potential consumers. Moreover, they will engage in market analysis to understand nature of competition for disposable baby bibs, technology used in these napkins and how the market fairs regarding prices and product requirements. Information obtained from the marketing team will be integrated in project development. It will ensure that the product meets customer demands. In this regard, the marketing team will be key stakeholders in product pitching.


Company management will play an imperative role in the product development and launch within the firm. The team will assist in defining the strategy to initiate the project within the company and provide the plan to integrate disposable baby bibs with required resources. Moreover, the firm’s management will provide machinery, finances, and space to ensure the product is fully developed and integrated within the company. In this regard, the administration will be critical stakeholders in the pitching of the product.

Consumer Research Team

The consumer research team will play an integral role in the pitching of the product. While they will assist internally to provide relevant information, externally, they will interact with consumers and specifically children parents to understand kids feeding habits (Noble, & Durmusoglu, 2015). The consumer behavior team will provide significant information to help the group understand why the consumers need baby bibs, the different sizes required and other related information. In this regard, the consumer research team will be key stakeholders in the pitching of the product.

Project Manager

The project manager will play a vital role in the development of the product until its launching phase. While the management will deal in sourcing the resources required for the product to be developed, it is imperative that project manager deals with managing the said products (Noble, & Durmusoglu, 2015). The project manager is mandated to assign roles to workers recruited in product manufacture, assign different groups with different tasks, and analyze timelines for project completion. In this regard, their input into the project is crucial and hence will be considered internal key stakeholders.


Investors are critical stakeholders in the project following multiple reasons. First, they will aid in financing the product development through collaboration with management to provide funds and other required resources. However, their fundamental interest will be on profit margins (Noble, & Durmusoglu, 2015). They will anticipate a gain on a given amount of the overall disposable baby bibs. The input from their end will ensure that the product is successful and earns from the same if and when the disposable baby collars sell in the market. Therefore, they will be key stakeholders in the product development and launching.


Operations management often calls for alignment of products and organization cultures. As a company that manufactures disposable bottle liners, Adam Burke and PBM plastics can add to its new product repertoire disposable baby bibs. The new product will be compatible to what the company already produces and therefore, will likely perform better in the markets. The methodology that fits best the development of new product is an the waterfall approach based on dividing the workflow of the project in smaller series that are to be managed by specific teams over specified timelines. This implies that product development will start with manufacturing of different prototypes, which will then be used to create a framework for bibs mass production. Product development project will be handled in small bits, with each of these little amounts of work done on the product being tested and evaluated for the effectiveness of the product itself. As discussed, production would be divided into different sections from gathering the raw materials, technology and personnel to work on the product, designing baby bibs structure and prototype development. The firm purposes to benefit from spending less while marketing the two products since the marketing, targeting, segmentation, and positioning would be similar. The above has unraveled that the activities can be executed under one umbrella to increase company profit margins.


Basu, R. (2016). Implementing six sigma and lean. Place of publication not identified: Routledge.

Bushnell, N., Drucker, P. F., Abell, D. F., & Hammond, J. S. (2015). Business Planning and Market Strategy in a Nutshell. From

Noble, C. H., & Durmusoglu, S. S. (2015). Design thinking: new product development essentials from the PDMA. John Wiley & Sons.

Saladis, F. P., & Kerzner, H. (2009). Bringing the PMBOK guide to life a companion for the practicing project manager. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.


health care

health care


It is important to note that healthcare reforms are available in the healthcare setting and they provide many opportunities and challenges to the nurses and their practices. Various fields of nursing are affected by these improvements either to improve the care delivered or to effect laws and strategies that are effective in caring for the patients. As such, all departments in any healthcare setting face these opportunities and challenges and ensure. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the feedback received from colleagues on the practice of nursing, its evolution and the delivery of care models available in the same.

Summary of the Feedback

Employment in acute care hospitals for nurses will be affected due to restructuring. The response from the nurses within the critical care setting, after reviewing the presentation, had some reactions towards the changes in health care delivery reforms. The employment opportunities for nurses will be grown, and also nurses will be more equipped and become challenging with this health care delivery reform. The new roles will emerge as home care nurses, Independent nurse practitioner, Nurse Educator, Nurse clinician, Public health care nurse, resulting in the growth of the nursing scope of practice.

