Author Archives: Gilbert Maina



Smoking in the united states


Epidemiology study the source, occurrence and the implication of diseases on a populace and the design. This documentation will scrutinize the chief role of epidemiology in preservative public health and will offer valued discernments when unindustrialized new medicine such as enlightening risk inspirations for a particular disease. In essence, this documentation will assess e-cigarette use and purpose to initiate or stop smoking among United States youths (Yean, Seo & Lin, 2015). This article evaluates whether there is any correlation between e-cigarettes use in United States youths and objective to smoke cigarettes amid youth alchemists and never-smoking minorities and also purpose to stop smoking amid current youth smokers.

According to Yean, Seo & Lin (2015), the 30-day occurrence of e-cigarettes in the US was approximately 8.7%, 16.2% and 17.1% amid 8th, ninth and 12th-grade schoolchildren. These figures surpassed conforming prevalence of tobacco cigarettes use that stood at 4.0%, 7.2% and 13.6% among the same populace. With this intense upsurge, e-cigarette use is quickly becoming a public health apprehension in the United States. Particularly whether or not the use of e-cigarettes is connected with the use of other tobacco products or tobacco termination.


Participants of the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey were a total of (N=20,193) categorized as never-smoking youths (n=16,238), current youth smokers (n=707) and youth experiments (16,238). Throughout the experiment, groups have been matched on the foundation of inclination score encompassing covariates expecting e-cigarette use. The hypothesis for this survey is establishing whether the use of e-cigarettes is correlated to the purpose to smoke amid youth experimenters and never-smoking youths and also the purpose to top smoking amongst existing youth chain-smokers (Yean, Seo & Lin, 2015).


Data that was used for this survey was recovered from the National Youth Tobacco Survey. The NYTS offers intuitive info on tobacco use performances, tobacco-related attitudes and beliefs, and coverage to anti and pro-tobacco inspirations amid youths. The sample population is divided into three groups namely, never-smoking youth, current youth smokers and youth’s experimenters (Yean, Seo & Lin, 2015). Within the experiment, persons who have ever tried e-cigarette is made up of the experimental group. Notwithstanding persons who have never used e-cigarettes are regarded as the controller experiment.

In order to collect data from the populace, the people conducting the interview administered questioners to find out if the sample had ever smoked e-cigarette. In addition to this, this survey encompassed numerous covariates on the foundation of preceding literature. Some covariates comprised of intention to smoke e-cigarettes and they include race, gender, and age (Yean, Seo & Lin, 2015). In addition to this, the survey conducted covariates to test the intention to stop smoking.

In order to assess the PS of using e-cigarettes, it is essential to carry out logistic regression analysis to ensure the correct PS model it is necessary to ensure that incorporate all significant conditioning variables in the model. According to Yean, Seo & Lin (2015), a PS, i.e., propensity score is a foretold possibility that a contributor obtains the treatment since of her or his baseline dimensions


E-cigarette users who had not ever smoked cigarettes, i.e., attuned odd ratio with a value of 3.62 at 95% confidence interval with value = 2.04, 6.45. The adjusted odds ratio of youths who experimented with smoking was 1.99 at 95% confidence interval of 1.50, 2.64. These findings had the preeminent purpose of smoking cigarette associated with the corresponding persons who had used e-cigarettes. From the experiments there lacks enough supporting evidence to support the existence of any connotation between e-cigarettes and purpose to stop smoking amid present youth chain-smokers with the P value of 33.


The outcome of the survey indicates that there is a close link between intention to smoke cigarettes in the future and e-cigarettes usage among US youths (Yean, Seo & Lin, 2015). Notwithstanding, e-cigarettes use among existing youth smokers was not accompanied with the purpose to stop smoking in the same nationality demonstrative samples.  The connection between every e-cigarette use and purpose to smoke recognizing risk influences related to both conventional cigarettes uptakes and e-cigarettes is significant for stopping the improvement of dissimilar risk behavior over the development of adolescence.

Summary Assessment

From the entire article, the point that stands out is that the use of e-cigarettes among youths in the U.S can be closely linked with the purpose to smoke but not purpose to stop smoking. I believe that the article has been able to develop the hypothesis and draw inferences to prove the hypothesis. The survey has properly introduced the background information to develop the hypothesis for the survey. In addition to this, the survey has used appropriate methods in the collection of data as well as a design method for the experiment. The analysis method was also necessary and accurate since it incorporated all crucial variables of the experiment to the study using a statistical regression model that would minimize errors and this helped to ensure accuracy. I also concur with the inference that was drawn from the survey that claims there lacks insufficient evidence to prove that the use of e-cigarettes among youths in the U.S may be closely related with meaning to smoke but purpose to stop smoking.


Yean, J., Seo, D., & Lin, C. (2015). E-Cigaratte Use and Intention to initiate or Quit Smoking among US Youth.

Kobe Steel Limited

Kobe Steel Limited

Kobe Steel Limited’s industrial scandal was ranked third in Japan’s most prominent ethical cases. After bringing the scandal into the lame light, Kobe Steel Limited claimed that individual staff members falsified data regarding the durability and strength of specific copper and aluminum products used in the development of trains, planes as well as potential space rockets. Later, the steel quality was in doubt which has made the company to continuing experiencing roughness in the markets

  • Determining Facts

Resist an immediate judgment call

When the Kobe denies the scandal accused of will prevent concerns that arise regarding the integrity of Japanese Manufactures. The company Chief executive officer should term the whole problem as an unknown error under investigation hinting that internal mechanical issues might be the cause. The company should assure the other stakeholders that none of the customers had requested for cancellation of the contract nor claiming the firm to bear the cost that customers can suffer.

Secondly, lack of admission will ensure that companies do not recall their products. For instance, some of the global firms such as Nissan Motor Company will not return their vehicles to the factory after discovering of cars used the low-quality material in the market. Admission of a mistake, however, makes the customers suffer financial loss. For example, Takat, a Corporation pledged or pleaded guilty to deceiving automakers regarding their air bag’s safety status resulting in financial loss.

