Professional Nursing Practice

Professional Nursing Practice

Question A

The theory that is well represented as per this study’s nursing practice is Virginia Henderson’s need theory. According to this concept, an almost one hundred percent efficient nursing health care is achieved by teaching patients the act of self-care which they will implement upon being discharged. Research has shown that 90% of recurring cases of medical illnesses are caused as a result of the general lack of knowledge on how to better care of themselves (Atkins, Britton & Lacey, 2011)). In light of this fact, the need theory was implemented to help patients take better care of themselves during and prior to treatment. This prevents reoccurrences of complications that further adds to the burdens of medical personnel. In short, the theory emphasizes that awareness on proper means of self-care should be provided alongside the actual health care. The nurse’s job is hence split into two directives which all have to be achieved for good health care to be administered. The nursing theory can be used to predict excellent nursing practices. These are primarily the methods which incorporate awareness on self-care more so in medical conditions which warrant this (Atkins et al., 2011).

The theory is applicable to my practice since I always make sure to educate the patients on what they should do to enhance their recovery upon being discharged (Atkins et al., 2011). This is usually through handling of pamphlets or booklets that showcase all of the activities they would need to indulge in as they embark toward their recovery. I very much encourage asking questions regarding the topic, and I am willing to answer anyone thrown my way. Lastly, as a means of assessment, I ask the patients what they need to do to take proper care of themselves and judge their learnedness by the responses they give (Atkins et al., 2011). This constitutes the theory and how it relates overall to my practice as a nurse.


Question B

Two influential figures as per my nursing practice are Clara Barton and Florence Nightingale. These two are some of the best nurse’s history has to offer. They are primarily well known for contributions in the nursing field. Barton, for instance, was referred to as the “Angel of the Battlefield” during the civil war. This was attributed to the fact that she worked tirelessly to tend to the sick and the injured during the highly acclaimed Franco-Prussian War. Her hard work and commitment not only earned her the above mentioned honorary title, but she was also assigned special duties by President Lincoln himself (Butts & Rich, 2016).

Florence Nightingale also earned her mark in the nursing field by her sanitation improvements during the Crimean war (Grace, 2010). This, in turn, led to increased nursing and doctor training in order to deliver impeccable health care services to the casualties of war. Her efforts are solely attributed to the establishment of the Army Medical College and the Nightingale School for nurses. Her efforts also earned her an honorary title as she was now referred to as “The Lady of the Lamp.”

These two figures made significant contributions toward the healthcare of war casualties. Their sheer commitment and zeal to serve toward a time where health casualties were very many are the reasons as to why I term them as the two most prominent figures influencing my nursing practice since I wish to replicate such commitment in the process of administering health care (Grace, 2010). Although they both contributed to providing health care to the casualties of war, Nightingale’s efforts led to the establishment of awareness schools.

Question C

A board of nursing such as the state board of nursing is primarily charged with the task of regulating nursing practice (Grace, 2010). This can be achieved through a significant degree of acts such as controlling the designated working hours for each rank of the nursing practice, regulation of the pay which is dependent on the amount of work a nurse has been subjected to, the drugs used, the most appropriate measures to be employed, the hospitals which nurses are assigned to are just some of the roles the State Board of Nursing is involved with. Any activity which regulates nursing practices is all from the State board of nursing (Ulrich, 2012).

A professional nursing organization, on the other hand, works hand in hand to advocate for nurses. This shows that it shares some distinct similarities in terms of roles as a nursing board. An example of a professional nursing organization is the American Nursing Association (ANA) (Ulrich, 2012). It advocates grievances faced by nurses such as lack of proper and sufficient pay, being overworked, the increment of payment and so on. Any complaints are forwarded here.

These two nursing organizations influence my practice very much. Any ideas I have concerning how best a particular nursing practice may be improved will be transmitted to the first organization (State Board of Nursing) while any complaints I may have concerning the general state of the nursing practice will be directly sent to the ANA (Ulrich, 2012). Failure to maintain my license requirements would deem me unqualified for my line of work, and thus my license would be on the verge of revocation. The nursing license for a compact state allows one to be tied down exclusively to a single state while for a noncompact allows for movement.