Medical insurance:

Reforms by the United States government are directed towards increasing the access to healthcare services at a lower price and with ease. According to Treston, (2013), the Affordable Care Act enacted by President Obama is one of the reforms which has improved access to healthcare services. Individuals can access healthcare services and thus improved medical outcomes for the patients. The responses from the colleagues indicated that these medical insurance policies have led to better healthcare delivery to the people, which results in better outcomes and improved health status of the population.

The feedback from the colleagues also provided various information concerning the impact of the medical insurances on the private market affects the indirect effects on health care premiers in the individual market. This healthcare cost is the cost burden for them. Since private hospitals will require higher charges for services provided to the patients due to the need to meet the expenses of the institution. The colleagues provide significant information that the insurances restrict the private healthcare service delivery from reaching most of their needs and thus a restriction. Due to the restructuring of the health care system, it helps the individuals a great relief from the hospital billing and burden on the consumer.

Independent decisions:

One of an essential reform is that of nurse advocacy. The colleagues indicate that the nurse advocacy is the authority of nurses to make independent decisions concerning the patient and some of their activities, and can only be influenced by the needs and preferences of the patients. Nurses can be able to take some decisions independently to protect the life of the patient. In the outreach, the more accessible practitioner will be the nurse. She can act as a consultant like incontinence, home parenteral nutrition, among others. The nurse can advocate for patient needs to ensure their development and recovery is effective for faster improvement to be released from the hospital much quicker (Haney, 2010).

The Continuum of Care for the nurses is also one of the most practical aspects that provides the nurses with more responsibilities and authorities. According to, (2014), the nurses are given the responsibility of not only caring for the patient but also for their families for efficient, especially in religious beliefs. As such, it is essential for the nurses to undertake their practice within the healthcare setting in a proper manner since it ensures the patient’s needs are efficiently met.

My colleague nurses indicate that the nurse-managed clinics are among essential service centers that nurses can engage with. They suggest that the nurses have the mandate to practice their care with minimum interference from other professionals, and are also responsible for ensuring the decision they make are independent and can benefit the patients positively.


It is important to note that healthcare reforms are available in the healthcare setting and they provide many opportunities and challenges to the nurses and their practices. Various fields of nursing are affected by these improvements either to improve the care delivered or to effect laws and strategies that are effective in caring for the patients. Employment in acute care hospitals for nurses will be affected due to restructuring. The response from the nurses within the critical care setting, after reviewing the presentation, had some reactions towards the changes in health care delivery reforms. One of an essential improvement is that of nurse advocacy. The colleagues indicate that the nurse advocacy is the authority of nurses to make independent decisions concerning the patient and some of their activities, and can only be influenced by the needs and preferences of the patients.


Haney, C. (2010, June). New Care Delivery Models in Health System Reform: Opportunities for Nurses & their Patients. ANA Issue Brief, 1-7. Retrieved from, (2014). Nurse Managed Health Centers (NMHCs) | RWJF Initiative on the Future of Nursing. Available at:

Treston, C. (2013). Nurses and the Affordable Care Act. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 24(5), pp.391-392.


Power of Diversity

Power of Diversity

Part one:  End of Chapter Questions

Four facts from the chapter that you would utilize in your presentation

1        Changing Demographic Profile in the United States: The changes in the demographic composition in the united states has called for provision of equal chances as the level of education, skills and other aspects are increasing all over the nation and therefore sourcing for the best would call inclusion of all the people through open interviews and therefore handpicking the best to mark an impact in the company.

2        Increasing influence of women: Women have increased dedication and claimed equal rights in the business world by proving what a man can do they can also do it. This has led to them occupying huge positions and managing big companies and therefore including them in the company’s structure would transform its performance.

3        Discrimination in the workplace: The level of discrimination has continues registering a huge percentage all over the world and withy the need to equally treat all the people and giving them equal opportunities the need to consider diversity in the workplace is vital.