Gathering of facts

The management should gather all evidence showing that their company provisions did not meet the set standards. For instance, the administration should visit companies such as the Mazda, Ford, Nissan, Honda, and Toyota Motor Company as they inquest of their complains. The management should note that when an ethical choice is seen to be difficult, the need for consulting or discussing with customers becomes increasingly essential. Consulting also requires careful exploration regarding the ethical issue at hand aided by different perspectives. The accurate facts are achieved if all stakeholders share and agree on reasonable moral choices.

Multiple sources of information

The management should ensure identified the maximum number of sources of facts that will enable company makes a rational decision. Some of the stakeholders that can be used are the direct customers considered of high net worth customers. These customers are Honda Motor Company, Toyota Motor Corporation, which transact with the company. Secondly, the various well-wishers of the firm and the third source of information are the professionals in the making of those products as well as the government officials.

Facts and assumptions

When Kobe steel limited establishes the relevant facts that will assist to help in dealing with the ethical issue to improve the current issue. For instance, the tendency of overlooking the data regarding the strength and durability of steel and aluminum which can cause massive damage to the stakeholders. Secondly, wrong information regarding the copper piping, as a result, a company that uses the copper can suffer an explosion due to danger imposed by the material.

Thirdly, the company did not issue safety checks as well guarantees since it skipped some safety data check-ups. Fourth, the faking of reports that indicated that all the products shipped met the specification, but they had not met.

Follow the money

The management should make the decision that is finance based. For instance, they should not recall the products that are already out there, but the company can guarantee the customers, and the stakeholders will ensure appropriate dealing with such mistakes before tarnishing of the brand image.

  • Identify the Issue

Kobe steel limited supplied materials of all kinds which include the aviation, nuclear powers, and automobiles that had not met the specifications required by their customers. This makes the products to be vulnerable to the danger of explosions and durability. Recognizing ethical issues that the company is facing is the first step, which should be undertaken by Kobe Company, in a moral framework in the business environment as a result of falsifying to consumers (Asgary et al., 33).

  • Identification of Stakeholders

The stakeholders who are directly affected are the customers who buy products. Also, the company itself which is at risk of insolvency. Third, the employees who gave wrong data as well as those who did not. Even the people who live directly with those employees who have suffered such as the families. Pinpointing of all the stakeholders that are involved in the issue at hand and determine how the problem does not affect them (Ferrell et al. 22). Therefore, identifying holders will enable the management to make decisions for the best interest of the company (Cremer, 78).

Trained sensitivity towards practiced methods as well as an ethical issue is highly required by the management of any organization when making sound moral decisions. Adequate skills will enable such individuals to explore ethical aspects of a decision in addition to weighing the considerations, which should affect the company’s choice in regards to the course of action.

  • Alternative Course of Action

An alternative course of action needs to be identified to allow all the participants participate thoroughly and ensure creativity.

Wild scenario

On the other hand, call for an offer of those products that are regarded to be unfit for the companies and indicate how many of them are not sincere in their decisions.

  • Checking how the Course of Action will Likely Affect Stakeholders

Beneficial or harmful choice

Identification of the benefits and the negativities related to the practical approach, one needs to answer some few questions that enable the Kobe steel limited come up with a sound rational decision. The customers are involved in the process of comparison of the appropriate option. Also, the decision will ensure that it has brought no harm even to all across its operations. However, the decision made should provide consideration of all the stakeholder’s rights as well as the community.


Considering law

Kobe manufacturers should consider engaging a lawyer when they want to make a viable decision. The lawyer will enable the management to identify all ethical issues found.  Therefore, administration should consult a lawyer when renewing all of its contracts with the clients

Conflict of interest

Kobe manufacturer’s attention is to retain the customer despite the ethical issue of producing goods that are not up to the standard. On the other hand, some customers want the Kobe manufactures to accept any loss that the stakeholders will suffer entirely.

  • Seeking Guidance

Outsourcing guidance from various professionals also will enable Kobe steel limited to have a viable decision. All unknown circumstances need to be identified and intensify the process of learning more about the ethical issue (Ryan, 28)Kobe Manufacturers need to understand that an informed and viable decision not realized unless gathering of all problems is done.

Close friends: Kobe steel limited should reach the well-wishers and the close friends of the company who can either be directors or professionals. the advice that will be given by a friend will ensure settling of the ethical case involved in a manner that does not destroy the brand’s image nor the company’s reputation permanently

People they respect. These are people who were having the same case. The will assist the management of Kobe company on advice on how they dealt with the facts as well as the outraged customers as well as the potential customers. Kobe company will use the ideas to make their case better.

Knowledge sources. These are experts in the matters concerning the ethical issues. These sources are; Subject matter specialist: these are professionals who know about dealing with problems that are capable of tarnishing the company’s image. The company management will use the specialist to advise them on how to go about an ethical issue.

Reference librarians: management should ensure that it consults reference librarians. They will assist in advising the administration basing it on cases referred to and how they deal it out before causing permanent tarnish to the image.

Authors, researchers, professors, and pastors: Kobe management team should ensure that the organization of authors does not reflect so much on the lewd act. They will ascertain that the ethical case is not spread further by competitors. They will also ensure that Kobe steel limited retention of reputation.

  • Make a choice

Kobe Manufacturing Company needs to sufficiently identify and make comparisons between different approaches to determine the option that best suits the ethical situation (Ferrell et al. 27). Choosing a plan will require the management of Kobe Manufacturing Company to involve outsiders by getting their opinion.

Something constructive

Virtue approach encourages the administration to inquire if their potential action is more likely to enable them to become the individuals they wanted to be (Ferrell et al. 24). The approach is regarded to be one of the oldest strategies towards ethical actions, usually, consistent with particular ideal qualities (Barnett and Johnson 69). The method uses habits and dispositions that enable individuals to act according to the highest potential of their specific or individual character and on behalf of particular values such as honesty, truth, beauty, generosity, love, tolerance, self-control, fidelity, fairness, prudence as well as patience.