Question D

Regulatory agencies play a significant role in influencing nursing practices. Examples of these agencies which will form an integral part of this discussion include the FDA (Food and Drug Administration Agency) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicare Services (CMS). They play the following roles in the overall administration of proper healthcare (Grossman, 2013).

The FDA, according to its profile, is involved in the promotion of public health through monitoring of food stuff consumed by individuals. They are also involved in monitoring some select drugs such as tobacco which people consume. They primarily work to ensure proper nutrition since a large portion of illnesses and infections which warrant nursing care are as a result of improper diet. This agency will very much influence my nursing practice (Grossman, 2013). The discussion above warranted proper health care through the teaching of patients on proper self-care techniques. In essence, the self-care techniques taught usually revolve around ensuring proper nutrition. The agency is hence very conversant with my nursing practices.

The second body, CMS plays a large role in fostering health insurance more so among children. Since insurance advocates for an uninterrupted medical care for the best results, this shows that the agency plays an important and integral part in influencing my overall nursing practice (Grossman, 2013). The implications which may be made in the event that a patient asks for an alternative therapy may be that the agencies are not as effective in the implementation of their services. For instance, a patient asking for alternative food therapy may be as a result of the FDA not providing essential food therapy while the implications made as a consequence of a patient asking for an alternative treatment in terms of the CMS may be due to the fact that the insurance money is not covering all that is intended to (Grossman, 2013).

Question E

The states chosen as per this discussion are Kentucky and Ohio. These two states share some common similarities. In both states, the nursing practice hinges on private-not-for -profit and for profit purposes. Research has also indicated that these two states perform the exact same recruitment and staffing techniques. This is basically in terms of the qualifications and the hospital being recruited to upon being signed. The one major disparity which exists as per these states is solely that Kentucky requires a nurse to securely verify whether a performance act is within the scope of practice for a designated system (Grossman, 2013). Ohio does not

Registered Nurses, (RN), Registered Practice Nurses (RPN) and Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVN) all have similar job descriptions as per their practices (Ulrich, 2012) The only real difference is in the degree of qualifications. Kentucky views an RPN practice as a practice heavily based on knowledge acquired from school while Ohio has a somewhat different view on this. Ohio sees RPN practice to be heavily influenced by experience as well as education. In terms of Registrar Nurses, the only real difference between the two states is the fact that practice in Kentucky is heavily tied down to the concept of authorities and ranks while Ohio does not dwell very much on this. Finally, in terms of the LVN, Kentucky views its scope of practice to be heavily tied down to the professional organizations such as ANA (Grossman, 2013).

The two states are very similar in terms of their rules of delegation. This can be attributed to the closeness in terms of the geographic position of the two states. This is solely responsible for the borrowing of ideas between the two states. The only difference lies in the structure of the delegations themselves since they are based off from the constitution of the two states (Grossman, 2013). The rules for safe practice as per this discussion are very similar for the two states. The rules dictate that the nursing practice should work hand in hand to reflect the safety standards which are designated as per the hospital’s policies. Any act found to contravene this law is very punishable by license revocation.

Question F

The following distinctions exist as per the discussion of the different nursing ranks under the following subheadings. A scientist, in general terms, is involved in testing various scientific phenomena and finding a marked relationship between them (Grossman, 2013). In essence, all of the three categories are comprised of nurses. An RN’s job is more essential, scope-wise when compared to that of an LPN. This is in terms of scientific work. An LPN can expand the grounds of research far beyond that permitted for an RN. An RN, for instance, cannot be allowed to conduct experiments on human test subjects. An unlicensed nurse is only subject to instruction and cannot be allowed to partake any serious research activity (Ulrich, 2012).

