Author Archives: Gilbert Maina

Clerical and work sample tests

Clerical and work sample tests

Question 1

A clerical test is a skill testing procedure which provides a reliable measure of basic skills. In this case, for it to be adopted there is a clear connection between the job requirement and occupational environment measured by the test. All those tested are assumed to familiarize with the company norms and that the score is used as a guide for the employment. Concerning the test, there is a positive correlation of speed from the data showing that majority exceeds 41% speed performance from time 1 and 39% score in time 2. Hence majority possess limited ability in relation to speed. The mean score obtained from the test takers provides a reference point for the norm which ascertains relative standing for all the applicants.

Concerning work sample, it is important for the Phenomena to consider in predicting future performance for the candidates. It will help in measuring individual competency concerning work under realistic conditions. The reliability of work sample varies mainly on the accurate measure of job performance and behavior. In this case, candidates with high-speed performance with fewer customer complaints are preferred more than those with high error rates.

Question 2

Validity, on the other hand, is conceptualized to show whether there exists a mutual relationship between job performance and the best score. The test can be considered valid since performance data for all the candidates were gathered and it is expected to have a statistically significant correlation between the test score and the job performance.

In this case, from the results on clerical tests there exists a low correlation between sample work T and sample work C which is not significant. Concerning error rate, there is a negative correlation and a positive correlation with speed and a non-significant correlation concerning customer complaints. Since all the parts are strongly associated with personnel intelligence, there is a significant correlation between personal ability and the test score. Therefore the average score of the participants can be said to be highly indicative of their intelligence. A clerical test can be used as a valid measure of personal capacity to perform clerical functions. The score indicates the capacity of the applicants to perform the task.

Concerning work sample T, there exist high correlation with work sample C in a criterion-related validity. Correlation concerning error rate is negative, and the speed is positive hence there is no significance. On the other hand, correlation concerning customers, complaint is high and significant. Concerning work sample C, there exist a high correlation between work samples T in a criterion-related validity. Correlation between error rate is negative and non-significant to speed and a significant correlation with the complaint.

The results from both the clerical and sample tests can be used during the selection process of CSRs. Work samples produce same results hence suggesting their redundancy. Clerical test predicts a different criterion by using both the speed and error rate. Hence best combination should be the use of one work sample and the clerical test.


From the data analysis, one of the limitations that should be kept in mind which associates the data validity for example range restriction hence the correlation is relatively small compared to what it could if it involved all the participants, also working employees will be less motivated compared to new job applicants.

 Plagiarism Prevention Worksheet

 Plagiarism Prevention Worksheet

Before completing this worksheet, you must read through and complete all ten write space learning modules on this website: After you have clicked on the module, use the forward arrow in the navigation screen in the upper left hand side to go to the next page.  Make sure to answer any questions asked and review the answers given. You will not be turning in the questions asked in the modules, but you will need to know the information to complete this worksheet and also throughout your college career. Use Module 8 (Plagiarism Flashcards) to assess your understanding of the topics.

Also review these materials in topic 3: Academic Integrity and Scholastic Dishonesty handout, play the Plagiarism Game, and review the MLA and APA formatting information.

1.) Describe three things you can do to avoid plagiarism in your work?

2.) Name three possible consequences of plagiarism for you as a student.

3.) Describe what is meant by the term “common knowledge.” Do you need to cite information that is considered common knowledge?

4.) What is an ellipsis used for and what does an ellipsis look like?

5.) In a 10-15 page paper, you should not use more than ____ long quotation/s (a quotation longer than four typed lines).

6.) If you fail to include quotations marks around a quote that is not a long quotation (a quotation longer than four typed lines) is that considered plagiarism?

7.) What does the Latin word sic mean and when would you use it?

8.) What is the purpose of a signal phrase and give an example of two signal phrases?

9.) If you have rewritten a source’s words or ideas and are incorporating them into your paper, should you use quotation marks around them?

10.) Describe what paraphrasing means. Do you have to cite information that you have paraphrased from another source?

11.) According to the learning 7 module, why is doing research important?

12.) When do you need to give credit to a source?

13.) Describe the difference between collaboration and plagiarism.