Monitoring the outcome

The management will ensure that it has considered different views and comments from the stakeholders. For instance, they will ensure that all harmful and positive feedbacks taken Then, after comparison of the options that are viable, the management using the approach will establish an opportunity that is likely to have less harm and maximum goods.

Defending the choice made

Perhaps the best source of the ethical standard that could have been considered by Kobe Steel Limited is justice and fairness approach. The method was created and frequently used by several Greek Philosophers, including Aristotle (Wisnewski, 311). In terms fairness and justice, the plan argues that equals need to be treated equally, which can be applied in the business environment today.

Every solution has problems.

All solutions have problems. Kobe steel limited should base their decision on specifically the financial gain despite other hindrances. Some of the impediments may come from the professionals as well as the competitors.

Works Cited

Asgary, Junck, Ramin, Emily. “New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.” Journal of Medical Ethics. Pg 30-39.2013.print

Barnett, Jeffrey E, &W B. Johnson. Ethics Desk: Reference for Counselors. Amer Counseling Assn; 2 edition pg 213.2014.print.

Cremer D. Psychological Perspectives: Ethical Behavior and Decision Making. Information Age Pub, pg 78. 2009.print.

Ferrell, O. C, et al. Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. Houghton Mifflin Co press.Pg 136. 2008.print.

Ryan, C.J,“Ethical issues, part 2: ethics, psychiatry, and end-of-life issues”. Psychiatr Times. Pg. 26–27.2010. Print.

Wisnewski, J. “Perceiving Sympathetically: Moral Perception, Embodiment, and Medical Ethics.” Journal of Medical Humanities: 309–319. 2015 print.


Why Would Amazon Open Physical Stores?

Why Would Amazon Open Physical Stores?

Reports suggest that Amazon is looking to open physical stores in the future and the first step would be to open several bookstores in the U.S.  While Amazon opened its first physical book store in Seattle in late 2015, after the success of temporary pop-up stores, it appears that the company might now be looking at expanding its physical footprint. Although Amazon is an established player in the global retail e-commerce market which is expected to reach $2.5 trillion by 2018, e-commerce still would represent less than 10% of the global retail market.   We believe that by opening physical stores, Amazon might be looking to provide a more personal shopping experience to its consumers, reduce shipping costs by providing a store pick up facility and integrate the online and offline shopping experience for its consumers in addition to creating a strong brand image.


Reduced Shipping Costs, Human Shopping Experience

E-commerce companies now appear to be looking at expanding their brand appeal and providing an integrated shopping experience to consumers. Chinese ecommerce giant Alibaba opened its first physical store in North China earlier this year to boost sales of its imported products. While an online shopping experience provides options to quickly search for a product and compare prices, it cannot replicate the social and human shopping experience which Amazon and Alibaba are not looking to provide. A combination of lowest prices with the option of physically examining a product before buying could work well for e-commerce companies and it appears that Amazon is looking to create this experience for its customers.

Amazon is also looking to reduce its delivery costs and provide faster delivery. A physical store can enable the company to provide a “pick in store” option which will reduce shipping costs and also provide the customer the convenience to pick up an item when they want ensuring speedy and timely delivery. Physical stores can also be used as small warehouses by the company to stock frequently ordered items and ship them from the store for faster delivery.

While Amazon’s deep pockets might enable it to make the huge investments required for opening physical stores, whether it would be able to attract the required skills to execute a brick and mortar strategy remains to be seen. Although Amazon appears to have mastered the e-commerce space, ensuring that the right products are curated for its physical stores with trained sales personnel to answer queries and guide consumers might be a challenge.

While we believe physical stores could enable Amazon to improve its brand image, attract more customers, potentially reduce shipping costs and provide an integrated shopping experience, its execution strategy around these stores and ability to manage a brick and mortar business would be important to succeed in this market.


Conflict Resolution

Conflict Resolution: Application

Conflict resolution is the method of resolving a dispute between two parties that have differing interests. Depending on the type of conflict, the resolution can be approached using different strategies. Conflicts are common among family members and also friends. However, these situations are opportunities for growth and development since it’s from them that we learn. According to Furlong (2005), how we analyze and identify the cause of the conflict and how we effectively approach an outcome shows our ability to manage conflict.

The Situation

My mother, sister, and I were all trying to figure out how we were going to spend the holiday season. We had differences, and my mother wanted us to strengthen our family bond. She felt that there was no better time to try to reconnect bonds than arranging a family holiday. Initially, we had arranged visiting our grandmother in North Carolina for Thanksgiving since we had not seen her in two years. However, as we got closer to Thanksgiving week,  it came to our concern that the funds were not enough to facilitate going to North Carolina as we were also supposed to rent a car.

So, we all gave up on the idea, and we were going just to spend the Thanksgiving with our own families. However, my mother sent a group message saying that she still wanted us to unite and become stronger as a family suggesting that we could cook together. My sister and I decided to sit it out since we had already purchased our groceries for the holidays but mother said that she had purchased her groceries as well, but that family bonds and connections are more important. So, my mom said that we needed to come up with some ideas on how we can spend Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year’s Day.


Conflict Resolution Model

The model that was appropriate for our conflict was the Triangle of Satisfaction. Each party in the situation was going to celebrate the holidays (results). However, we had a different interest in how we were going to spend it (process). The Triangle of Satisfaction helps to identify everyone’s emotional outlook in celebrating the holiday and our personal feelings from past experiences with each other. The chosen model allows for each person to address their wants, needs, and hopes for how our families would spend the holidays as well as how we would move forward as a family. The Triangle of Satisfaction addresses and creates agreements that can be lasting.

The substantive needs in the model recognize the important factors in what created the conflict. What the parties are negotiating, in turns of processes or procedures, are considered in this area. However, according to the model, before substantive needs can address emotional components must be worked out first because emotional needs will have authority over how a person will agree to the resolution of the substantive problems.