A detective is involved in putting pieces of evidence together in order to solve a case. Since investigative processes correspond very well with scientific investigations, the scope for a scientist mentioned above very well corresponds to that of a detective (Ulrich, 2012). All three nurses are allowed to investigate, although there are limits pertaining to the seriousness of the case in question. An assistant is subject to instruction. However, she or he is allowed to provide some meaningful insight based on their understanding of the case in question. An environmental health manager has a job description that is well suited to an LPN. This is mainly because the job involves a lot of practical work which is the job description of an LPN. An assistant is subject to instruction as always, and an RN can also pose as an assistant to an LPN as per this job description (Ulrich, 2012).

Question G

The provisions chosen are as follows:

First Provision:

The nurse, in all professional relationships, practices with compassion and respect for the inherent dignity, worth, and uniqueness of every individual, unrestricted by considerations of social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of health problems.

Second Provision

To fight for the rights, respect, and dignity of the patient.

These two would help in the process of delivering excellent health care to individuals. The first one expresses passion in nursing practice. Doing one’s work with passion is the basis of achieving one hundred percent efficiency. In short, the first provision influences nursing practice since it advocates for passion while performing the various nursing practices. The second provision allows for giving the patient respect. This is vital for productive relations which may promote adequate nursing care. The major error made includes a mix up in prescription medicine. The patient given the wrong medication showed a marked decline in health standards as time went by. It was by chance that this was discovered just in time and proper medication administered. The ANA provisions, as already seen above, advocate for the patients being the top most priority when delivering medical care. This does not allow for any margin of error to be made in accordance with their treatment. The ANA fights against errors such as this which may put the patient’s life in danger.

Question H

The four leadership qualities which may be applied to represent sheer excellence in nursing include the following.

  • Respectfulness
  • Efficiency
  • Passion Toward one’s line of work
  • Commitment

A leader at the bed side interacts more with the patient. Trustworthiness would allow for gaining approval and trust of the patients. As a result, they may share some crucial and valuable information which may accelerate the rate of their recovery. Being a leader of a large nursing team warrants the use of all of the above-mentioned values. Respectfulness goes both ways hence I would earn their respect by giving them theirs. Trustworthiness will make me become reliable, and they can also share some of their pressing matters to me. Passion and commitment will make me lead effectively. The interdisciplinary team is charged with offering penalties in the event rules and regulations are violated. This is usually done prior to amid investigations and a mini hearing. The above four qualities would allow me to testify in most of the cases. The organization has a comprehensive structure with a firm Constitution which advocates for ethical nursing practices.


Atkins, K., Britton, B. & Lacey, S. (2011). Ethics and law for Australian nurses. Cambridge Port Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

Butts, J. & Rich, K. (2016). Nursing ethics: across the curriculum and into practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Grace, P. (2010). Nursing ethics and professional responsibility in advanced practice. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Ulrich, C. (2012). Nursing ethics in everyday practice. Indianapolis, Ind: Sigma Theta Tau International.

Grossman, S. (2013). Mentoring in Nursing: A Dynamic and Collaborative Process. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

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Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies

Week IV, Question 4: Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies


Donald Steury posted Feb 17, 2018 7:33 PM



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Great Depression and the Liberal Democracies

Read: Week 4 Learning Resources

Compare the responses to the Great Depression by the Western European democracies to those of the United States and Nazi Germany. What resulted from the application of classical economic policies to the problems brought about by the Great Depression? What policies obtained better results?


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Voice Technology

Voice Technology


Today, most businesses are increasingly relying on information technology so as to effectively conduct their business operations. More and more businesses are challenged with the most effective applicable methods when using the voluminous amount of data in order to steer growth as well as to improve their competitive position (Vaughan, 2011). Recently, I had the opportunity to experiment with information lines that have become a common medium of communication by many businesses as well as in public services. In this regard, I inquired for different services such as; direction search, horoscope, news feed as well as Oracle’s share stock price. However, to get varying experiences, I used different accents and locations. In this paper, I will share my personal experience and investigate ways of creating and improving mobile friendly websites while at the same time seek to explore services that may be incorporated to voice recognition websites.

