Role of slavery in the Development of the United States

Role of slavery in the Development of the United States


Servitude in the Unites States of America was a permissible undertaking of Human Chattel enslavement. The individuals who fell culprits to slavery were mainly Africans and African Americans. [1]Servitude played an immense role in making United States a powerhouse economically until 1789, which marked the writing of U.S constitution. A growing body of research alludes to the fact that the migration and subsequent cruel handling of slaves for example in American cotton fields was integral to development of United States[2].


Servitude in United Sates commenced around the period 1619 when the maiden slaves arrived in Jamestown the North American colony. The slavery from and during the founding of the original 13 colonies contributed to development of united states by aiding in production of lucrative crops such as Tobacco which impacted the U.S economy positively[3]. The servitude transpired throughout the American colonies from the 16th century. During this period, the slaves contributed to development of America by building economic base of the newly founded nation[4]. The able men taken to America to serve as slaves helped build America by providing cheap labour in the tobacco, indigo and rice plantations in the North.

The slavery led to an exponential growth and expansion of America. The enslaved Africans and African Americans supplied labour in agricultural plantations as well as in other capacities[5]. America developed following the enslavement of Africans who led to thriving of the new nation by working as butlers, launderers, house cleaners, waiters and tailors. Moreover, the slaves served as grooms, carriage drivers, carpenters, artisans, hosterls, blacksmiths, spinners, milers and stonemasons. [6]The freely offered labour force resulted to substantial growth and development of America.

America also developed because of the fact that the enslaved individuals also worked in urban areas. Credible research suffices evidence that more than 10% of slaves had their duties posted in cities of the United States. Slaves contributed to development by rendering labour in public work projects and industrial enterprises consequently resulting to massive growth.  The plantations economy where individual slaves worked formed the larger American national economy. [7]The hardworking slaves led to proclamation of cotton as king in the south of the new nation. The cotton plantations formed a robust foundation of the antebellum southern economy. Slave labour led to rise and massive growth of American shipping and financial industries. The two sectors were also heavily reliant on slave labour.

The cheap and inexpensive labour provided by enslaved Africans became pivotal and served as political and economic capital in the American political economy. The enslaved African also served as collateral in various kind of business transactions[8]. The slaves were traded traded for exchange of goods and services. The scenario expanded the American economy. [9]The individuals held as slaves would be used to purchase more land and settle outstanding loans. The transactions and exchanges formed the basis of tax revenue for local and state government further contributing to development of American economy. [10]However, in 1789, the U.S constitution came to being, but although it did not expressly abolish slave trade, the constitution included provisions about free persons. Conclusively, the slave trade undertaking was core to the American economic and political life.


Anderson, Fred. The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian   War. New York: Penguin Books, 2006.

Cave, Alfred A. The French and Indian War. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Fisher, Laura, and Et Al. The war that made America. 2006.

Keene, Jennifer D., Saul Cornell, and Edward T. O’Donnell. Visions of America: A History of       the United States. Boston: Pearson, 2012.

[1] Fred Anderson, The War That Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War (New York: Penguin Books, 2006), 35-58.

[2] Anderson, the War That Made America, 35-58.

[3] Anderson, the War That Made America, 35-58.

[4] Anderson, the War That Made America, 35-58.

[5] Alfred A Cave, the French and Indian War (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2004), 67-78.

[6] Cave, the French and Indian War, 67-78.

[7] Cave, the French and Indian War, 67-78.

[8] Cave, the French and Indian War, 67-78.

[9] Laura Fisher and Et Al, The war that made America (2006), 112-123.

[10] Jennifer D. Keene, Saul Cornell, and Edward T. O’Donnell, Visions of America: A History of the United States (Boston: Pearson, 2012), 89-95.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging Infectious Diseases

World Health Organization (WHO) report listed a couple of emerging infectious diseases posing health threat to human race. Swine flu, Ebola, West Nile Virus are perfect examples such diseases. This study will develop a research question regarding Ebola, based on causes, diagnosis, prevention strategies and undertake a literature search regarding the formulated research question.

Research Question

What are the possible ways of diagnosing Ebola and appropriate strategies for prevention?

Information search on diagnosis

Current research on the topic 3 shows that initial steps of Ebola diagnosis entail taking blood or a patient’s body fluid then sending collected samples to a laboratory for testing.  A couple of tests are applied to diagnose Ebola after onset symptoms are detected. The tests are carried in a laboratory and help in detecting the virus genetic material. The tests reveal the presence of antibodies and the disease causing organism. Polymerase Chain Reaction is one of the most accurate tests carried to identify presence of pathogens. It is a highly definitive test that can pick extremely small amounts of the virus. According to WHO report 1,2 diagnosis of the virus is undertaken by carrying a test that seeks to identify antibodies generated by a patient’s body immune system in response to the virus.  Specialist term it as the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A positive result after testing indicates presence Ebola virus in the patient’s body.

 Prevention strategies

Avoiding direct contact with infected people

The disease primary mode of transmission is through direct contact with patients who have tested positive for the virus 3. Families of ailing patients and doctors should put on protective clothing when handling the patients. Prevention also entails avoiding direct contact with blood and other body fluids and tissues including semen, vaginal secretions and saliva from people who are sick. Touching an infected person would lead to possible infection. Moreover, prevention strategies involve avoiding direct contact with surfaces such as clothing and bedding used by sick people. According to previous studies 1 extreme care is paramount when handling bodies of the diseased because touching with naked hands would lead to possible infection.

Avoid consuming wild-caught bush meat

Research has proven that Ebola virus originated from animals through consumption of primate meat 2. People should avoid purchasing, consuming or coming into direct contact with wild meat to avoid possible infection. Prevention strategies involves avoiding buying and eating wild animals such as non-human primates’ species retailed in local markets. Perfect examples include gorillas, baboons and monkey meat.

Frequent washing of hands

Doctors and health specialists argue that one of the most fundamental disease preventative measure is frequent hand washing.  People should use soap and clean water or use alcohol based hand rubs to maintain their hands clean and free of disease causing viruses 1.

Wearing protective medical clothing

Health care providers and volunteers should put on disposable masks, gloves, google and gowns at all times when handling infected patients 3. Care givers at home should put protective attires when handling infected people or their belongings such as clothes and beddings. Putting on a Level 3 suit with a protective hood and taped seams avails maximum protection against possible infection.

Isolating infected, the deceases and their belongings

Individuals should exercise isolation practices to people whose lives were claimed by Ebola disease. People should undertake separation and burning of the deceased belongings.  Health practitioners should undertake isolation and quarantine exercises to infected patients. This minimizes the risk of diseases spreading to the general population.


Alton, Joseph. The Ebola Survival Handbook: An MD Tells You What You Need to Know Now to Stay Safe.N.p. 2014.