In the Triangle of Satisfaction, emotional needs address how a person feels about the person, the situation, and if they feel they are being treated fairly. According to Furlong, emotions and personal feelings about the situation being handled will determine how they see the issues regarding procedural fairness and how they will approach a solution during negotiation (2005). Therefore, emotional concerns are vital when negotiating and when parties have concerns due to feelings from the past that affect the current relationship (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2016).

The procedural needs in the model allow for each party to acknowledge and discussed how an agreement could be implemented that is fair to all parties involved. This area determines the rules of engagement when dealing with the other party. It allows for the opportunity for each person to state their point of view on the situation as well as determine if each other party wants to participate in a solution.

Implementation of the Model

When trying to work towards a negotiation, the focus must be primarily on the solution while acknowledging emotional and procedural needs. However, our family wanted to create a solution that would be lasting and meaningful. We decided to create a time and a place for us to work on creating a solution to how our family was going to spend the holidays. We went to brunch and started to assess our procedural needs.

Each person felt that due to our past encounters trying to attempt a family gathering with my mom, my sister’s family, and my family would create tension or escalate the problems that already were in existence. This, in turn, created feelings of distrust and apprehension. We agreed that we did not trust each other to celebrate the holidays joyously and felt that it was safer just to spend it separately.

I asked each person how they felt that we can address our emotional needs. My mother stated that since Thanksgiving was in a couple of days, it may be best to table the concerns and agree that any tensions or personal feeling be discussed after Thanksgiving. However, it was not easy to get everyone to agree, so we decided to seek counsel from our local pastor who had been a family friend for so long. The pastor helped us identify our weaknesses and tell our emotions and feelings towards each member of the family. This way, we were able to give the others room for change if need be.

We agreed to this decision because of the number of problems we had we were not going to address our personal feeling, but we had children, and we knew that their needs mattered in our conflict. We knew that our children wanted to see their aunt and grandparents.  My mother then stated that in good faith to working out our family issues, she wanted to host Thanksgiving dinner at our house. My mother then suggested that someone volunteer for Christmas and New Year’s dinner and that we rotate each of the three holidays with each person hosting one of the holiday’s each year. My sister stated that we should get through Thanksgiving dinner and that we would then see if that solution could be a lasting solution.

On Thanksgiving dinner, we were able to eat, play games, and interact with each other with no issues or conflict occurring. The children were able to play together, and we even decided to have secret Santa for Christmas. After our dinner, I decided that I would host the Christmas dinner and my sister stated that she would handle New Years. We still have not had the opportunity to discuss our individual feelings but this Saturday we plan to meet for coffee as a family and our pastor who would make us feel comfortable while opening up.

Lessons Learnt

Handling conflict does not mean that a solution will happen during that one interaction or even a couple interactions. However, if all parties are willing to work together for some meaningful solution, then temporary arrangements can be created.  To settle our conflict, we agreed to a neutral arrangement that was based on trust of each person intention. We realized that our situations were impacting other people who were not sitting at that table and we wanted to negotiate with their interest in mind as well.

The question that I would ask a mediator would be is it okay not to address emotional issues to focus on the big people or should emotions be address first before you move forward towards a solution. This question comes to mind because if our Thanksgiving dinner would have been disastrous and probably would never come together as a family in any future events and it makes me wonder if it would have been worth us tabling the issue before the thanksgiving ceremony


Furlong, G. T. (2005). The conflict resolution toolbox: Models and maps for analyzing, diagnosing, and resolving a conflict. Mississauga, Ontario: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.

Lewicki, R. J., Barry, B., & Saunders, D. M. (2016). Essentials of negotiation (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Evans, C., & Richardson, M. (2010).How to negotiate effectively. British Journal of Administrative Management, 69, 32-33

External vs. Internal Skills

External vs. Internal Skills

Deciding on the best procedure to fill in a new position in any organization because promoting individuals from within the organization is viewed as the best practice but at the same time can lead to future problems. If an individual without the necessary skills and technical capability to fit in the position is promoted, the organization will start becoming ineffective. The person considered for promotion should have the ideal knowledge ,skills and abilities needed to perform the job. Taking an example of a minority recruitment director; the individual should have taken a course in psychology, have experience in the position of personnel director and a politically adept speaker capable of communicating efficiently. They should also have proper combat training enabling them to perform their roles in upholding peace. The person under consideration for the position thus should be well equiped wholly with the needed experience. On the other hand, if a new and qualified person is brought in the organization without any explanation, employees within the organization who had hoped for a promotion might frustrate the new member in the organization as they feel he or she did not deserve the position. It is prudent to consider internal staff for new positions before moving outside the organization but there are factors to be considered before making the final decision. For instance, if the person is appointed the chief executive officer,  his or her assistant may fail to brief on the proceedings and current state of the business. He or she may also fail to enlighten the C. E. O on the cultures of the organization and how the management relates with employees.

The first consideration that should be made before filling in a position either internally or using locally available skills is the job description and the skills it requires. After knowing the skills needed it is advisable to assess whether there are people who possess those skills internally or whether the skills can only be sourced locally. Making the consideration of the available skills can help in avoiding falling into the pitfall of promoting employees who cannot perform effectively due to lack of the necessary skills.  It is also imperative to consider giving well-prepared feedback to all of the employees in the organization that had been considered for the job and interview but did not make it through the final selection. The employees need to be shown the gaps they had in their skills and how they may work towards ensuring that they make it through selection when the next opportunity becomes available (Bidwell & Keller, 2014)

Training the staff members is more effective for the organization is more effective than going through the process of hiring new skills.  To begin with, the existing staff in the company are more accustomed to the culture of the organization, unlike the newly hired staff that may have difficulties in fitting in the organization. Secondly, training the existing skills is relatively cheaper than spending a lot of money on advertising and paying hiring agencies. Training can be done on the organization’s premises, and therefore only the trainers are needed. Training also saves on cost because external hires are likely to get many offers from different organizations and therefore demand high salaries (Leekha & Sharma, 2014).