  • Question two

My personal experience was quite eye-opening as different systems made me to be aware that both content and sound of my voice have the capacity of providing clues about my personal dialect and emotional state. Therefore;

  1. When I tried to use other accents that do not naturally belong to me, I came to realize that my message got distorted across different communication lines.
  2.  I discovered that effective speaking is more concerned with actually being in a position of speaking in a public context, while at the same time reflecting both clarity and confidence in my voice (Vaughan, 2011).
  3.  I realized that effective voice is achieved in an environment where there is neither noise nor pressure to conform to any expectations or rules. This is because as I tried to communicate in noisy environment where there was pressure, my message tended to get distorted.
  • Question three

While designing a web design, it is critical to incorporate designs that are accessible from all types of mobile devices such as the huge flat-screen and tiny devices. Therefore;

  1. I will ensure that designs incorporate strategies that ensure that they are adaptive and responsive, besides displaying well in various devices (Woods & United States, 2003).
  2. The web designs are supposed to be simplified so that more people are able to access and use them. To achieve this, I may decide to view on certain platforms such as GooglrGoMoMeter, so as to identify any kind of changes that are needed in the design.
  3. I will ensure that design have large font sizes, simpler page design, big touchable buttons as well as having visible critical information concerning cooking recipes.
  4.  Finally to get consumers for the cooking recipes, I will provide important personal details such as name, phone number and any accessible link at the extreme top left in the web site’s home page (Woods & United States, 2003).
  • Question four

As a web designer I know that voice recognition website may not be in a position to speak the exact same way they speak under normal conditions such as when using slang (Pautasso, Bussler & Gschwind, 2008). To improve user experience in for cooking consumers, there are several strategies that I may employ;

  1. The first main important service is having an extensive list of voice commands that would be effective during formatting and editing processes of texts.
  2. Secondly, it is critical to have a dictation that is functional on any type of browser or app that has a virtual keyboard.
  3. Lastly, most consumers would want to multitask while dictating. For this reason, having the services of a voice dictation app would be an ideal solution.


Vaughan, J. (2011). Web Scale Discovery Services: A Library Technology Report. Chicago: ALA Editions.

Woods, W. T., & United States. (2003). Contracting for information technology services. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

Pautasso, C., Bussler, C., & Gschwind, T. (2008). Emerging Web services technology. Basel: Birkhauser.

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Decision support system

  1. Develop written responses for the following Questions and Problems from page 194 in the textbook: Q&P 4, 8, 10, 11 and 12. (Note: You may want to refer to the U. S. Statistical Abstract, the Census Bureau website, and resources available at the UT Library Web site.)
  2. In your own words, explain why a decision support system (DSS) can add to the value of a marketing information system. Give an example of how a decision support system might help.

Decision support system (DSS) has been integrated by marketing managers to ensure that information found in the marketing information system is correctly interpreted. It provides more exceptional details from which the manager can quickly come up with decisions based on the marketing strategies that they could employ to ensure the success of the business. For instance, an integrated marketing dashboard might show most customers on hold which will make the manager call in more staff to pick up their calls.

  1. How is the situation analysis different from the data collection step? Can both these steps be done at the same time to obtain answers sooner? Is this wise?

Situation analysis is the step whereby the manager tries to find the causal factor of the problem that is in the business. In most cases, it involves proper scrutiny of the marketing information system (MIS) to dig dipper on the reasons for a decline in a profitability aspect of the business. Through the process, the reasons for the problem might be directly the same data collected for the next step.  Both steps can be done at the same time, and it ensures, that answers are gotten as early as possible.

  1. With so much secondary information now available free or at low cost over the Internet, why would a firm ever want to spend the money to do primary research?

The difference between the two source of obtaining data and importance of one over the other is the fact that secondary data are mostly related to general issues that affect the business. There are the issues which run across most of the companies and do not cut down into specific problems that a company is facing. The primary data is always essential since the managers are in a position to solve the current issues that face a company.