4        Business growth issues that are associated with diversity in the workplace: Diversity has registered a positive growth as the relationship and the interaction maintained in the company has led to increased innovation and therefore opening chances for organizations to grow. This is because there are divers ideas presented and therefore making it easy to harmonize them and come up with the best way out.

Flesh colored Band-Aids product sold by corporations and message the customers get when the companies diversify

Diversification leads to opening of better market chances as well as neutralizing the risk. For companies who sell a single flesh colored Band-Aid product means that market failure of that product would lead to incur huge losses which would call for liquidation of the company to totally diversifying to produce other products. Having a more diverse line of flesh colored Band-Aids mean that they enlarge their market and also they give their customer varieties to choose from this therefore means that they have a chance to even expand the market and suit customer needs in terms of color tastes and preferences.

What are four specific demographic shifts as it relates to race/ethnicity and women that indicate the U.S. workplace is becoming more diverse.

1        Increasing influence of women I workplace

2        Increase in more people of color

3        Diverse religions in the United States

4        The language

What are four specific demographic shifts as it relates to age, disability and or religion that indicate the U.S. workplace is becoming more diverse.

1        Increased youth employment

2        Provision for slots for disabled people in government positions

3        Opening church to leadership positions

4        Not influencing the church with political affairs


Purchasing power of people of color and the importance of this information in workplace and handling the employees and customers diversity

The purchasing power of Hispanic/Latino stands at 1.2 trillion.  Knowing the information about the b purchasing power of people of color would change the view they have in that as much as they have a major influence on the economy they also need to be included in the job opportunities and the nation building programs. Ensuring that there is diversity and including all the people in the program would help ensure that they feel valued and therefore this cloud also increase their openness and the purchasing power.

Now answer the following six questions

Formula for success

The formula of diversity has greatly changed. It no longer just considers creation of heterogeneous workforce but it focus on use of the workforce to create products, services, and  business practices that can be give a company a competitive advantage in the market. To succeed having a diverse market makes the company will inclusive as the competition is global and therefore this gives a platform for showing diverse ideas which translate to acceptance and recognition I the global market.

Mattel’s employee resource groups and how they drive innovation

Women and other minority groups are the Mattel’s resource groups and they help drive innovation through defining products that work for their demographic regions and providing other variable insights into the market they reflect. They also help the company avoid making embarrassing and costly mistakes in the market.

Top five recruiting sources for attracting talent

  • Being reflective of the talent in that market
  • Employee outreach efforts
  • Forge long-standing relationships with universities to tap into talent
  • Use of vendors to reach broad variety of talent
  • Training the talent available to effectiveness
  1. L’Oréal USA Harnessing Employee’s Diverse Perspectives for Innovation perspective helped this organization do “what” in their product line?

L’Oréal USA helped the organization in research and innovation through creation of products that addresses multitude of customer’s concerns while also building communities with diverse populations. Building of customer brands and offerings cater for certain ethnic groups.

My opinion about L’Oréal USA contribution

To my opinion it was successful and maintaining the past, present and also going for additional future customers help in expanding the organization and putting it in a competitive advantage as compared to other companies in the same industry.

Groups targeted by Americas, EMEA, Asia Pacific and the areas that need to be improved

The major groups in Figure 8 targeted by Americans, EMES and Asia Pacific are nationality, sex orientation, disability, age, race/color, ethnicity/national origin and gender. Some of the top areas of improvement are the disability, sexual orientation and nationality issues. The above mentioned areas of improvement register the lowest number of groups considered in all the nations. America registers 46% disability, 42% sexual orientation and 38% on nationality considerations. EMEA on the other hand registers 69% disability, 45% sexual orientation and 28% nationality considerations. Asia Pacific also shows 42% disability 29%sexual orientation, 68% nationality considerations. The reason as to why I choose this is because in totality they are the one registering smaller percentage in the whole category.

Part two: End of Exercise

Why comfy diversity programs are a missed opportunity

Comfy diversity programs are only hold to compliance reasons and they only comply with the lay or show that the companies value the law. This however doesn’t exhaustively bring out the best benefits of diversity in the workplace. In diversity management a company should be in a position to link the managers and the employees and ensure that they have a positive relationship one that is geared towards improving the performance of the company. This however is not shown in the comfy programs but they are just a waste of money as they do not cover the specific purpose they are meant to cover.