Bidwell, M., & Keller, J. R. (2014). Within or without? How firms combine internal and external labor markets to fill jobs. Academy of Management Journal57(4), 1035-1055.

Leekha Chhabra, N., & Sharma, S. (2014). Employer branding: strategy for improving employer attractiveness. International Journal of Organizational Analysis22(1), 48-60

Interprofessional collaboration

Interprofessional collaboration


Collaboration acts as the cornerstone of success for almost every team or group. As a result, Interprofessional collaboration develops the same benefits of collaboration. The most recent Interprofessional collaborative that I have been involved in was educating the community as well as patients in the hospital the benefits of proper dental care. The objective to collaborate developed when a mother brought in her ten years old son who had a hearing problem to a medical hospital. After precise examination, the doctor noted that the boys hearing problem was brought about by improper removal of teeth, which impaired his hearing process.

Involved People

The people involved in the Interprofessional collaboration practice were the doctor who examined the patient. A dentist whose role was to explain the complications of unprofessional tooth removal. The mother to the patient what man involvement was to spread the knowledge to other community members. A pharmacists, nurses as well as some two heads of community health policy. With the mania mi being to educate the patient as well as the community of the benefits of professional teeth removal.

My Involvement and Response

I particularly, acted as a nurse to the patient as well as an educative peer in the collaborative process. On the other hand, I never thought Interprofessional collaboration was as effective as was the case in this collaboration process. This is because without the Interprofessional collaboration the patient’s safety was in danger and more likely other members of the community since the mother did not understand the main cause of the child’s illness, which means that other family members could still face the same problem

How Is Communication-Related To Interprofessional Collaboration

According to Falk, (2016), communication plays the central role in coordinating and establishing the professionals involved together. Moreover, through effective communication, the team’s primary agenda is achieved for example though asking the patient questions such as, was the educative platform helpful? Or what they have learned from the collaboration practice.

How Patient Satisfaction and Outcome are related to Interprofessional Collaboration

The primary aim of the interprofessional collaboration is to improve the quality of service delivered to each patient. This is because over time the medical industry is becoming more complex as well as more diverse with regards to doctor’s role and also patient’s needs. As a result rough the collaboration process the patient is able to achieve there needed assistance and on the other hand, educated about the problem by qualified practitioners which in turn improves patient satisfaction. Conclusively, interprofessional collaboration positively impacts the patient’s outcome which later improved service delivery

Future Aspects as a Nurse

As a future nurse, the experiences gained through the interprofessional collaboration will go a long way in improving my services delivery practice to the patient because of the knowledge gained from the exercises. Moreover, the collaborative involvement developed the need and importance of communication between all stockholders in the health care services as well as the need to have effective and efficient technological equipment’s which help in coordinating the team’s activities and progress. On the other hand, I learned the need to understand a patient not only by the presented illness but also there background with regards to the current disease.


Falk, A. L. (2016). Interprofessional Collaboration in Health Care. Linköping University Electronic Press.

evidence-based practice


Research involves systematically gathering facts to expand knowledge in a field while evidence-based practice entails applying evidence and experience in decision making to make sure that a patient received the best care. Health information and data mining is critical to a care provider as it helps in making informed decisions and reducing errors in care delivery because the health provider has a broader view of the context related to a patient. Through data mining and analysis, a care provider is able to predict the risk in his or her patients based on the family history and other similar cases that have existed in the past. Managed care has proven to be challenging when it comes to ensuring the best interests of the patients are guaranteed to most care providers that participate in it due to the existent limitations. Performance indicators are critical to the improvement of services in a facility


 Evidence-based Care and Research

Research can be defined as the gathering of data, facts as well as information formally for the chief purpose of advancing knowledge in any field. Evidence-based practice, on the other hand, refers to using the most current as well as best evidence at all times when delivering care to the patient. In other terms, the evidence-based practice involves the combination of the experience of the care provider as well as the best clinical evidence that is available and one that has been derived from systematic research. One of the differences between research and evidence-based practice is that research is conducted with the purpose of getting a broader understanding of an issue, but evidence-based practice is the application of evidence most of which is obtained through research to make the best decision and deliver the most appropriate and quality care to a patient (Hamer & Collinson,2014). Research involves the systematic collection and analysis of facts while the evidence-based care involves the blend and experience of the care provider, skills, decision making capability as well as the ability to gather evidence through research. Evidence-based considers the values and preferences of the patient unlike in research where the only scientific inquiry is done through systematic methods to test the validity of the existing knowledge or generating knowledge that was previously undiscovered. Research is purposely conducted to come up with new knowledge but unlike research evidence-based care involves innovation through looking as well as the conversion of the new evidence to result in clinical practice (Hall & Roussel, 2016)

Importance of Health Information and Data Mining

Health information and data mining are critical to delivering quality care to patients. Information on patient’s medical history allows the care provider to make an informed decision with regards to administering the best available care to the patient and minimizes the chances of making mistakes. For example, if the care provider sees that the patient has a history of getting reactions from drugs containing Sulphur, the care provider will be able to explore the other available substitute drugs that do not contain Sulphur in their ingredients. Health information is also important to the care provider because it outlines the preferences of the patient, values as well as the cultural background of the patient that help him or her to make the best decision based on the deep understanding of the patient. For example, some communities view certain food as a taboo, and therefore they are forbidden, when a care provider knows from the patients record that a patient comes from such a community, he or she knows how to advise the patient on dietary issues without putting the patient in conflict with his or culture. The health information also contains the family history of the patient that is essential for care delivery and diagnosis of genetic diseases. By comparing the family history of the patient, the care provider can easily decide on whether the individual is at a higher risk of suffering from a genetic disease. It is from the family history that the caregiver can encourage an individual to be attending routine checks to ensure that he or she is not suffering from an inherited disorder and increase the chances of the early detection of disease.