Daszak, Peter, Andrew A. Cunningham, and Alex D. Hyatt. “Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health.” Science,N.p. 2013. doi:10.1126/science.287.5452.443.

Rooney, Anne. Infectious Diseases. Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media, 2012.


Part 2

Research question: What are the possible ways diagnosing Ebola and appropriate strategies for prevention?

Reference data bases: doi:10.1126/science.287.5452.443, doi: 10.1038/35046108.

Nature or resource: The study has employed primary sources such as journals, letters diaries, and newspaper reports. Furthermore it has used materials such as Periodicals, magazines and government reports.

Author’s expertise: Authors to materials used are frequent seasoned writers earning them necessary skills and knowledge on the subject of the study. The three authors have acquired doctorate level of education in their fields .Sources published by the authors are reliable and are used as reference sources by researchers.

Intended audience: The authors target the general public and health care practitioners as recipients of their work.

Currency of resources: The three references were published in the year 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively. Their recent nature makes them useful in addressing current issues on emerging infectious diseases.

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Employee analysis

Employee analysis

Based on the research question on problems faced by workers in the workplace, statistics show that over 48% of employees all over the world are not satisfied with their jobs (Scheuer, 2010). According to Scheuer (2010), over 80% of employees in the United States, feel stressed at their workplace and are not pleased with their work. In addition, the author states that only less than 30% of employees feel inspired and are engaged in their workplace as well as their careers (Scheuer, 2010: 18). Similarly, Bernhard and Glantz (2012) observe that over 18% of employees in a work place are actively disengaged in their careers and are only present at their work but they hate their time spent during their daily duties (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012). However, the authors assert that there have been a drastic improvement of customer’s satisfaction over the years. The scenario has led to a drastic improvement of customer’s satisfaction from 81% to 86% from the year 2013 to 2014 respectively (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012). Nevertheless, the authors observe that there is also a large number of employees that are still dissatisfied with their jobs for one reason or another. Employees therefore leave their jobs for better opportunities while others remain in their workplaces due to lack of enhanced preferences duties (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012:21). Employees with low job satisfaction thereby affect organizations negatively due to poor performance, lack of motivation and negative attitudes that lead to low productivity.

Bernhard and Glantz (2012) observe that employee’s dissatisfaction is based on managerial issues that facilitates the unhappy state of the employees .The authors asserts that matters such as underpayment, lack of interest, limited career growth and poor management involves the major reasons facilitating the dissatisfaction of the employees duties (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012). Managers should therefore ensure that they understand their employees. The effort by management makes sure that workplace problems are taken into consideration to ensure that an organization’s productivity is optimized (Glicken & Robinson, 2013). This paper, therefore, seek to critically evaluate the existing workplace problems and analyze variant viewpoints on the problems by providing a theoretical support for the problematic course. In addition, the paper stipulates the common assumptions existing within the workplace regarding the workplace problems and discuss the area of disagreement, critiques and divergent perspective on the problems. Further, the paper addresses an area of interest within the framework and states its effectiveness as well as its relation to the existing framework and redefinition in the future activity.

Workplace Problems

According to Bernhard and Glantz (2012), workplace problems are fostered by office satisfaction factors such as respect, healthy environment, security, career path, pay and benefits. The author states that lack of such factors facilitates employee’s dissatisfaction that lead to work problems such as low motivation that hinders the employee’s abilities to optimally function in an organization. Bernhard and Glantz (2012) assert that lack of motivation affects employee’s commitment negatively thereby reducing their full engagement in an organization. The author observes that money acts as the most motivating factor to employees that encourage them to commit to their duties to get compensated in return (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012). However, some employees require well-stipulated career visions that acts as their objectives, which they work to achieve. Lack of career plan to employees thereby hinders their progression morale that in turn reduces the proactive goals towards achieving objective duties (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012).

According to Sprouse (2012), stress is a common problem that encounters many employees in a workplace within an organization (Sprouse, 2012). The author asserts that over one-third of employees in a workplace work amongst other individuals in the same environment (Sprouse, 2012). The encounter of various individuals within an organization with varying personalities involves conflicts that causes negative psychological symptoms to some employees. Prevailing conflicts and unhealthy environments are associated with mental health issues that lead to stress that hinders employee’s performance (Sprouse, 2012).

Antoniou and Cooper (2013) assert that poor leadership is a common problem in workplaces within an organization. Effective leadership is an essential requirement within an organization workplace that acts as a motivation factor to employees.  Lack of effective leadership affects the employees negatively by affecting the outlook of a team, as some employees feel demoralized. Leaders should therefore be flexible and inclusive of their management approaches to ensure that, they facilitate equality and fairness among the working teams to prevent discrimination of some employees (Antoniou & Cooper, 2013). Fair leadership therefore promote employee confidence based on equity and motivation through setting of examples as leaders that enhances employees focus in the organization to achieve set objectives (Antoniou & Cooper, 2013).

            Theoretical Scaffolding

Butler et al., (2011) argue that underpayment of employees is the primary cause of their dissatisfaction within a workplace. The author states that in the year 2011 the employee’s income was lagging behind inflation that implies workers had to dig deeper in their pockets to afford basic requirements that are highly priced. Such high level of living standards calls for a higher wage compensation (Antoniou & Cooper, 2013). The failure of an organization to address such important issues such as employee’s compensation result to lack of motivation due to lack of satisfaction. The scenario thereby leads to the poor performance of an organization due to low employee’s productivity (Reid, 2011).

According to Bernhard and Glantz (2012), poor management is the main reason behind employees stress due to implementation of policies and procedures that discriminate and harass the workers (Bernhard & Glantz, 2012). The authors observe that micromanagement and dictatorship within an organization kills the employee’s morale due to lack of interest in working in such an environment that in turn reduces employee’s productivity.

In addition, lack of career growth and advancement is a common reason for employee’s dissatisfaction within an organization. Wolk (2011) postulate that career vision is among the employee’s motivation factors that facilitates worker’s productivity towards achieving a particular objective. Setting career plans in an organization is an important requirement to ensure that employees work towards achieving long-term goals that enhance their proactivity and seek to ensure achievement of a particular goal.

Area of Discourse, Contention and Divergent Perspective

According to Scheuer (2010), employee’s satisfaction is the main reason behind the positive productivity of an organization (Scheuer, 2010). The author asserts that the productivity of an organization is based on a healthy environment that ensure employees are happy at their work to facilitate their maximum productivity based on solutions provided by managers. The aspects maintain their working environment contentment based on workplace factors that facilitate the job satisfaction aspect (Nadia, 2013).  Similarly, Scheuer (2010) observes that aspects such as respect, trust, security, healthy environment and career path as well as payment benefits enhance the satisfaction of the employees within an organization with a healthy working environment.