A well-coordinated comfy program should ensure that all the people have equal opportunities and that they are well represented instead of saying that we should be colorblind and not practically implementing that in the work environment. Ensuring that there are equal chances and that all diverse groups are represented in the company’s workplace goes a long way and it is easier said than done. Most company claim to maintain diversity but the standards are still low as some of the issues like the racial discrimination and the gender balance in the work place is not observed.

Part three: Power of Diversity

Diversity is the state of being or the condition of being or composed of different elements. Some of the parameter that shows diversity are age, race, ethnicity, gender, language, physical ability religion, marital status, values, skills, job levels, sex orientation, experience, education and many others. An example of the level of influence a certain group can have is the level of expenditure in the global economy. According to Groschl and Institut catholique de Paris (2016) women control $12 trillion of the overall $18.4 trillion global consumer spending. This, therefore, means that women have a great significance in making major economic decisions as a small shift of this would adversely affect the level of spending and therefore leading to economic downfall globally.

Different groups rule a certain segment of the market and this explains the market segmentation in the today’s economy. Most of the businesses succeed in because they study their past, present and target market and therefore developing the ability to diversify their products to incorporate all the diverse people in the market. The major goal of diversity in the workplace is incorporate people from all walks of life with a different personality but who are geared towards the same objectives and that is the objective of the company. The major objective of any organization is to profit maximization at the lowest cost possible. The different people incorporated in the organization bring about diverse ideas which are streamlined and implemented leading to the growth and other advancement of the organization.

There are facts that I would utilize to convince workforce of managers and power players that diversity is important and that if the company wants to increase the sales, it can do so by hiring new groups and representing the market needs.

The differences that are incorporated in the work environment that is the diversity brings about the difference in the way the business presents itself in the world and therefore the level of acceptance it gains globally (Thomas, 2015). This all tribes and other diverse groups are represented and therefore acting as a way of giving back to the society through giving them jobs which is later reciprocated in accepting the business and hence increasing the company sales.

Diversity also increases the behavior that leads to better performance as it amplifies creativity and problem-solving (Thomas, 2015). In diverse organizations, there are high levels of employee’s engagement, and this leads to increased productivity which directly translates to profitability. This would in return lead to high sales as the seriousness and healthy competition in the workplace is maintained.

A diverse workforce also overcomes the groupthink issue the draws the company backward. In the workplace, a 1% increase in racial or gender diversity leads to 3% to 9% increase in sales representatively (Bertelsen, 2011). People from a similar background are expected to raise common solutions as they have a shared experience. Diverse groups bring about different ideas which are shared among the members and therefore expanding their ways of thinking. Thinking outside the box and having different views of ideas from different people stimulates innovation and hence market growth.

Diversity helps the company to connect better with the consumers as one wrong word in the sales business can kill the business and therefore it needs different people to approach different customers and positively drive the chat (Thomas, 2015). It is important for the sales team to understand the different lifestyles and the cultures of their customers for effective excellence in the market.


Bertelsen, B. (2011). Everything you need to know about the importance of diversity in the workplace.

Groschl, S., & Institut catholique de Paris. (2016). Diversity in the workplace: Multi-disciplinary and international perspectives. London: Routledge.

Thomas, K. M. (2015). Diversity dynamics in the workplace. Australia: Thomson/Wadsworth.



Endpoint Protection

Endpoint Protection


The internet has been a rich source of different kinds of information for businesses in today’s business world. Such rich access has brought with it many challenges associated with cyber-attacks. Businesses have been grumbling with these challenges as they endeavour to preserve their businesses information systems integrity. It is imperative that a business entity employs proactive measures and remain vigilant for these cyber threats. Cyber threats can either be internally or externally manifested (Keeris, 2014). External attacks include the activities of parties with no interest in the organization or working for it, who have intentions of corrupting the firm’s information systems and database.