Data mining is critical to patient care because the care provider can analyze the data of the patients that have been treated in the hospital and the most effective treatment for specific diseases (Nguyen, Saranto, Tapanainen & Ishmatova, 2014). The care can effectively compare the patients the outcomes of the patients that were suffering from a specific disease and the type of care each received. From the results, the care provider can accurately determine the type of treatment methods that have historically exhibited the highest success rates and the ones that are likely to fail. For example, in HIV care and compare the patients on different drug regimens and their viral suppression. From the analysis of data, it is possible to determine most of the patients that have not achieved suppression are on what regimen. From the results, the care provider can tell the most effective drug regimens and the ones that the virus has shown a high rate of resistance in the past. The provider from an informed point of view can avoid prescribing drug regimens with the likelihood of failing to a patient. Data mining is also important because it enables the care providers to observe as well as identify the patients that are high risk and the ones suffering from chronic illnesses and come up with plans on how to design the most effective interventions. Data mining helps the care provider to be prepared in advance to handle a patient that has been suffering from a chronic disease and receiving treatment from the provider’s hospital. For example, the caregiver can go through the information of the patients that were booked for a clinic in a specific week and monitor the progress the patient since enrolling into the clinic.  From the analysis of the data, prior the care provider can tell whether he or she will be discussing the change of the treatment plans during the next clinic day. Data mining, therefore, helps the care providers develop and enhance the treatment plans for their patients.

Data Mining Influence on Case Management

Data mining not only enables the care provider to have insights on the clinical aspects of the client but also makes it possible to integrate data from other management systems including the administrative data to create the full picture of what the patient will go through. For example, the care provider can see the client’s insurance details and guide him or on the best treatment option for the client without struggling financially. Data mining and analysis are powerful tools for predicting the risk for patients especially the ones suffering from chronic illnesses (Nguyen, Saranto, Tapanainen & Ishmatova, 2014).Unlike in the traditional healthcare where some factors were not considered in the care of patients, data mining allows the care provider to do a deep analysis of the patients health behaviors as well as other social, economic factors like employment history  as well as the patient’s environment and how they are likely to affect the outcome of the patient. For example, if the analysis of data related to the patient shows that he or she has a big family to support but has no stable source of income, the care provider can be able to predict that a diagnosis showing the presence of chronic disease is likely to result in severe stress in the patient. The care provider is likely to include a stress management plan to ensure that the patient responds well to treatment.


Managed care  and Importance of Quality Care Initiatives and Performance Indicators

When care providers participate in managed care, they struggle in trying to place the best interests of the patient as a priority and also face the challenge of not being able to eschew the conflict of interest (Blais, 2015).  Managed care also affects the quality of health that a care provider through the limitations it places on things like choice of specialists, the length the patient can stay in the hospital as well as well as the location of the tests for diagnosis. Most of the caregivers believe that managed care impacts negatively on the relationship between the patient and the care provider. Quality care initiatives are important, especially in increasing workflow proficiency.  For example, the introduction of Bar Code Medication administration in hospitals has proven to be effective in ensuring that the patients are issued with the right drug that the patients receive the correct drugs that the physician prescribes. Such initiatives to improve the quality of care such as using bar code for drug administration minimizes errors in drug dispensing and therefore saves lives (Sorra, Gray, Streagle, Famolaro, Yount, & Behm, 2016). Without the initiative to minimize errors people lives would be lost as a result of patients taking the wrong drugs unknowingly. Quality care initiatives also help in improving the decision making by the healthcare providers. Nurses have been able to use clinical decision support tools that are within the electronic health records to offer more personalized care to their patients. The quality care initiatives also play a central role in the improvement of communication between the patients and the care providers through the use of mobile technology. Through the quality care initiatives, there are efforts to come up with a secure mobile communication system where clinicians can exchange information for effective management of the patients.  Performance indicators are important in improving internal quality of services delivered in a healthcare setting (Carinci, Van, Mainz, Veillard, Pichora, Januel & Haelterman, 2015). The performance indicators are used to measure the mortality rate in a hospital and to depend on the rates decisions are made on measures that can be taken to reduce the mortality rate. From the key performance indicators, the care providers re can identify gaps in service delivery and explore ways to close such gaps. Performance indicators are also important in resource allocation to different departments in the hospital. For example, the pediatric ward may record a poor performance compared to the adult wards due to the shortage of nurses. When such an indicator shows the poor performance in the pediatric ward, the management can decide on allocating more nurses to the ward.


Quality care can be improved by a combination of accurate information, evidence-based decision making and the ability of care providers to build good relationships with the patients. It is also important to invest in developing health information systems that are easy to use and have interoperability so as to ensure that care providers can access comprehensive information that is reliable to support clinical decisions. It is also imperative to continually revise the performance indicators in a hospital as a way of ensuring there is continuous quality improvement



Blais, K. (2015). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson.

Carinci, F., Van Gool, K., Mainz, J., Veillard, J., Pichora, E. C., Januel, J. M., … & Haelterman, M. (2015). Towards actionable international comparisons of health system performance: expert revision of the OECD framework and quality indicators. International Journal for Quality in Health Care27(2), 137-146.

Hall, H. R., & Roussel, L. A. (2016). Evidence-based practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Hamer, S., & Collinson, G. (2014). Achieving Evidence-Based Practice E-Book: A Handbook for Practitioners. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Nguyen, T. T. H., Saranto, K., Tapanainen, T., & Ishmatova, D. (2014, January). A Review of Health Information Technology Implementation Success Factors: Importance of Regulation and Finance. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 2693-2705). IEEE.