  1. If a firm were interested in estimating the distribution of income in the state of California, how could it proceed? Be specific.

The firm should look into the United States census bureau statistics and find out the total population of California State. Income distribution, in this case, will refer to an economy which is usually calculated by dividing the gross domestic product of the state by the total population which is found in the data. Gross domestic product refers to the value of all goods and services that are produced in the state in that particular year.

  1. Develop written responses to the Online Toolkit exercises found in Chapter 7 on page 180 and page 183 using the required format.

Online toolkit pg. 180

The activity tracker with the most favorable sentiment is Fitbit with 16, and the one with the most negative opinion have a tie of 2 that runs in all of them. The ratio of positive to negative sentiment of Acer liquid leap stands at 7:2 while that of Fitbit is 16:2 and the one for Garmin Vivo smart are 6:2. Garmin Vivo smart negative sentiment is based on a review from a customer about the lousy quality of the hybrid watch. Negative opinion on the Fitbit is a concern that questions whether the Samsung gear 2 is worth. The client brings a concern that 200 dollars might be a lot of money to purchase it. Lastly about the Acer liquid leap the main negative sentiment is based on the limited availability of the product. Through an analysis of the measure of strength, sentiment, passion and reach based on Fitbit analyses it is clear that the information could be used by the marketing manager to ensure that the product awareness is extended and production of more competitive products to increases its competitive advantage.

Online toolkit pg. 183

The most important thing about the use of survey monkey to conduct the survey is the fact that they people can fill the questions asked at their own convenient time and place. It will only require them to have internet access for that to happen. The other import thing is the fact that most of the people who will complete the questionnaire are learned and are in a position to provide credible information to be used by the researcher. However, most of the questionnaires are not finished. The respondent rate which is the number of people who respond is meager. Most of the research problems that are tackled by an online survey such as the survey monkey is the customer satisfaction in business among others.

  1. Develop written responses to the Ethical Dilemma found on page 191.

As a marketing manager, I will ensure that the respondents are taken back to the question and have a proper understanding of the issue. After that, I will ask them to answer the question afresh to ensure that the research questions can be accounted for. Through this, it will provide that I get information from the respondents of the most critical reasons for the research. The data will be so fundamental for the salesperson to deduce the strategies that might have been brought forward.

  1. Develop written responses for the Assignment 7 Application Exercise found in the Assignment 7 Folder.

Situation 2

Ms. Perez tried the searches given in the example above, but each search has returned a report with hundreds of links. To help narrow things down for an initial look, she has decided to try to find only marketing plans that reference the SiLube brand.

Search Term: ‘marketing plan’    SiLube

Explanation: the search above will open all sites that will relate to marketing plans that the SiLube brand has used. The key word is starting with the marketing plan then the name of the brand.

Situation 3

Ms. Perez was talking with another manager about trying to improve the new-product development process for SiLube brands. Her colleague said, “I got a flyer on a new-product development conference that’s going to be San Antonio, or maybe it was Dallas, next month. It might be a good place to get ideas. But, I don’t remember the details about the conference, and unfortunately, I threw the flyer away.”

Search Term: SiLube ‘product development.’

Explanation: the search should find all pages on the internet that has any information about SiLube product development. It should not only see pages that concern products development of other goods but should be just about the SiLube brand.

Situation 4

Jacob Mann is the marketing manager for a biotech startup firm that is developing a new medicine for treatment of respiratory disorders. Its first product is showing promising results in first stage clinical trials with patients, but it will be some time before the firm will be able to get approval from the Food and Drug Administration to release the drug. Mann has learned from a contact at the American Lung Association that another firm, United Therapeutics, is working on several products in the same area. Mann is interested in finding out anything he can about United Therapeutics or its LungRx subsidiary.

Search Term: United Therapeutics ‘LungRX subsidiary.’