According to Antoniou and Cooper (2013), a respectful working environment is a vital requirement within an organization-working place. The authors state that respectful environment facilitate recognition of employees and their appreciation (Antoniou & Cooper, 2013). Similarly, Sprouse (2012) states that respect between the employees and the management as well as amongst themselves facilitate the reduction of conflicts. The employees coexist within a working environment without coming forward about issues relating to other workers personal issues that in turn prevent bullying, discrimination and harassment (Sprouse, 2012).

            Research Interest Focus

The paper research interest focus makes emphasis on evaluation security issues, healthy environment career path and payment of the employees within an environment of a given organization. According to Sprouse (2012), the motivation of employees is based on the security of their job positions that enhances staff interests in their duties due to the assurance of longevity of their roles in their respective job positions. Similarly, (Butler et al., 2011) observe that the sense of job security facilitates regular coaching of the employee’s proactivity that enhances the possibilities of objective setting and motivation to achieve them (Sprouse, 2012).

Moreover, a healthy environment is a crucial requirement within an organization workplace to ensure that employees work in a comfortable and fair surrounding that enhances their morale based on effective leadership and management. The scenario facilities positive practices such as collaboration, sharing and effective communication that in turn disapproves chances of malpractices such as harassment and discrimination, which in turn facilitates employee’s maximum productivity.

    Redefined Problem and Future Activity

Scheuer (2010) asserts that payment of employees not only satisfies workers in their jobs but also encourages competition within an organization. The author observes that different positions shows payment variations based on the value of the employees position (Sprouse, 2012). Employees therefore work towards the achievement of their goals and at the same time being proactive for promotion considerations that facilitates employee’s exploitation of their optimum potential within the organization.

Provision of a healthy environment, securing job positions for employees, defining career paths respecting employee and paying them is a crucial requirement that requires the consideration of the human resource management department. The undertaking seeks to ensure that most employees in an organization are satisfied to strengthen their interest to work in the organization. Consideration of such factors seek to ensure that there is minimized turnover that is a high attribute of the human recourse function (Sprouse, 2012). This seek to ensure that the organization provides a favorable environment for the employees to ensure that they are satisfied to prevent their exit from the organization that in turn saves the organization time and the recruitment fee incase new employees are hired (Butler et al., 2011). Moreover, optimum productivity is realized through satisfaction of the employees. The satisfied employees tend to achieve optimized productivity due to the presence of motivating aspects such as high job position and higher remuneration.


Antoniou, A., & Cooper, C. 2013. The Psychology of the Recession on the Workplace.

Butler, P., Glover, L., & Tregaskis, O. 2011. ‘When the Going Gets Tough’ . . . : Recession and the Resilience of Workplace Partnership. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 49(4), 666-687.

Glicken, M. D., & Robinson, B. C. 2013. The Serious Problems in the American Workplace. Treating Worker Dissatisfaction during Economic Change, 3-21.

Nadia, S. 2013. Economic Downturn and Work Motivation. The European Experience, 195-228.

Reid, G. C. 2011. Staying in business. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 9(4), 545-556.

Wolk, J. L. 2011. Political activity in social work: a theoretical model of motivation. International Social Work, 39(4), 443-455.

Bernhard, J. G., & Glantz, K. 2012. Staying human in the organization: our biological heritage and the workplace. Westport, Conn, Praeger.

Sprouse, M. 2012. Sabotage in the American workplace: anecdotes of dissatisfaction, mischief, and revenge. San Francisco, Pressure Drop Press.

Scheuer, S. 2010. Social and economic motivation at work: theories of work motivation reassessed. [Copenhagen], Copenhagen Business School Press.

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Solid Waste

Solid Waste


Proper waste management is crucial in maintaining proper environmental health and the well-being of the society[1]. Most activities by members of the community contribute to accumulation of various waste in the society. [2]It is imperative to understand the definition of solid waste in order to classify the materials effectively.

Definition of Solid Waste

Solid waste is any refuse, garbage, sludge from wastewater treatment plants, waste from supply plants of water, or air-polluting materials among other materials discarded in the environment[3]. It includes gaseous materials, liquid, solid and semi-solid materials that result from commercial, industrial, agricultural and mining operations and from the activities of the community but excludes dissolved or solid materials in sewages among other products. Solid wastes refers to any abandoned or discarded materials[4]. The materials can be liquid, solid, containerized gaseous and semi-solid materials. Solid waste includes septage, waste tires, toys and furniture, latex paints, garbage, scrap metal, vehicles and appliances, asbestos, demolition and construction debris among others[5].

Proper management of waste is a pivotal component of the public and environmental health. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act passed in 1976 helped in creating a framework for the America’s non-hazardous and hazardous waste management techniques and programs. [6]The act regulates the wastes commonly referred to as solid waste. Only the products that meet the definition of the act can be regarded as solid or hazardous wastes. EPA had developed detailed rules and regulations defining which materials are hazardous and the ones that are solid[7]. However, there are waste that can fit in the definition of the solid waste but are not included in the definition. The act made a conclusion that the wastes are not to be regulated as either hazardous or waste products because of various reasons. [8]Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have mandated most of the exclusion made concerning the materials. There are those materials that RCRA excludes from the definitions of solid waste[9].

It is important to understand the definition of solid waste as given by RCRA to differentiate the materials considered as solid wastes from other materials. [10]RCRA argues that solid waste refers to refuse or garbage, sludge coming from water treatment plants, facility controlling air pollution among others. Carbon dioxide injected into the earth for sequestration cannot be considered solid waste under RCRA[11]. Carbon dioxide is among the materials excluded from the definition of solid waste. The waste is excluded for various reasons that include the policy of the public and the impracticability that concerns regulation of wastes[12]. The decision of eliminating the materials is because of the act of the congressional or the rulemaking of the EPA. In addition, materials that do not fit in the solid waste cannot be hazardous and therefore, the exclusion of the material are not subject to the subtitle of RCRA[13]. Carbon dioxide is a product of coke and the coke by products are not included in the definition of solid waste by the act.

Conclusively, it is fundamental to understand solid waste and the appropriate techniques to employ in proper waste management. Various products do not qualify to be solid waste following the definitions given. Carbon dioxide is a by-product of coke and therefore does not qualify to be a solid waste.


Elcock, Deborah, and N. L. Ranek. Coal Combustion Waste Management at Landfills and Surface Impoundments 1994-2004. 2006.

Hester, R. E., and Roy M. Harrison. Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities. Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, United States. T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill Bioreactor Model for TOUGH2. Berkeley, Calif: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2001.

McDougall, Forbes R., and P. White. Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2001.

[1]Deborah Elcock and N. L. Ranek, Coal Combustion Waste Management at Landfills and Surface Impoundments 1994-2004 (2006), 33-45.