14.) According to the week 8 module, name two important things to remember:

15.) When you are paraphrasing you must balance these two objectives:

ethical standard

ethical standard

Hello, I agree that transparency in any organization is the key to success. The financial sector is among the industries that most shareholders such as customers, suppliers and the government depend on. Business ethics will, therefore, ensure satisfaction of individuals who use these institutions thus boosting customer loyalty and trust (LRN, 2006). I concur with your argument that dominance of ethical standards will lead to an upgraded reputation of PNC Financial Services Group Inc and that the new staff employed can ensure maximization of profits through implementation of high ethical standards (LRN, 2006).

Your post was brilliant, and I like the way that you discuss the various benefits that will be achieved once PNC sets ethical standards in all its operations. However, you could have included the major setbacks that would limit the firm’s performance in case ethical standards are ignored. How will shareholders be affected? What implications will be encountered? Focussing on both sides of the coin is important. Your reasoning on how to achieve success in an organization is amazing as training is important since employees will be more open to change. Nevertheless, there would have been the inclusion of other methods that can be used by PNC to boost performance such as employee motivation and shareholder engagement. Embracing high ethical standards should, therefore, be a priority, but the main consideration should be the factors determine the success of an organization.


LRN (2006). New research reveals the business impact of ethics, signals the importance of ethical corporate cultures [Press release].


Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution

The first thing to consider about the Russian Revolution, was the state of the country. Most of the country was made up of peasants who could not raise above their station. Since their conditions were often oppressive, revolution did not generally seem like a bad idea to your average Russian citizen. The working class were more concerned with their own situation but were not highly educated and could not conceive revolution on their own. The intellectuals, however, were granted very few opportunities under the imperial regime and they were more apt to become revolutionaries in the future goal or a democracy. [1]

The Bolsheviks were a group of Communists who ceased power during the October Revolution. They believed that a group of intellectuals should be the ones to push the workers towards a revolution and topple the Russian Monarchy. The leader of the Bolsheviks was Vladimir Lenin and they were more aligned to German ideals, and if Russia was defeated during the Great War, it would make revolution that much easier. They were also the only political party in Russia that was against the war. During the attempt to capture Bosporus which was the only passage from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, the Bolsheviks talked with the soldiers about the goal. They wondered why it was so important to capture the territory and assured them that the Bolshevik regime would not only let them go home to their families, but also they could set their own wages if they took over the factories. They also told the peasants they could have the land they always wanted. This made the Bolshevik party very popular among the majority of the country. When they thought they had enough support to be successful, they conducted a nearly bloodless coup in October of 1917. They snuck in and quickly gained control of Moscow and St. Petersburg which controlled the government. [2]

Even though they had control over the two major cities in Russia, they did not control the rest of Russia outside of these areas. It took three years for the Bolsheviks to consolidate their power and gain supreme control over Russia. Civil War broke out after the Bolsheviks dissolved the Constituent Assembly on 6 January 1918. There were four major opponents the Bolsheviks had to come against, and because Russia was such a diverse and geographically enormous place, they created the Red Army. They had an advantage of unified leadership and the resources of the Russian heartland and a central rail network. The first group to fall to the Red Army was the Socialist Revolutionary Party, KOMUCH. They were unable to develop an effective army, however, and fell to the Red Army in fall of 1918. The second group to come up was the “White” Armies. They were organized by conservative military officers and were the largest threat to the Bolsheviks. Even though the fighting started off well, poor organization was the White Army’s defeat and ended around 1920. The “Green” armies were comprised of mostly peasants who were disillusioned and were little more than revolts. The Ukrainians also posed a threat to the Red Army but were unsuccessful in defeating them. By 1921, the Bolsheviks had come away victorious over their many opponents. They integrated the territory which was once the Russian Empire into a Soviet State. [3]

The House of Special Purpose refers to a book by John Boyne which is narrated by Georgy Daniilovich Jachmenev. Georgy was the son of a laborer in the town of Kashin. An attempted political assassination of Grand Duke Nicholas, cousin of the czar by his friend Kolek Boryavich, shocks Georgy so much that he steps in and takes the bullet meant for the Grand Duke. To reward his heroic act, Georgy is sent to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to work for the czar. The story goes on with him being the caretaker to the czar’s son Alexei, and daughter Anastasia. It ends with his life in England and his family life. [4]

To the Finland Station is a book on the study in the acting and writing of history written by Edmund Wilson. [5]



[1] Saylor Foundation. 2014. “The Russian Revolution.” 1

[2] Saylor Foundation. 2014. “The Russian Revolution.” 1-9.