Internal attacks are manifested internally and they happen to be the most fatal irrespective of whether they happened intentionally or by mistake. Internal attacks may prove difficult to identify and in most cases, they are detected when an attack is already underway because they are usually associated to betrayal of trust (Firstbrook et al, 2009). Identity management and administration tools are very useful with regard to controlling the endemic that is internal and external intrusion. As a branch in identity management, end point protection ensures that only the persons with the proper privileges and authority which has also been properly acquired and granted can be able to access the firm’s computers, network environment and databases.

These protocols ensure that only the right people and for the right reasons have the capability of gaining access to restricted segments. end point protection protocols ensure that the right technology is applied for various business environments and in line to the set trade rules and regulations.

The EMC (RSA Aveksa)

Features, Capabilities and Deficiencies.

The EMC (RSA Aveksa) was chosen as the most plausible end to end protection tool after conduction a comprehensive search of the best end to end protection systems and software in the market today. Being a product of the EMC company, it was found to offer the best protection solutions compared to its peers in the market. This decision was aided by the good rating RSA Aveksa received in the latest release of the Gartner’s Magic Quadrant listing where it was identified as a global leader. Gartner’s analysis focuses on the primary components that have gradually lifted the competitive advantage of the brand in the computer security market. these features include the

Access Request control features and the Access Fulfilment Express (AFX).  The Express Fulfilment Express facilitates formulation of an internal control and integration policy of a business and business logical procedures by consolidating them in a cohesive organizational formation that can be easily audited and managed. Its features allow the business to take over control of its endpoints and be able to manage how, when and for what purpose the users can have access to the computer environment. AFX allows the business to achieve these security standards without interfering with the daily operations of the business.

Application of the tool

Securing Access

Where RSA Aveksa has been successfully installed, the users can be guaranteed of a secure log in into their workstations and the internet. RSA Aveksa has several endpoint protections features that perform identification and authentication procedures on all users intending to access the system. These features make RSA Aveksa an enterprise grade, consistent and central, end point protection and authentication tool. RSA Aveksa utilises such authentication techniques such as OTP, push messages, SMS, Biometrics and other hardware and software tokens to protect all computer and network end points.

End point protection

RSA Aveksa simplify the whole approach towards endpoint protection and management lifecycle. It has helped in the automation of several business management functions such as monitoring and supervision, preparing management reports and user identification and certification all aimed at ensuring that endpoint security is achieved and maintained as a continuous operation. It ensures that the deprovisioning, approval and fulfilment functions of the business are fully automated and are compatible with the existing policy requirements. while using this product, the security staff are provided with enough control over the security of the firm’s end point protection of its computers and computer network and any other electronic devices attached to them (Verma et al, 2012)


RSA Aveksa is a product that is considerably flexible and its features and capabilities offer protection to the company’s information systems in real-time. it allows the business to keep in touch with the peers in the market and remain relevant to competitors without compromising the integrity of its information systems (Yang et al, 2010)

User confidence

Having an end point protection software installed in a computing environment offers the user a sense of certainty and confidence that the information traffic and structures are safe from external intrusion.


To conclude, it’s my take that RSA Aveksa is one of the leading endpoint protection brands in the globe today. This is with regard to an evaluation based on the backdrop of the five pillars of information security. The brand has had a positive global impact in the world of computer and internet security, where it has been ticking all the right boxes by offering simplified endpoint protection solution. The product has been praised by the field experts for its ability to conduct authoritative end point protection without interfering with the normal business operations.


Firstbrook, P., Hallawell, A., Girard, J., & MacDonald, N. (2009). Magic Quadrant for Endpoint Protection Platforms. Gartner RAS Core Research Note G, 208912.

Keeris, P. J. C. (2014). Improving the boarding process of external insiders in large organisations (Master’s thesis, University of Twente)

Verma, S., & Singh, A. (2012, December). Data theft prevention & endpoint protection from unauthorized USB devices—Implementation. In Advanced Computing (ICoAC), 2012 Fourth International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.


master budget

master budget


The master budget refers to incorporation of various departmental budgets. It helps to ensure coordination, efficiency and consistency o all the departmental budgets. The departmental budgets on the other hand outlay the revenues and costs incurred by the particular departments. The components of the master budget include the sales budget, production budget, the direct materials budget, the direct labor budget, the factory overhead budget and the non-production budgets (Samuels, 2017).