[2] Elcock and Ranek, Coal Combustion Waste Management, 33-45.

[3] Elcock and Ranek, Coal Combustion Waste Management, 33-45.

[4] United States Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, T2LBM Version 1.0: Landfill Bioreactor Model for TOUGH2 (Berkeley, Calif: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2001), 45-53

[5] R. E. Hester and Roy M. Harrison, Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities (Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002), 15-37.

[6] Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Landfill Bioreactor Model, 45-53.


[7] Forbes R. McDougall and P. White, Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory (Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2001), 12-19.

[8] McDougall and White, Waste Management, 12-19.

[9]R. E. Hester and Roy M. Harrison, Environmental and Health Impact of Solid Waste Management Activities (Cambridge, U.K.: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2002), 15-37.

[10] Hester, Harrison, Environmental, and Health, 15-37.

[11] Deborah Elcock and N. L. Ranek, Coal Combustion Waste Management at Landfills and Surface Impoundments 1994-2004 (2006), 33-45.

[12] Elcock and Ranek, Coal Combustion Waste Management, 33-45.

[13] Hester, Harrison, Environmental, and Health, 15-37.

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 Climate change and the war in syria

                           Climate change and the war in syria


Syria had faced about three years of drought since 2009 to 2011 when the state then had to face a lot of violence that emanated mostly from the civilians who were tired of the drought that had accrued to them in the past years. The drought forced the migration of the families that were known to be farmers to migrate to urban areas. It also caused a massive failure in the crop growth within the state (Erlich, 2014). The climatic changes do not cause any risk, but they accelerate faster to influence the civilians and leaders to one opposition. The climatic variations were caused by the impacts of the humans, and as such, many authors supported the idea that climate changes played a significant role in the civil war in Syria (Hoskins, 2015).

Research Studies conducted by Buhaug et al., (2014) have explained that climatic changes do not directly cause the resulting civil wars, but the variations influenced most of this chaos. The links between the two have been examined and explained by many theories. The paradigms provide that the climate change multiplied the risks that were already in Syria.

How the change in climate influenced the war in Syria

Related research cases stipulate that the drought in Syria was directly brought about by the government due to the lack of policies to prevent global warming in the state. The global warming that affected the country vastly changed the production of agricultural products as both rain, and the ground water was depleted (Verner & Breisinger, 2013). The global warming was responsible for the drought cases and it was expected that the government would put in measures to combat the same. Due to the nature of the government being corrupt, civil wars begun and were pushed forward by the civilians themselves as they had gathered in the urban cities in search of employment, livestock feeds and water for irrigation purposes (Adelphi & Berlin, 2015).

Despite the drought due to the changed weather patterns in Syria, the Government devised policies that would increase the agriculture product’s production (Breakey, 2016). In the process, the government had to relocate and reclaim land from the civilians to use in their project, which included irrigation, mining and digging to access the water below the surface (Hoskins, 2015). While the farmers were being put off their farming lines by the drought, the population from the countryside continued to diminish as people migrated to the urban areas. The Government did all this while they failed to realize that they were reducing the trust and patience that the civilians had while they took their land for such purposes (Heydemann, 1999).

Additionally, President Bashar al-Assad’s government provided rights to dig wells with a political favor, and as such, the people who wanted to farm had to dig wells illegally to obtain water (Wodon, 2014). If such people were found, or those who were against his ruling spoke out, they were tortured, imprisoned or even persecuted. Unemployment reigned within the state as the President continued to be corrupt and the civilians were tired of his ruling. Prices of foodstuffs such as rice and wheat and livestock feeds rose unprecedented, and this made the civilians protest towards the government and chaos grew (Çakmak & Ustaoglu, 2015).

The poor planning of the government of President Bashar al-Assad before and during the drought period in Syria further induced the wars. The government failed to address the issues put forward by the agricultural communities within the Diara’s streets in Syria. The government had tortured about fifteen teenage boys who had made the complaints of the civilians through painting with graffiti that people were planning a coup on the government (Sapir & Debarati, et al., 2015). The families of these children organized for peaceful demonstrations but later the government engaged in violence with the demonstrators, and many of them lost their lives. Later on, the people started to plan for the change of governance as the government of President Bashar al-Assad’s government had become brutal and did not consider the views and complaints put forward by the people in the state who were not government officials.

According to Cooper (2015), the rapid change in the demographic constitution of a state vastly influenced the stability of the same. People in Syria migrated towards the urban areas in search of better pastures that they could rely on due to the reigning drought. This migration, in turn, rendered the urban areas of Syria unstable due to overcrowding, unemployment, illegal settlement of people, crime, and poor infrastructure. Saleeby (2012) supported the argument by stating that “It is coherent to infer raising weights on urban zones because of inward movement and expanding sustenance frailty. The resulting exponential unemployment levels prodded most of the syrian citizens to make a public outcry of their political grievances. Looking at the Deir az-Zor city, the Syrian most perilously arid regions, one finds profoundly established elements in the collect of difference.” Climatic changes contributed to the migration of people, and thus the urban cities were more prone to violence either between the civilians themselves or between the government and the civilians.

The scarcity of water led to conflicts between the administration and the people, especially the farmers. The former needed the water to support their agricultural produce to suffice their benefits while the latter needed the same water for the same purpose since they had families, which they needed to help. The economic status of Syria had risen, and the farming families were somewhat advantaged by the moist soils that used to exist. The reigning of the drought ensured that the water and moisture that had remained within the moist soil depleted and as such, both the government and the civilians continued to have a rivalry between themselves due to the climate changes that led to water depletion (Philander, 2008). The government had not put any previous plans to curb the drought and instead of planting resistant water crops, they planted the plants that could use up lots of water, thus maximizing the effect produced by the drought. Therefore, the civilians could not have been in any position to support the government.


Enough studies have been carried out with the aim of providing relative information concerning how the civil wars in Syria were affected by the climatic changes in the state that resulted in drought. It has been distinguished that discrepancies in the climate did not directly pose as threats to the country, but they accelerated the way the social impacts were brought into action. Some factors influenced civil wars in Syria, but the primary catalyst was the climatic changes that rendered the people homeless, unemployed, and in turn agents of the war.


Hoskins J., 2015. Climate adjustment in the Fertile Crescent and suggestions of the recent Syrian drought Available at

Saleeby S., 2012. Economic Grievances and the Syrian Social Contract’s unraveling. Obtained from

Cooper, T. 2015. Syrian Conflagration: The Civil War, 2011-13. Solihull, West Midlands, England: Helion & Company Limited.

Adelphi, Berlin 2015. Climate Change and the Syrian War. Available at

Çakmak, C. & Ustaoglu, M. 2015. Post-conflict Syrian state and nation building : economic and political development. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Heydemann, S. 1999. Authoritarianism in Syria: Institutions and Social Conflict, 1946-1970. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.