.Explanation: the search term will ensure that Mann can find all the information that relates to a lungRx subsidiary in the United Therapeutics. It will involve all the activities that have been undertaken based on the lungRx subsidiary.

Situation 5

Greta Cheney is evaluating the market for various types of household appliances and wants to see if there is Census Bureau data available on the Internet for how many households have microwave ovens, air conditioners, trash compactors, and dishwashers.

Search Term: census bureau ‘household’s appliances’

Explanation: the search word will ensure that Greta is provided with information based on any census data that relates to household appliances which are ovens, microwaves among others

Situation 6

Ira DeBerry is the sales manager for Midwest Ford, a large Ford dealership with facilities in some cities. In the past, the Ford Taurus was one of the firm’s best-selling models, but since the Taurus was redesigned and the list price was raised, sales have been slow. DeBerry’s salespeople have complained that they keep losing sales to the Toyota Camry. DeBerry wants to prepare a sales kit to give his sales reps a lot more information about the Taurus, including information based on what favorable product reviews have said. He did an initial search of the Internet to look for automobile reviews. His search on the word Taurus produced many thousands of links, but as he started reviewing the links in detail he found that most of them were to web pages concerned with astrology (where Taurus was usually referenced as one of the astrological “signs.”)

Search Term: Ford Taurus ‘automobile review.’

Explanation: when DeBerry clicks the search word above it will directly take him to sites that are related to the reviews of the automobile where he wants information from. The links will be based on what people and manufacturers have said before about the vehicle but not about the astrological sign

Situation 7

DeBerry (case above) has decided to refine his search to see if he can find Web pages that discuss both the Taurus and the Camry and that discuss crash tests.

Search Term: Taurus and Camry automobile ‘crash test.’

Explanation: the above term will ensure that DeBerry gets the information about the crash test of the two motor vehicles but not any other information apart from that.



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Branding Of Products

Chapter 8 Branding Of Products

  1. Develop written responses to the Ethical Dilemma found in Chapter 8 on page 201.

Offering a quality work will depend on the effects of the outcome based on the decisions made by the stakeholders. Therefore I would consider informing the commissioner of what happened and being in a position to wait for the outcome of whether the contract will be terminated or not. Being honest and revealing the truth will place my company in a position of being trusted when other activities on the contract come up.

  1. Develop a written response to the Online Toolkit Exercises found in Chapter 8 on pages 204 and 210 using the required format.

Pg. 204

Nike Company has added services such as providing its clients with applications such as Nike training club, Nike running club app which ensures that their clients who are runners can receive training on making themselves better. The company also provides services such events which make runners come together for competitions and also having fun together. Through this, the company is placed in a better position of getting good reviews and hence increasing their competitive advantage.

Pg. 210

When it comes to cheering, individual branding is evident, and the target customer for the product is a household who usually cleans their clothes using a washing machine. The main enticing factor regarding downy is the branding of its fragrance that makes customer have its choice. The target customers are mothers with small children and a family too. Drift  laundry is similar to downy as it targets mothers with small children. Gain is also a cleaning product from plant material and mainly targets people who want soften clothes after washing.

  1. Develop written responses to the following Questions and Problems from page 223 in the textbook: Q&P 2, 5, 9, 11, and 15.

  2. Review the Under Armour case study that opens this chapter. Using three different consumer product classes as an example, describe how a customer would think about and buy Under Armour products. Then examine the marketing mix considerations in Exhibit 8–6 for each of the product classes you chose. What would Under Armour need to do to support the marketing strategy for each?

Under Armor is a company that developed the unique t-shirts for sports to supply to team players and coaches. Based on the consumer product classes a customer could purchase a product from them to be the end user at an impulse due to its features, it refers to unplanned purchase. On another view, the team can buy the product based on the heterogeneous aspect of the product. Some customers will also buy the product based on its specialty and ability to withstand adverse weather conditions for the player.