Components of the master budget

Sales budget

It refers to a sales forecast the company expects in the coming budgeted period. The sales budget is divided into items, their respective quantities and amounts realized after sales.

Total budgeted sales = unit selling price (anticipated volume in units)

The sales budget is the most crucial element in the process of budgeting and carefulness and correctness should be prioritized in its preparation. All the parts of the master budget are dependent on the preparation of the sales budget. The units to be produced by the company depend on the market demand and the units already produced (Weygandt, 2015). If the budgeted sales are not exact and free from errors, the errors will be replicated in production. Therefore, the estimated units to be produced for the coming year will be incorrect.

The forecasted sales information derived from the sales budget figures directly affects the production budget as it helps derive the direct materials budgets and the direct labor budget. Management will also be able to forecast the production capacity required to enable optimized production and reduced production costs. Through proper estimation of the production capacity, managers will be able to formulate the overhead and selling and administrative expenses budget. All total sales contained in the sales budget will also be utilized by forwarding it to the revenue section of the master budget.

Production budget

Refers to a summary of the factors required to in the production process for the upcoming period.  When initiating the production budget, the budget committee needs to match it with the sales budget. Management needs to ensure that closing stocks are properly budgeted to help avoid maintaining high stock amounts in the organization. Proper budgeting for closing inventory will help minimize costs associated with holding (Weygandt, 2015).  Maintaining optimal stock levels will inhibit expenses associated with a shortage and unnecessary orders. The production budget contains unit amounts of various products to be produced. When creating the budget, one should consider the firms forecast on sales and plant capacity.

Direct Materials Budget

A direct materials budget refers to a detailed summary showing the forecasted volumes and costs associated with all the materials required in production. Therefore, the creation of the direct materials budget is dependent on the initiation of the production budget. The budget committee has to properly account for the raw materials required for production (Weygandt, 2015). It shows the materials required for production. It’s comprised of:

Direct material usage budget: outlays the forecasted volumes of raw materials required to initiate the budgeted production process.

Direct materials purchase budget: it helps maintain the materials within the required inventory levels. It is prepared after considering the material use and required units.

Direct labor budget

The direct labor budget is dependent on the estimated production budget. The production budget comes before the direct labor as it shows the estimated amount of labor time needed to avail the production process (Samuels, 2017). Management is thus able to note if they have adequate labor hours to enable production. Helps estimate its labor requirements and the costs to incur on the labor.

Direct labor cost budget=standard wage per hour (total number of hours)

Factory overhead budget

It is a detailed summary of all the forecasted costs except the direct ones associated with the organization. It shows all the estimates about production, fixed, variable and semi-variable overheads.

Nonproduction budgets

Sales and distribution cost budget

Sales and distribution cost budget refers to estimated costs on sales and distribution for the upcoming budgeted period (Samuels, 2017). It relates to the sales budget as it prioritizes on forecasted sales quantities for the coming operational period. The costs include sales staff remuneration, commission and publicity costs.

Administration costs budget

It incorporates all the costs that are not associated with production. The organizational functions prepare their budgets, and the costs contained include secretarial, management and administrative expenses (Samuels, 2017).

Research and development cost budget

The research cost budgets are prepared to help the company carry out market research to gain more insight on industrial performance. It helps the company initiate exploration and study to help meet its goals. On the other hand, the development cost is the cost associated with innovation to help improvise and improve the organization’s products and frameworks.

Cash budget

The cash budget outlays the forecasted cash flows in the organization for the budgeted period in various departments. It shows the cash expected to flow into and out of the various functions for the coming season of operation. The cash budget helps ensure cash availability and determine whether internal financing can be achieved. It also aids management can take advantage of short-term portfolios and evaluate staff performance (Samuels, 2017).

Importance of Master Budget to the Human Resource Department

The human resource department is responsible for staffing, recruitment and performance appraisal. The function utilizes various components in their daily operations. For instance, they utilize the cash budget in appraising the managers. High amounts of cash inflows during a certain operational period depict good performance, and high outflows declare poor funds management is showing low performance and accountability (Chenhall, 2015). They are thus able to promote or demote based on the figures. They also use the direct labor budget when carrying out recruitment to add labor amounts for production. The direct labor budget shows the labor hours needed in production, and thus they can calculate the number and skill sets required.