Sapir, Debarati, et al. 2015, Civilian Death from Weapons Used in the Syria Conflict. British Medicinal Newsletter, Available at

Erlich, R. 2014. Inside Syria: the backstory of their civil war and what the world can expect. Amherst, New York: Prometheus B

Breakey, H. 2016. Ethical Values and the Truthfulness of the Climate Transformation Regime. City: Taylor and Francis.

Buhaug, H. et al. 2014. One Effect to Rule them All? A Comment on Climate and Conflict. Available at

Philander, D. 2008. Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Verner, D. & Breisinger, C. 2013. Economics of Climate Change in the Arab World: Case Studies from Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen. Washington D.C: The World Bank.

Wodon, Q. 2014. Climate variation and migration: an indication from the Middle East and North Africa. Wash

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            The ideologies that underlay diversity are based on the understanding and respect that all individuals are different in their nature. The dimensions that may cause such differences include gender, economic status, physical abilities, race, political beliefs, age, ethnicity, and religious beliefs among others (Raelin, 2010). Diversity promotes respect and acceptance within the community while understanding that every person is unique and moving forward to embrace the luxurious proportions of variety.

The strategy of diversity is primarily intended to maintain and promote a working environment that is neutral; promoting positive interaction and communication between the management and the workers in general (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Through the positive working environment, employees feel part of the team, and their indulgence helps organizations realize their objectives and attain their set goals expeditiously. The process that is involved in implementing diversity in an organization is somewhat long but is advantageous to the Company in the elongated run (Chin & Trimble, 2014).

Role of leaders in managing Diversity

            Leaders play an integral role in managing diversity within their respective organizations. The organizational leaders are responsible for maintaining and ensuring the activities of the firm are in place while the employees are in good shape (Ely & Thomas, 2001). The leader majorly promotes diversity in an organization through his or her actions and reactions towards those under them. The ones in leadership positions can build a system where the team members put accountability as their priority. By ensuring that every worker understands their position in the organization, it is eminent that respect will reign as no misunderstandings can arise between the employees, managers and the leaders above them (Chin & Trimble, 2014).

Diversity in the opinion of the junior members is another crucial factor that leaders have to point out to their workers. As the primary role is to ensure every member of the organization feels part of it, it is paramount that the opinions of the members be listened to and addressed accordingly. The performance of groups is based on the input that will be directed at the employees of the firm (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Leaders have to put forward the views that some of the employees point out to promote diversity while keeping the best interests of the company at par. In addition to addressing the opinion of the employees, the leaders need to ensure that they promote both social and emotional intelligence. It is important that the leaders bear in mind the difference in the aspects with which different people view things and how they understand the same and try to teach the subordinates how to emulate the same.

According to Adair (2012), gender equality in the management and organizational wok field is of vital importance to the firms. Both the gentlemen and ladies play a fundamental role in the realization of the business’s goals and the views that they both portray push the organization to higher limits. The leaders should inspire their team to promote gender equality within the organization (Ely & Thomas, 2001). The manager may put it clear that between the men and women, none is superior to the other and they are both equal, and as such, they should be able to work together without the gender bias.

Age is another factor that determines how diversity is implemented within an organization. Historical norms that do not promote diversity preference employment by age and support the employment of older people in advanced roles due to their experience and competence while preceding the alternative of employing the young experienced (Adair, 2012). As a leading light, it is imperative to note that both the young and old employees portray competent skills in a set of their talents and the potential of each of two groups can be reached through continued practice. Selecting employees based on their qualifications, experiences and academic level is fair regardless of their age, and thus leaders should promote diversity through such measures (Raelin, 2010).

Coaching of the employees is another way that the manager may focus on to ensure they practice diversity. Different personalities of people respond positively to mentorship and coaching. The events of coaching are driven by the desire to see the employees succeed in their career paths as they build up their talents. When a leader embraces the act of coaching his or her team, they feel that they are on a journey of achieving together with their leader (Storey, 2014). The employees may engage in the organization’s projects openly and with the mindset that what they are doing they are not alone since they can visually see that their leader respects and values their individual career goals.


Storey (2014) claims that the effort put into action by leaders in ensuring that diversity is implemented in the organizations reflected in the long-term benefits that the firm might incur. Diversity within the body is important, as it will ensures fair treatment of employees, good communication between the managers and the junior teams, and a better environment where employees can work without discrimination of race, sex, and age, among other factors. Diversity within the firm will ensure that the employees are continually improving their skills and talents. Courtesy of the aforementioned reasons, leaders should practice leadership styles that promote diversity within their companies.


Adair, J. 2012. Leadership skills. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

Chin, J. & Trimble, J. 2014. Diversity and leadership. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Ely, R.J. & Thomas, D.A. 2001 Cultural diversity at work: the effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomes, Administrative Science Quarterly, 46 (2), pp.229-273,

Storey, S. 2014. The impact of variety on worldwide leadership performance: LEAD2.

Raelin, J.A. 2010 the leaderful fieldbook: strategies and activities for developing leadership in everyone. London: Nicholas Brealey.
Activity 2.6, Journeys to Engage Our Intercultural Competence.

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How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

Run time: 5:34 | Transcript


You have just been given an assignment to write an annotated bibliography. Before you begin, you need to know what exactly an annotated bibliography is and how to get started.

First, what is an annotation?

An annotation is more than just a brief summary of an article, book, Web site or other type of publication. An annotation should give enough information to make a reader decide whether to read the complete work. In other words, if the reader were exploring the same topic as you, is this material useful and if so, why?

How is an annotation different from an abstract?

While an abstract also summarizes an article, book, Web site or other type of publication, it is purely descriptive. Although annotations can be descriptive, they also include distinctive features about an item. Annotations can be evaluative and critical as we will see when we look at the two major types of annotations.

What is an annotated bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually 100–200 words in length.

Depending on the assignment, an annotated bibliography might have different purposes:

  • Provide a literature review on a particular subject
  • Help to formulate a thesis on a subject
  • Demonstrate the research you have performed on a particular subject
  • Provide examples of major sources of information available on a topic
  • Describe items that other researchers may find of interest on a topic

Types of annotated bibliographies

There are two major types of annotated bibliographies:

  1. Descriptive or informative
  2. Analytical or critical

Descriptive or informative

A descriptive or informative annotated bibliography describes or summarizes a source as does an abstract, it describes why the source is useful for researching a particular topic or question, its distinctive features. In addition, it describes the author’s main arguments and conclusions without evaluating what the author says or concludes.