[3] Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World. 2008. Russian Civil War. Oxford University Press.

[4] KIRKUS. 2013. THE HOUSE OF SPECIAL PURPOSE. Jan 6. Accessed Feb 7, 2018.

[5] Wilson, Edmund. 1972. To the Finland Station: A Study in the Acting and Writing of History. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.


Refrigerator Kingdom Corporation

Refrigerator Kingdom Corporation

Computing Sales Price Variance

When analyzing a variance, whether it be total sales, sales price or sales volume the purpose of the practice is to gauge the differences between the anticipated outcomes and the actual outcomes of a production process.  The activity can provide management with the necessary data to contain, regulate costs and enhance operational effectiveness.

When reviewing the expected/budgeted and the actuals between sales of the Cube Fridge and the Tall Fridge were favorable. The total sales variance was showing a revenue of $83,250.00. To calculate this revenue, we had to look at the individual budgeted vs. actuals of the tall and cube fridge.  Our findings are calculated below. The first set of calculations are based on the budgeted amount.


The cube fridge showed a favorable sales price variance of $36,000.00, however, the tall fridge was highly unfavorable at a negative of $222,750.00. This is based on the sales price difference from the actuals price.  The Tall Fridge was sold for a total of $115.50 per unit as opposed to $120.00, showing a total loss of 5.00 per unit. The Cube fridge was sold for $93.00, as opposed to the budgeted $90.00 for an increase of $3.00 per unit.

When we look at the sales volume that was sold versus the budgeted amount, we show a highly favorable variance in the Tall Fridge for a revenue of $519,750.00. The Cube fridge did not sell as many units as expected and we saw a deficit of $279,000.00. Together with the loss and surplus included, we show a favorable revenue of $240,750.00. Since the business is multiple styles of the fridge, the business may have an inaccurate expected product combination.

Potential Impact on HR Planning

As an HR professional who aspires to fund employee recognition programs, we believe this effort would allow the organization to give back to the employees.  By putting a budget in place of $80,000+, this would allow for various small to mid-sized programs to develop.  However, if we were going to add salaries to this amount, we would need more revenue to cover the costs. To achieve this, we would revert back to the material costs, to make the cube fridge more profitable and at a minimum break even in costs.

Options to Fund HR Initiatives

Since sales for the cube fridge were lower than the company expected, Refrigerator Kingdom Corporation should make a corrective action plan to increase sales for the future.  The business may also consider looking into different marketing strategies and consider price cuts for the cube fridge.  This may generate increased revenue and meet the budget goals.  Looking at Refrigerator Kingdom budget and the actual costs, the business should contemplate on changing strategies or objectives before expanding.  As for the Tall Fridge, the company may be able to increase the price of the unit in order to generate more revenue.  These strategies can generate more revenue to support the funding of employee recognition programs and possibly add salaries.


Shim, J.K., & Siegel, J. G. (2012).  Budgeting basics and beyond (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Variance analysis. (2017, August 30). Retrieved February 05, 2018, from


annotated bibliography

What topic are you considering for your critical annotated bibliography? In other words, on what general area of interest are you going to locate 12 scholarly articles?

My topic will be how technological advancements have helped solve cases in the police department. Being a police officer, I have gone through various technological transition stages, and I have keenly noted the effects or rather the benefits it has had on solving cases in the police department as well as streamlining the security issues in the Nation.

Find one article for your annotated bibliography using the tips mentioned in the tutorial.  Then list the source in APA format and write your summary/critique of 150-200 words.

Nunn, S. (2001). Police information technology: Assessing the effects of computerization on urban police functions. Public Administration Review61(2), 221-234.