Effects of Conflict between the Human Resource and Master Budget

In case of any inconsistencies between the human resource budget and the master budget, the human resource department is likely to either over staff or under staff. They are likely to miscalculate the labor time and thus bring the wrong number of workers to the company. Understaffing means the production target will not be met and overstaffing means the company will incur higher labor costs through an increased number of ghost workers. Also, in case of conflict between the two budgets, the human resource department will have difficulties appraising the employees. The cash figures disagreeing poses difficulty in determining employees worthy of a promotion and those deserving demotion. Poor decision making at this level may initiate morale issues on staff (Chenhall, 2015).


Chenhall, R. H., & Moers, F. (2015). The role of innovation in the evolution of management accounting and its integration into management control. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 47, 1-13.

Samuels, J. A., & Sawers, K. M. (2017). SRS Educational Supply Company: An Instructional Budget Project. Issues in Accounting Education, 32(4), 51-59.

Weygandt, J. J., Kimmel, P. D., & Kieso, D. E. (2015). Financial & managerial accounting. John Wiley & Sons.


Strategic Planning and Budgeting

Strategic Planning and Budgeting

Relationship between strategic planning and budgeting

A business should have a strategic plan and a functional budget. This is because a strategic plan will help in out laying the goals of the business and how these goals can be achieved (Morden, 2016). On the other hand, budgeting is one of the processes of strategic planning which is associated with the money involved to achieve the set objectives and goals of the organization.

Roles of strategic planning

Providing direction for the organization

Strategic planning helps an organization determine what it wants to achieve, how it’s going to achieve it and the benefits of achieving the set purpose (Van Dooren, 2015). Here the organization aims to do the most right thing in order to achieve maximum results. Thus, all the activities that are going to be undertaken are going to be in line with the goals.

Helps in prioritization

A strategic plan helps an organization to be able to determine the most important activities that have to be carried out. The most viable priorities are those that lead to the achievement of the set goals. This is a focal point of any organization.


Helps in learning the organization

Through planning, an organization can learn about its strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities (Van Dooren, 2015). Organizational culture is hence followed to the latter since there is enough knowledge about the organization. In departments such as the human resource, there will be simplicity in operations. For example, the Hr Manager can be able to analyze employees and know the changes that can be made to ensure continued success for example training.

Getting better understanding of the outside world

Strategic planning gives a better view of the outside world. The methods used by competitors can be clearly outlaid and services offered can hence be matched with the customers. The hr department can be able to use information about the competitors in that it can also step up to the levels. For instance, knowledge about the motivation methods being used by competitors can be important in learning weaknesses (Snell, 2015).

Helps in spreading information

Strategic planning helps in collection and spreading of information which is helpful to the organization. The HR department can utilize information obtained to achieve its goals such as employee motivation.

Platform for new development

Strategic planning acts as a base for implementation of new ideas obtained. For example the HR department can adopt training methods. This will be helpful in the Long run achievement of goals.

Roles of budgeting

Minimizes wastage of resources

Budgeting helps organizations to prioritize on most important activities to be undertaken therefore wastage of resources is minimized (Storey, 2014). For example in the HR department, the compensation packages are well planned in that they are in line with the available financial resources.

Achievement of goals

Through budgeting, there is reduced wastage hence all the planned activities that are in line with achievement of long term goals are able to be fully supported (Van Dooren, 2015). For example, if the goal of the HR department is achievement of high skilled labor, then training which is essential in obtaining skilled labor is able to be fully funded through a clear budget.

Difference of strategic planning and budgeting

Strategic planning is the prior step to achieving goals of an objectives, which is, setting of intended actions through which a goal is achieved whereas budgeting is the utilization of finances and other resources in order to achieve the goal formulated in the strategic plan

For example in the hr department, the strategic plan can be achieving highly skilled labor. In budgeting, all resources will be aligned in that training can be enhanced in the organization in a way that highly skilled labor can be availed in the organization.