For example:

Breeding evil. (2005, August 6). Economist, 376(8438), 9. Retrieved from

This editorial from the Economist describes the controversy surrounding video games and the effect they have on people who use them. The author points out that skepticism of new media have gone back to the time of the ancient Greeks, so this controversy surrounding video games is nothing new. The article also points out that most critics of gaming are people over 40 and it is an issue of generations not understanding one another, rather than of the games themselves. As the youth of today grow older, the controversy will die out, according to the author. The author of this article stresses the age factor over violence as the real reason for opposition to video games and stresses the good gaming has done in most areas of human life. This article is distinctive in exploring the controversy surrounding video games from a generational standpoint and is written for a general audience.

Please pay attention to the last sentence. While it points out distinctive features about the item it does not analyze the author’s conclusions.

Analytical or critical

An analytical or critical annotation not only summarizes the material, it analyzes what is being said. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of what is presented as well as describing the applicability of the author’s conclusions to the research being conducted.

For most of your annotated bibliographies, however, you will be writing analytical or critical annotations.

For example:

Breeding evil. (2005, August 6). Economist, 376(8438), 9. Retrieved from

This editorial from the Economist describes the controversy surrounding video games and the effect they have on people who use them. The article points out that most critics of gaming are people over 40 and it is an issue of age not of the games themselves. While the author briefly mentions studies done around the issue of violence and gaming, he does not go into enough depth for the reader to truly know the range of studies that have actually been done in this area, other than to take his word that the research is unsatisfactory. The author of this article stresses the age factor over violence as the real reason for opposition to video games and stresses the good gaming has done in most areas of human life. This article is a good resource for those wanting to begin to explore the controversy surrounding video games, however for anyone doing serious research, one should actually examine some of the research studies that have been done in this area rather than simply take the author’s word that opposition to video games is simply due to an issue of generational divide.

Please pay attention to the last sentence. It criticizes the authors research.

Please note that in these samples, the citations follow the APA format. Your instructor may require you to use another citation format, such as MLA, so check first.

To get started

Now you are ready to begin writing your own annotated bibliography.

  • Choose your sourcesBefore writing your annotated bibliography, you must choose your sources. This involves doing research much like for any other project. Locate records to materials that may apply to your topic.
  • Review the itemsThen review the actual items and choose those that provide a wide variety of perspectives on your topic. Article abstracts are helpful in this process.
  • Write the citation and annotationWhen writing your annotation, the complete citation should always come first and the annotation follows. Depending on the type of annotated bibliography you are writing, you will want to include:
    1. The purpose of the work
    2. A summary of its content
    3. For what type of audience the work is written
    4. Its relevance to the topic
    5. Any special or unique features about the material
    6. The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material

Annotated bibliographies may be arranged alphabetically or chronologically, check with your instructor to see what he or she prefers.

Guidelines for formatting the citations

Remember, the citations themselves must be formatted properly. UMUC has prepared these guides to help you correctly format citations according to APA, MLA or Chicago Style. Remember to check with your instructor if you are unsure which style to use.

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Locarno Agreements

Locarno Agreements

Locarno Agreements refer a set of treaties conferred at Locarno, Switzerland late 1925 and later on signed in London on December the same year. The reason for the agreements was to free the settlements created after war from attack or danger and maintain peace with Germany. The master plan that would lead to attainment of what each country wanted, that is, Germany, Britain, Italy, France and Belgium led to formulation of treaties.[1] The first treaty was considered the most important which advocate for an assurance of peace between/among countries bordering each other; the second and third treaties advocated for the resolution of dispute between Germany and Belgium, Germany and France hence creating a great future.

The fourth and fifth were conflict resolution treaties between Germany and Poland, Germany and Czechoslovakia. Germany would pay some amount to compensate for their past transgressions.[2] Due to the continued success of the Locarno agreements; Germany was grant entrance into the League of Nations as a permanent member of the counsel. The main goals of Britain included advocating for peace between France and Germany, which would lead to France foregoing their alliances which would lead to the country conforming to the demands of Germany. Britain wanted its Locarno objective to be met through the revision of land boundaries in Eastern Europe in that Germany will gain more than France.

The main agreement that was final at Locarno was the Rhineland Pact between Germany, France, Belgium, United Kingdom and Italy.[3] Germany was added more land and its border extended. The countries were therefore not supposed to attack each other. Germany assented with the conflict resolution assemblies with France and Belgium and also to the agreements signed with Poland and Czechoslovakia. In addition, France signed agreements with Poland and Czechoslovakia which implored for help in case it conflicted with Germany. Locarno agreements hence helped to ameliorate the political differences in Western Europe. There was also anticipation of peace in future.[4] The Locarno agreements were however weakened by the Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance in 1935.


Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste. “The Spirit of Locarno: Illusions of Pactomania.” Foreign Affairs 50, no. 4 (1972): 752-764.

Jacobson, Jon. Locarno diplomacy: Germany and the west, 1925-1929. Princeton University Press, 2015.

Wandycz, Piotr Stefan. The twilight of French eastern alliances, 1926-1936: French-Czechoslovak-Polish relations from Locarno to the remilitarization of the Rhineland. Princeton University Press, 2014.



[1] Carr, Edward Hallett. International relations between the two world wars, 1919-1939. Macmillan, 1947.

[2] Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste. “The Spirit of Locarno: Illusions of Pactomania.” Foreign Affairs 50, no. 4 (1972): 752-764

[3] Wandycz, Piotr Stefan. The twilight of French eastern alliances, 1926-1936: French-Czechoslovak-Polish relations from Locarno to the remilitarization of the Rhineland. Princeton University Press, 2014

[4] Ibid

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History of E – Grocery

In the beginning as early as 14th century, a grocer was a dealer in some foods like spices, peppers, sugar and coffee etc. in some other countries like US, grocery stores descended from trading posts, which sold not only food but clothing, furniture, household items, tools, and other miscellaneous merchandise. These trading posts evolved into larger retail businesses known as General stores.

The present business models of online grocery retailing utilizing traditional stores alongside the dotcom stores for more efficient collection is a result of nearly 20 years of active development. The long and active history of online grocery retail markets in UK who made it the most developed market in the world. In UK nearly all biggest grocery retailers have actively been developing online services for more than ten years. Even though TESCO is by far the biggest player in the marketplace, the competition and activeness of the other retailers is a significant reason for the overall attention of the new channel.

Over last few years, the wave and startup of grocery retailers through internet was a critical and serious step to challenge and beat the dominant supermarket business models. So after the failure of number of businesses in the industry and grocery retailers, it became an evident and fact that the efforts of selling groceries through internet and delivering them to customers’ home is not an easy and comfortable act as it was seen and anticipated.

Everyone has seen enough and effective change in the rise and fall of first wave Internet grocery retailers from the last five to six years. Huge and more attention and focus has been given towards aggressive dot com e groceries as it has challenged existing and old players and grocery businesses, especially in United State of America (USA). High number of companies/businesses have invested large amount of dollars of capitals to establish and build stronger grocery business but they had not survived and performed well and near to near to breaking even they ran/gone out of financial sources (money) and resources. Most and even all them (grocery businesses) have currently and recently gone out of financial sources and money and they are forced to cease and stop their businesses and operations.