The article states that the municipal police agencies are one of the major users of information technology. It, therefore, puts the need to learn about the computerization of the police operations. The article analyzes the computerization of 188 municipal police agencies in 1993 in cities that had 100,000 populations and above. The article examined the relationship between computer hardware, police functions, and police file computerization and categorized into the low, medium and high-level cities. Some of the sections greatly emphasized upon are the management, administration, as well as the crime evidence section. The cities with high computerization have high employee’s technological positions. This is seen as a way of reducing criminal levels and stabilizing the economy as people become more productive and therefore boosting the level of production. The system also sees a reduction of the money spent in trailing criminal cases and thus allocating the cash in other activities which promote the cities productivity. The article is helpful as it assesses how computerization of the police operations benefit it or rather streamline its police operations and the benefits that this has in the city and the nation at large.

Response to the cost of production

Response to the cost of production

I also agree with you that the best way to reduce the cost is by cutting . The cost of production has big command on the market as it dictates the final product price, the salaries paid to the employee, the budget allocated to other activities and many other financial activities (Shepherd, 2015). It is therefore critical to ensure that the cost of production is kept as low as possible to ensure that the final price of a product I also reduced for the advantage of the customers in price dictation. If the organization can be in a position to cut the cost of production, maintain quality and also increase its effectiveness and efficiency in production, it goes a long way in making sure that the price of their products is affordable to the customers (Croce, 2014). The concept gives the company a competitive edge in the market. Your analysis is detailed and therefore making your discussion post to be of substantial help to the weekly discussion as it has great information on the material price variance, and the material quantity variance our analysis


Shepherd, R. W. (2015). Theory of cost and production functions. Princeton University Press.

Croce, M. M. (2014). Long-run productivity risk: A new hope for production-based asset pricing?. Journal of Monetary Economics66, 13-31.


Response to budgets

Response to budgets

You have done quite a commendable job in your post this week, and it is very informative. Markets are dynamic, and therefore sales variance analysis is very critical as it helps management know the position they are at and therefore know how to effectively and efficiently regulate their performance to remain competitive in the market (Bamberger, Biron & Meshoulam, 2014).

Budgets like you have stated above are also very critical as finances are the engines of any business. It, therefore, calls for a sound plan and analysis to ensure that the funds are allocated efficiently and prioritized in areas that have a significant impact on the business to realize a greater advantage in the organization. The budget figures you have presented in your discussion post are very critical as they help the business to balance the allocation of different departments or rather fields for the smooth running of the business. Some of the greatest ways to motivate the employees in an organization by the HR are to offer incentives, salary increase, offer training and any other activities that do not only impact the employee’s life but also grow their career (Cascio, 2018). This, however, can only be achieved through efficient utilization of the budget and ensuring that the returns or rather the portability of the organization is realized at a greater margin and therefore allowing them to allocate some of the profit to the employee’s incentives.


Cascio, W. (2018). Managing human resources. McGraw-Hill Education.

Bamberger, P. A., Biron, M., & Meshoulam, I. (2014). Human resource strategy: Formulation, implementation, and impact. Routledge.

Purpose Ph.D. in Business Administration

Statement of Purpose Ph.D. in Business Administration

I am submitting my application for the Ph.D. program in Business Administration at Morgan State University since I hope to engage in the career of research and teaching Administration. Most notably, I am interested in factors that impact the competitive performance of a business concern and ways through which changes in technology tend to affect an organization’s long-term business strategy, structure, manufacturing, product development, distribution network, supply chain, standard systems and information needs. To gain an appreciation towards these and other related issues, it is imperative for me to have a sound solid grounding in Supply Chain Management, Economics, and matters related with Information Technology including getting an in-depth understanding of a General Administration Perspective.

I trust that the Ph.D. Business Administration program coupled with the concentration in accounting is going to be an invaluable help towards the achievement of my objectives. Additionally, it will offer me the chance of channeling my conceptual and quantitative skills in the process of analyzing various business issues besides opening new avenues in the field of research. Upon earning my Ph.D. I would be able to make applications for a facility position in renown and reputable university. Such a situation will enable me to assess and investigate several issues concerned with technology since it has the capacity of affecting an organization’s structure, strategy, and systems.