Types of Budgets

Cash budget

Cash budget is used to calculate roughly the amount of cash likely to be used to run an organization. This shows the preparedness of an organization (liquidity).

In the human resource department, a cash budget can be made in order to know the inflows that have been made and outflows such as any amounts that may have been given to the department by the accounting department (inflow) and that spent.


Operating budget

This can be used by the HR department to cater for all the expenses in the human resource department for example in buying stationery or lunch for the employees. May also include additions such as discounts received.

Flexible budget

This is the budget that can be manipulated with the occurrence of activities (Barr, 2018). For example in HR, where training which had not been earlier planned is done, there can be an addition to the budget. A flexible budget leaves room for change that had not been anticipated in the strategic plan.

Program budget

This is used budgeting for a specific program (Snell, 2015). For example, a training program set by the HR department.

Capital expenditure budget

This can be used to plan for long tern activities (Barr, 2018). It may be for a period of three to ten years. The HR department can for instance plan on reward packages every three years for their employees.





Barr, M. J., & McClellan, G. S. (2018). Budgets and financial management in higher education. John Wiley & Sons.

Snell, S. A., Morris, S., & Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing human resources. Nelson Education.

Storey, J. (2014). New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Morden, T. (2016). Principles of strategic management. Routledge.

Van Dooren, W., Bouckaert, G., & Halligan, J. (2015). Performance management in the public sector. Routledge.


criminal justice system

criminal justice system

Considering the goal of our criminal justice system hinges on equity and fairness, do you feel it is truly possible to achieve a balance between maintaining individual rights and personal freedoms with crime control? When considering this, place yourself in the shoes of a law enforcement officer who has to not only protect the community, but also ensure our rights are preserved at the same time. Explain your reasoning.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. References or citations are not necessary.

Considering the crime control and due process models of our criminal justice system, do you feel it is possible to achieve a balance (both a reliable and efficient criminal justice process) at the same time? When considering your explanation, remember the differing goals that encompass both models. Explain your reasoning.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

Many of the Supreme Court’s decisions have been controversial over the years, and some people feel that the Court is overstepping its authority and trying to rewrite laws. Do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Explain your reasoning. How do you feel the Court’s decisions affect the criminal justice system? When considering your entry, consider how the Courts can be influenced by personal or political agenda and how it can affect you as a citizen.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

As you have learned, sentencing plays a crucial role in the American criminal justice system. Without fair and equitable sentencing practices, every other element in the criminal justice process fails.

Considering the sentencing types we have examined, in your opinion, which one is most effective? Conversely, which type do you feel is the least effective? Explain your reasoning.

Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

As we have learned, the American correctional system is a critical element in the criminal justice process. Consider the role and the goals of our correctional system coupled with the rising inmate population, lack of funding, and lack of prison bed space that currently exist.
In your opinion, does the use of probation, parole, and community corrections seem to address the needs of our criminal justice system and provide a sound solution to such issues surrounding our correctional system? When considering your entry, remember that alternative sentencing still must serve as a deterrent. Explain your reasoning.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.


As you have learned, the American criminal justice system relies heavily on technology. One such technological tool that has become more prevalent in recent years is the use of body cameras for patrol officers.
In your opinion, does the use of body cameras help or hinder our law enforcement officers if an incident should occur? Do you feel the use of body cameras influences the behavior, in either direction, of the patrol officer? Put yourself in the shoes of an officer; how would the use of body cameras influence your behavior? Explain your reasoning.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.


As we have learned, the American criminal justice system has drastically changed in the wake of 9/11. We see a shift in all aspects of criminal justice where there is an evident link to homeland security.
In your opinion, how effective is community policing as it relates to domestic terror threats? Do you feel that such efforts to foster partnerships, build trust, and develop a rapport with the community are effective ways to combat terrorism within our communities? When considering your entry, think of the current domestic terror threat and how you could foster such relationships in the community to counter such threats as a law enforcement officer. Explain your reasoning.
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.


Discuss how you can apply the concepts learned in this course to your current or future career. How might the lessons you have learned positively affect your career success?
Your journal entry must be at least 200 words. No references or citations are necessary.

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