The old break and mortar retailers have done well and taken over outstanding and best parts of their challengers’ companies, operators and businesses and continuously doing the improvement and development of e grocery business and operations through implementing and using new concepts and ways with conventional grocery business and operations.

As e grocery or grocery business through internet is a good and effective business than traditional grocery businesses, it has some critical challenges in case of their customers and vendors of the business and having enough and fruitful opportunities in the industry and in existing business operations and even in the regions and areas of the operations (Kruh., 2017). Some major and important challenges and opportunities for e grocery business are discussed below that shows the future ways for growth of the business/businesses in form of capturing opportunities and different challenges that the e grocery may face them with the passage of time.

The most well known example of this is Ocado which is a pure online grocery retailer which has been able to survive in this tough market space.  With innovative and active approach to grocery retailing and marketing, Ocado has become a very tough marketplace.

Challenges for Customers and Venders

The very first and crucial challenge for E grocery is the operational structure of retailers and businesses. This shows that how business revamp and restructure its management and backend system and process that span the overall and a vast array of critical and necessary logistics of the business and does the business has same price for both online and at store etc? How you or your business manages its inventory to control expenses and minimize costs etc and how to design and package the product and how to offer and provide it to your potential customers? How the company/business or you select delivery process(Kruh., 2017) and how it is managed as well as how you plan and set delivery process and even routs? These are the important and key factors and processes that must be managed properly and efficiently. These above mentioned are all major and extremely important factors which are needed to be managed very critically because these are the very start up challenges for e grocery and without facing and managing these factors an e grocery business cannot be run effectively and cannot serve and satisfy its customers and venders.

Starting a new business/company or firm from scratch is a tough job and in case of grocery retailing, it becomes more and more tough and difficult because of the fact that the materials of production comes from number of suppliers and all of them have strong and long-term relation with the business/firm. Customers of e grocery are not happily and usually willing to pay huge or more for groceries but only for average in the supermarket and how they need. Customer may want to pay little higher for home deliveries instead of going to store but they pay higher which only covers the cost. In this case the company or business must be able to offer the same price as competitors offer. It shows and tells that starting from scratch needs more and enough capital and financial sources and resources for the company/business at startup level.

When the sales volume of groceries expands and increases as the buying power grow. This factor gives clear and huge advantage to the existing and established grocery business and retailers in comparison with others to the pure play startups when establishing and starting an e grocery as complementary and new channel (Kruh., 2017). Choosing and selecting a traditional retailer and enhancing their business and operations by improving and developing new e channel is a better technique and way to reduce, break and eliminate this critical and crucial barrier of entry to e grocery.

At the startup and even during operations it is required for the business to use IT and do invest in IT for effective operations and management of activities. It includes number of activities and the business has to account all of them to fulfill and complete and deliver orders and on the basis of desired retailer targeting and positioning. It is necessary for the grocery business/company at the very first step of startup to communicate and satisfy its customers that we deliver and offer within a window/place which works for you and we can provide you faster as you need. This becomes a critical and notable challenge for the e grocery business and need enough capital investment in IT and other technologies while they get launched and operate e grocery business.

There are many comments about the mission of e grocery and internet grocery that their mission is somehow impossible in the first step or place. Most of them are true and correct. The techniques and ways which these companies use to beat traditional grocery businesses and retailing was only and simply fighting number of wars at one time. For gaining buying power while dealing with providers and suppliers, a huge level of sales volume was needed. To get and gain huge and large sales volume you must need to have large number of potential customers and to get and attract these potential customers you or your business should set attractive and affordable price ranges and to have the ability to provide high quality and better services. And the most important thing is you have to create and make profit and earnings before you ran/gone out of capital or money. So it may be this that you or business had to change and diverse the behavior of consumers and customers (Kruh., 2017). So the change and diversification is possible if the value, you or your business offers is good but it takes, took and will take more and more time for a challenger or business fighter to get succeed.

Opportunities for Customers and Venders

There are number of potential and fruitful opportunities for the customers and venders in the e grocery field of business and retailing.

Today’s situation in e grocery is good and comparable to build a new supermarket but there is no product for the shelves. The importance of identifying and handling on Web is still needed to put at the particular place by manufacturers of the products. This requirement is for both things, an easy and good product display with an easy selection. In this situation or case suppliers of the businesses are required to provide prepackaged products which can be consumed / used directly and easily by e grocer or can be linked to any e grocery site or page on the Web. So this requirement and need creates an opportunity for the venders and suppliers of the business/retailers.

The business does not have to give its focus and attention towards the development and improvement of displaying product. Through the use and source of technology, a product could be easily purchased in different ways and with different techniques by the customer or consumer. This process completely depends on the personal and daily acts of consumers as well as on the situation, they make purchase in. E grocer can easily offer and provide its product or complete product line in many different situations rather than only through their actual Web place or Web store. So this new ways of offering product to the consumers become good opportunities for the customers of these products and businesses.

Another huge and good opportunity for e grocer businesses is to be integrated with the activity planning and behavior of consumers/customers. The web based organizers and personal calendars of an event can provide different practical basis for/of their business services (Kruh., 2017). Like an example, based on the number of individuals who are attending an event, the e grocer and their dealers can propose and convince through a menu can create a good shopping list on the basis of menu. And this can become a huge opportunity for the customers of e grocery business.

Demand of E – Grocery in Al Ain City

UAE is mainly a famous destination for tourism and is mainly considered as a shopping attraction place in the whole Middle East. As per as Al Ain city is concerned, it has a huge demand for online grocery. There are different verities of outlets mainly located within the super markets. Nowadays people of Al Ain city are mostly using internet and internet based gadgets so they want to make all their transactions online instead of going to stores. Some of the huge examples of online grocery are,,,,, and A survey showed that most of the people living in Al Ain city are going towards online grocery (Jaramillo. and Chen, 2015). Overall, the retail market in UAE especially in Al Ain city has grown spectacularly over the past five years which shows that there is a huge demand of online grocery. The total sales are increased with 50 Percent to USD 19.75 Billion (DH 72.54 Billion).

There are thousands of online grocery and delivery websites in UAE specifically in Al Ain City. They are also known as online deliveries directors. People of Al Ain are demanding for online grocery that is why the numbers of websites is also increasing continuously. It was reported that demand of online delivery products such as gift delivery, grocery delivery and many other online grocery systems experienced a major growth in UAE particularly in Al Ain City. The reason of this growth was demand for online grocery by people of Al Ain.