I believe that my background in Management and Administration has prepared me adequately for the future career in research. Research has been a fascinating career since my enrollment to for masters’ degree in business Administration where I was among top performing students who were judged after having presented an excellent and comprehensive paper at the accounting department. Four years of studying business Administration degree with a concentration in accounting have offered me with a firm grounding in analytical and mathematics skills under business studies. I was able to obtain excellent performance in various theoretical aspects of technology, accounting, and commercial papers.

I joined Shenandoah Business School for the purpose of broadening my views or perspective as well as to improve my career prospects. Subjects such as Psychology, English literature, and economics were much new to me, but they were fascinating and helpful. These topics enabled me to apply conceptual and quantitative skills needed to analyze various business problems. As a result, I was able to perform well in desk research, projects, class discussions and workshops although I did not reach my projected performance levels mainly due to culture the culture shock, which I was experiencing. However, I have to note that I was among the most promising students in my particular batch and I was awarded for the best business school project at the national level.

Following my graduation in my undergraduate degree certificate, I was offered a job as an administrator at Khaled Al of Qannas Trading Group, which is the largest Administration consulting firm based in Saudi Arabia. Qannas Trading Group enhanced my principle application skills regarding lessons of Administration as far as real-life issues. It was both transforming and fascination towards my interests and passion in Administration research. Continuously, I developed a habit of gaining more information about Administration and administrative thinking in various areas of my work systems and structures in industry and organization of strategy and marketing.

I gained considerable knowledge during my last job such as interpersonal skills with my fellow team members. As a team, we were tasked to analyze markets besides assessing supply and distribution of various market networks in an incredibly diverse industry and product. I had assisted in the process of formulating strategies, diversifications, and expansion including the development of company business plans. As part of the team members, I undertook preliminary feasibility research studies, compared existing and potential technological options and presented my recommendations to the Administration. Therefore, I was able to help improve the level of competition and also studied government schemes with the aim of measuring their efficacy. Furthermore, I reviewed the organizational structure in detail including existing systems thereby helping my former company undertake the process of restructuring and redesigning to fit existing market demand.

During my studies and working life, I have been able to overcome the challenge of time Administration. Time limitation on various job or assignment tasks has taught me to efficiently plan by working systematically and maintaining or preparing up-to-date reports. At the same time, overcoming the challenge of defending my assessments, analysis, and recommendations during presentations and discussions to clients has enabled me to think creatively and rigorously. Extensive utilization of technological devices such as computers for preparation and analysis of reports has familiarized me with word processing, spreadsheets as well as presentation packages. Coupled with reliable interpersonal skills, I will be an excellent candidate for a Ph. D program at Morgan State University.

I hope the admission committee will find my strengths and backgrounds commensurate with established requirements of Morgan State University’s Ph.D.’s program in Business Administration.


Response on  Capital Expenditure

Response on  Capital Expenditure

Hello Amber, I appreciate the good work you have done on  Capital Expenditure. I agree with your argument that cash flow analysis is an essential component of capital expenditure budgeting as it shows changes in cash amounts (Hayes, 2017). Therefore, the need to pay critical attention to flow assessments will help explain the deviations between the income statement and the balance sheet. I think it is very hard to assess organizational performance without properly analyzing the cash flows (Shim & Siegel, 2012).

Your post on effects of cash flows to the human resource department was very thoughtfully. I agree the human resource department uses the cash flow analysis to know when to train the workers. However, you could have mentioned the impact cash flow analysis on the functionality of other departments. For instance, the production department uses the cash flow analysis information in determining which quality material to order, amount to produce and whether to add overtime hours on the normal hours allocated (Klychova, 2014). I agree with your reasoning on the importance of comprehending components of the capital budget policy as they help the department understand what is significant for them.


Hayes, C. A. (2017, November 17). Capital expenditure (CAPEX). Retrieved from,

Shim, J. K., & Siegel, J. G. (2012). Budgeting basics and beyond (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Klychova, G. S., Faskhutdinova, М. S., & Sadrieva, E. R. (2014). Budget efficiency for cost control purposes in management accounting system. Mediterranean journal of social sciences, 5(24), 79.