Sorra, J., Gray, L., Streagle, S., Famolaro, T., Yount, N., & Behm, J. (2016). AHRQ Hospital survey on patient safety culture: User’s guide. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


Fitting the target and media

Fitting the target and media/ message used

Among the main themes demonstrated in the campaign are social status, gender superiority in the modern society and professionalism. Use of internet fit perfectly with the audience since they are young people and interactive sessions will make them feel more accommodated. Majority of the young people nowadays tend to lean more towards information obtained from the social media, and therefore the internet is a perfect platform. The message portrayed about gender superiority also attracts more females to purchase the cars. The reason behind this is that African American professional women can associate themselves with Bianca who is also a professional.

Being able to read Bianca’s journal was also interesting to the women since they feel that their lifestyle is incorporated. Journals also perfectly fit professionals since they are in positions where record keeping is a key element. They will, therefore, be very interested to read since they are already accustomed to the lifestyle. Bianca could hence be able to relay a message using the journal, and of course, the message was also relayed visually. The internet is, therefore, a great platform to pass a message to a particular group of people. The means of passing information is therefore very important in determining consumer behaviour (Rani, 2014).

Ability to tap the cultural aspect of the target group

The campaign is tapping the cultural aspect of the target group in that, Bianca can identify what people of her ethnic group prefer. She belongs to the African American class of professional women. Culture will hence be upheld since the target market, and influence person is from the same ethnic and racial groups (Kuan, 2014). Being a professional as well, it makes it easier to relate to the needs of people of similar backgrounds. She will be able to market the product while taking care not to go overboard, in essence, go against the moral and cultural values upheld by the African American professional women.

African American women are straightforward, upright and hold high levels of dignity. Being professionals, it is very important for any company to consider these values so that they do not go against them and as a result lose the target market.  The campaign is, therefore, tapping the cultural values of professional African American women by employing Bianca who is also African American and a professional to act as the brand ambassador. Using of people in marketing who are aware of what the others are going through can boost the performance of a company (Kuan, 2014).


Kuan, K. K., Zhong, Y., & Chau, P. Y. (2014). Informational and normative social influence in group-buying: Evidence from self-reported and EEG data. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 151-178.

Rani, P. (2014). Factors influencing consumer behavior. International journal of current research and academic review, 2(9), 52-61.


Helmut von Moltke, the Elder

Helmut von Moltke, the Elder

Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke, the elder, is a historical figure in Germany by his modernization of the army. He played a critical role in the Prussian army as the chief of staff. Moltke was born on 26th October 1800 in Parchim. Moltke faced a rough young age where their country home got destroyed by the French. At this young age, he enrolled in a cadet school and later proceeded to be lieutenant in the Danish infantry regiment. Moltke also embraced art, music, and theatre. He was very eloquent when it came to languages as he could speak different languages as well as draw. Moltke is well known and remembered for his transformation of the Prussian army. When he received the chief of Prussian general staff post, he began establishing a change regarding coordination, strategies, and tactics in combat for the Prussian army. He changed the mode by which the officers were being trained and mobilizing modes for the army.[1]


[1] Muth, J. (2016). The Language of Mission Command and the Necessity of a Historical Approach. Language.





Retail can be defined as the sale of products and services to the consumer where he or she does not resell the products and services. The consumer purchases the products with the aim of consuming but not making sales. Retailing involves transacting with the consumer from a single platform which may either be a physical store or a shopping website. The consumer can walk directly into the brick and mortar store and make a purchase, or he or she can simply visit an online platform to make an order (Goworek, 2015). Hybridism acts to integrate both platforms in the retailing business. It combines both physical and online shopping where the customer can enjoy a better shopping experience and still save money through reduced shipping costs. Hybridism acts to widen the market by capturing a bigger margin of the clients and ensuring quick product delivery to the consumers.

Evolution of Retail Stores

Evolution can be defined as the process of dynamism marked by inconsistencies and failures in business that enables survival and performance in the market. It encompasses all levels of the organization prioritizing on the people, ideas, products and business frameworks. For the physical stores to remain relevant and still retain their customer base, they need to embrace evolution and innovation (Goworek, 2015). The retail businesses, therefore, will be able to satisfy both the online and physical shopping needs of their customers ensuring efficiency in distribution.  Evolution has thus led to the development of hybrid retail stores in the market.

Retail Theories

Hybridism has been significantly featured and employed in the retail theories that aim to explain how the businesses develop, expand and grow to maturity. The theories explain the dynamism in organizations and how the owners utilize various strategies and platforms to reduce cost, increase coverage and also boost their sales. The theories include the retail life cycle theory and the environmental theory.

Retail Lifecycle Theory

The retail lifecycle theory suggests that a retail business goes through various levels of development, that is, innovation, growth, maturity and finally decline. At the innovation stage, the organization is born and is characterized by distinct production, fair growth rate and has a few rivals. When the business is at the growth stage, the sales are high; rivals enter the market and returns on investment are high. The maturity stage is marked by slow growth, high competition, and decline in returns. At this stage, the company forms a new strategy to help it gain a competitive advantage over its competitors (Goswami, 2017).

Competitive advantage can only be realized if the retailer can be able to reduce his or her operational costs, increase market coverage and reduce the price slightly. Most of the organizations choose to implement hybridism at this level where they integrate their physical stores together with online stores. For instance, taking the case of H&M Beauty Company, it has many competitive rivals such as Sally Beauty Holdings who are one of the largest retailers in the United States. For H&M Beauty to gain coverage, it opened online stores where clients all over the world can shop for their products. The company has also diversified on its products by stocking cosmetics. The products sold online have a 10% discount accompanied by free delivery. The online store contains corporate information, a help section for customer assistance and a join section that links the shop with its clients on various social media platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. H&M has physical stores all over the major cities in the world enabling it to reach a wider geographical area (The H&M Group, 2003). Hybridism in H&M has boosted revenue generation, coverage, reduced cost and boosted customer attraction.