Here of some of the examples of online retailing in UAE and in particular in Al Ain city and they are facing a huge traffic of customers due to the increased demand for these channels.  The examples are:

Organic seasonal fruits and Vegetable

Organic farmers in Al Ain city and allover Dubai grow best organic fruits and vegetables and then they deliver those fruits and vegetables to home through door to door service but the all the orders are made online by customers.

Flowers and Gifts

By using different online websites they make online selling of flowers and other gifts and make their home deliveries. They provide a wide scale of flowers and gifts solutions for the existing and potential customers. People in UAE especially in Al Ain city demand these gifts and flowers for different events (Chopra., 2016) like wedding ceremonies etc.

Fast Foods

There are different online stores who only deal with the supply of fast foods. They offer multiple types of fast foods products food their customers and they are linked with different retailers. They reach their customers when they make an online order.

The UAE grocery market is an emerging market for foreign importers. Domestically produced foods represent 25% of food products available at all retail stores. Many key retailers in UAE have partnered with foreign companies to import food products directly. UAE consumers are demanding greater convenience and healthier foods due to their busier lifestyle and growing awareness of health issues (Jaramillo. and Chen, 2015). Therefore, grocery retailers are adapting their services and products to meet these changes in demand.

With the increasing demand for online grocery in UAE especially in Al Ain the numbers of online websites are also increasing. There are some websites who work as online grocery retailers in UAE.


  • The Test
  • Giant
  • Ripe
  • Trolley
  • Fresh2door
  • Early bird
  • To Sum Up

There are two side of this discussion which is Enabler and inhibitors re Enabler and inhibitors. Enablers are those who provide all these services to consumers while inhibitors are some of the obstacles in way of providing these services which be related to humans of other things like technology etc. People are demanding for online grocery but there are some obstacles as well like some people have no reach of internet facilities so they cannot place an online order easily. Some of the other hurdles are lack of knowledge about online grocery, some people do not know about online grocery so they cannot avail these facilities.

With the increasing demand for online grocery in Al Ain city and overall in UAE, the awareness of this services is also on peak. Different online grocers make attractive advertisement for the purpose to make people aware of their services and tell them that how they can avail their services easily (Chopra., 2016). With this awareness most of the people who are demanding for this service and can afford it as well but do not know how to use this service. So they will come to know about the advantages of this service as well as the usage of these services via internet. They also use social media to remove all the inhibitors from the way this service is growing very rapidly.

Future Trends for e grocery

There are better trends for e grocery globally and locally in the future and these trends are growing and enhancing from current situation and time and this growth becomes effective and potential future trends for e grocery businesses. These trends are not limited to a specific or particular region or area but these trends are on both levels, global and local. Some of the future trends for e grocery globally and locally.


Global Trends

The net sales of e grocery or grocery through internet and e commerce platforms has reached 48 billion Dollars globally and this is noted that e grocery will be grown to nine plus percent of the total and overall market and will be 150 billion Dollars worldwide.

One of the growing areas of e grocery globally is Pakistan, the e grocery and e commerce industry of Pakistan has value of 30 million dollars and is continuously growing and will be reached to 600 million dollars by 2017 and this fact is conveying a clear message of increase of e grocery in future(Ogawara. et al., 2015). It may be difficult to gauge online grocery market size but it could be stated that e grocery can grow to be worth millions while considering global retain market of 48 billion dollars. There are 25 e grocery stores which are currently operating in Pakistan, the most well established of them are Cartpl, Tazamart, QnE, MandiExpress and much more.

Following are the main and major trends which shapes the global industry of e grocery.

It is a fact that mobile and mobile technology is the main gateway to entire world. It does not matters hugely matters now that how and businesses and consumers get conducted as the mobile technology is developing and growing (Ogawara. et al., 2015). Consumers of e grocery shop from comfort at their homes and it is continuously noted that consumers look for such comfort ability.

The mobile technology allows retailers to target and get connected with the consumers via this way and provide easy accessibility to all the products through this source and retailers are required to make it easy for their consumers to buy their products through mobile technology and this trend makes affection to the business over the world.

US has seen the largest place and market for e grocery and its continuous growth and development in online businesses and technologies makes and creates effective ways for e grocery retailers to enhance and expand its operation and businesses through this growth and trend of new technology and online retailing.

Online business and retailing is gateway to every global market and China is the hottest market for online retailing and business especially for future around 2018 to 2020 (Chopra., 2016). The technology uses and trends in china attract retailers and e grocery businesses to enhance and expand its product lines through this boom up technology of China and this creates a huge trend for e grocery in the future.

Local Trends (UAE)

The grocery market of UAE was worth 28.7 billion US$s in 2014-15 and currently representing 1.1% increase from 2013. The grocery market of UAE is divided into main five categories of the overall market share. The market share of grocery is smaller comparatively but is enough higher than other Gulf countries and markets.

Retail Market Trends

Retailing in UAE is increasing by more than 2 billion US$s each year. Food retailing is continuously increasing by 1 billion US$s every year. Spending of consumers of UAE is also growing and increasing up to 10 billion US$s per year and per capita spending of consumers is expected to be 34,690 US$s in 2016. Spending of groceries is effectively grows by 1 billion US$s each year and per capita spending in 2016 on grocery is estimated/stated to be 4,068 US$s (Jaramillo. and Chen, 2015).

Consumer Trends

Consumers’ trends are their searching and looking for bargains due to the huge rise and increasing in living cost and developing of consumers’ interest in healthier products and foods.

The income of individuals of UAE is continuously increasing and rising, their living costs are also increasing similarly. Residents of UAE are feared of rising prices of groceries because their income is high but it is also fixed. High scale changes and increases in prices and costs of dairy etc has not been significantly occurred but the prices of eatable product has been raised extremely unexpectedly since 2015-16 (Jaramillo. and Chen, 2015). So consumers are looking for bargains which counter and control increasing prices of even all grocery products and daily using items and this will be an important and attractive future trend in UAE.

With the development and awareness the UAE consumers mostly look for better healthy products with high quality and with reasonable price ranges. Fresh foods and fruits, fresh vegetables and other different natural products, foods and supplements market and industry will be having an effective and larger customer base in the future. UAE citizens and consumers also looking for sugar free and gluten free products and items (Ruhlman., 2017). So such demands are increasing and will be the future trend for groceries locally (UAE).


  1. , A. 2016. Direction of Online Retailing “In the Context of United Arab Emirates”. 36.


  1. , C. & CHEN, M. 2015. Grocery Retail Trends in the United Arab Emirates. 9.


  1. , W. 2017. The truth about online and e grocery consumers and retailers. 40.


  1. , S., JASON. & ZHANG., Q. 2015. Internet grocery business in Japan: current business models and future trends. 9.


, M. 2017. Grocery: The Buying and Selling of Food New York, USA.

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