The Environmental Theory

The environmental theory aims to unravel the manner in which businesses evolved from traditional retail store to the modern department stores, discount stores, chain stores and online stores encompassing the online platforms. Department stores emergence was attributed to by the changes in infrastructure and technology where the clients were willing to agree to fixed prices for their products. Discount stores later emerged due to low economic growth and highly competitive rates in the market (Goswami, 2017). As many people owned vehicles and populations living in the suburbs increased, the chain stores emerged. Innovation and technological advancements were later followed by the emergence of the online stores which could enable online transactions and delivery. Today, the retail stores have chosen to adapt hybridism in their business. They have joined both the physical and online markets.

Hybridism does not only reduce operational costs and increase profits for the stores but also increases shopping convenience and variety products to the clients. For businesses to make profits, they have chosen to focus on the client. Implementing hybridism means the retail businesses not only sells on physical premises but can reach those clients who cannot access their shops through the online platforms. Businesses have chosen to take their operations directly to their clients (Davis, 1995). The clients who have difficulty comprehending the online sites can physically visit the store to get their products. Hybridism has eased business significantly by raising the level of seller-client interaction.

The Significance of Hybrid Retailing

The retailers act as an intermediary between the manufacturers and the final consumers. Retailing in the process enables the manufacturer concentrate on creating products and doesn’t need to plan or budget for marketing and sales. Retailers aim to make shopping for their products easy, saving time and costs on the part of the client. Many of the retail stores have sale people who attend to the customer’s needs and answer any inquiries they may have. The internet platforms also have customer service pop-ups, and the product catalogues have attractive product pictures with brief descriptions and prices for the products. Retailing makes sure the right items get to the right clients at the most appropriate time and the right prices. It’s assured through right product descriptions, pricing, and displays (Goworek, 2015).

Types of Retail Stores

Majority of the retail stores have gradually transformed over time as many of the owners have gradually encompassed hybridism. Many of the stores traditionally encompassed only physical sales and others exclusively online platforms. Good examples of physical stores are the departmental stores and grocery stores. The department stores stock variety of products displayed in the various levels of the store. Some of the levels stock products such as clothes, cosmetics, footwear, and ornaments. The grocery store on the other hand stocks different types of grains, fruits, and vegetables (Zukin, 2015).

Examples of online retailers include the mobile and internet retailers. Mobile retailers encompass both physical sales and offer online shopping experience. They refer to individuals who use smartphones to record business transactions which are finalized by shipping to the consumer who had made an order. The internet retailers utilize the online platforms I availing their products to their clients. The individuals use shopping websites where the consumer makes online purchases. On transacting, the products are delivered directly to the client’s place of residence or work. Much lower prices characterize the internet retailers as compared to the mortar and brick store.

Stores with both the online and physical premise have gained prominence in today’s market. For instance, the H&M Beauty Company stocks fashionable cloth lines and cosmetics for its clients with branches in many parts of the world. The company also possesses websites where customers can view the products, make inquiries and even make orders (The H&M Group, 2015).

Hybridism and Strategic Marketing

Encompassing hybridism in marketing benefits the business substantially increasing its market coverage, reducing operational costs and customizing its strategies. The business is assured of competitive advantage over its competitors clinging to traditional strategies. Also, hybrid marketing has enabled the owner to integrate marketing notions that impact the business positively by assuring increased returns on investment and expanded the market area. The benefits realized through hybrid marketing include:

Reduced Costs on Operations

Many of the companies in the industry are in the pursuit of cost-effective ways of reaching the client. For instance, telemarketing is one of the cheapest marketing strategies which are built on low costs. A good example of a company using telemarketing is the Tesco Company; supplies cellular commodities to the market. The company thrives on low-cost marketing communicating through emails and catalog distribution. Telemarketing enables the company receives orders, respond to inquiries and finalize deals. Telemarketing also enables the company review the transactions and maintain its records (Mandal, 2017).

Market Expansion

Hybridism allows those consumers who widely utilize social media get to view products on the online stores. For instance, scan codes enable client’s access online stores and shop for products instead of only tangible coupons in brick and mortar stores for availing discounts. Using both the physical and online platform enables reach both traditional and online clients. The codes can also be availed to the offline clients through the mail. Enhancing contact and access between the two groups will aid widen the market coverage for the Company (Davies, 2017).

Avails Product Information

Hybridism in marketing aims to avail needed information to inquisitive clients. Consumers willing to make a purchase may have no clarity as to the characteristics of the product, price, accessibility, and availability. An online platform enables the consumer get the right price and product features. The information thus initiates demand which is followed by a consequent purchase or an order.


Hybridism serves to equip the business for the market. The business may face stringent competition, strict policies, inadequate technology, harsh economic conditions and unreliable workforce. Hybridism aims to work on all the weak areas of the business and improve the strong functions to come up with a high performing profitable organization. It accomplishes this by maintaining the successful traditional frameworks and initiating new modes to improve competency and performance. For instance, taking the case of H&M Beauty; the company has been able to improve on its clothing by improving quality, fashion, embracing online marketing and opening stores all over the world. The company has prioritized on their customers by improving on their services and broadening the variety offered. Hybridism has proven to be a significant tool in interacting and closing deals with the customer. Not only does it impact the business positively but also avails variety products, discounts and home delivery.


Davis, G. (1995). Bringing Stores to Shoppers- not Shoppers to Stores. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 18-23.

The H&M Group. (2015). H&M Annual Report.

The H&M Group. (2003). H&M Annual Report.

Goworek, H. and McGoldrick, P., 2015. Retail marketing management: Principles and practice. Pearson Higher Ed

Goswami, K. and Goswami, G., 2017. Global retail theories and its feasibility in Indian markets: an analysis. Assam economic review, p.46.

Davies, I.A., and Chambers, L., 2017. Integrating hybridity and business model theory in sustainable entrepreneurship. Journal of Cleaner Production.

Zukin, S., Kasinitz, P. and Chen, X., 2015. Global cities, local streets: Everyday diversity from New York to Shanghai. Routledge.

Mandal, P.C., 2017. Customer databases and database marketing: roles in relationship marketing. International Journal of Business Forecasting and Marketing Intelligence, 3(3), pp.327-336.