Regarding exhibit 8-6, based on the specialty of the product the company should ensure that they do not overprice the product for customers to buy in bulk. Regarding the heterogeneous aspect and class of products, the company will need to invest more in promotion through personal selling which will make customers buy through being convinced. Lastly, on the impulse class of the product, the company should focus on the distribution of the product and ensure that they are easily accessible and available.

  1. What products are being offered by a shop that specializes in bicycles? By a travel agent? By a supermarket? By a new car dealer?

A shop that specializes in bicycles will mostly offer bicycles spare parts such as tires and rims. The shop will also sell cycling kits like reflector, helmet and cycling shoes. A travel agent will sell tour packages to tourists and organization interested in traveling. A supermarket on the other side will sell household products such as laundry detergents, electronics, and home furnishings.

  1. Is a well-known brand valuable only to the owner of the brand?

A brand that is widely known is not only valuable to the owner of the brand but also to the buyer. Shopping for well-branded products always makes shopping easier for buyers. In most cases, the buyers are directly connected to the products. The good brand also changes the image of a company. The customers are also in a position to make buying decisions easily due to the branded products.

  1. List five brand names and indicate what product is associated with the brand name. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the brand name

Adidas for Adidas shoes, Michelin for motor tires, puma for puma shoes and clothes, coca cola for soft drinks such as Fanta and yahoo for browser engines. Adidas has been associated with a strength of being long-lasting products together with Michelin. Puma shoes are known for good quality regarding enduring rough terrain. Yahoo browser engines are known for their safety from malware during browsing. However, they face the weakness of being slow while browsing. Coca-Cola has been widely recognized for being unhealthy although it is consumed globally.

  1. You operate a small hardware store with an emphasis on manufacturer brands and have barely been breaking even. Evaluate the proposal of a large wholesaler that offers a full line of dealer-branded hardware items at substantially lower prices. Specify any assumptions necessary to obtain a definite answer.

The best part of the deal is that I will be able to obtain better earning from the manufacturer’s brands since their brands are strong and sold at a lower price. Integrating the products with strong brand names increases the chances of customers purchasing the products since they recognize the products which make buying easier. Also, the manufacturer will also ensure that there is the heavy promotion of the brand that will not need adequate marketing for the products he/she sells.

  1. Develop written responses as required for the MARS COM Application Exercise for Assignment 8 found in the Assignment 8 Folder.

Item 1

The target market is a household that contains young children who can be able to read and eat for themselves. The product represents a kid’s seat that they can use to feed on or study. The kind of branding represented is a generic brand that features a single product that does not have a brand name. The branding, in this case, is being done by the manufacturer while the classification in which thee products falls is under convenience product.

Item 2

The target market is the patients who might be suffering from dental related issues. The ad represents a branding of healthcare services offered to patients. The product is branded to enhance the efficiency of customers using their insurance coverage. In this case, the person who is doing the branding is the dealer who is the doctor Hashmi. The product falls under the business product which concerns on how the consumer thinks about what they are offered.

Item 3

The target market of the ad is a farmer who owns a tractor or other farming machinery or someone who does business using the mechanism. The product includes lubrication oil for the machinery used by farmers while conducting different activities on the farm. Philips 66 is a product used by farmers to lubricate the wheels of their tractors and other parts to ensure that they are maintained. The element of branding represented is the individual branding whereby a single product is branded on its own. The product classification of the ad is the business product since they are bought to be able to produce other products.

Item 4

The ad is targeting the adults who might have experienced cough and cold illness. The products explain that it relieves a patient from mucus, cough and nasal congestion which patients might be suffering from. The branding of the product is based on consumer branding since the end product is consumed by the customer entirely while the person doing the branding is the manufacturer of the product. The product is under family classification since it provides different products with different capabilities.

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Let’s Talk About Sex

Let’s Talk About Sex

Please choose at least two per heading to answer and bring to class to debrief. (If there is only one question, then answer that one)

The following questions can guide discussions of Let’s Talk About Sex and are loosely broken

down in order of the film’s sections.


  • Kelsey and Her Mother
  1. Were you surprised when Kelsey revealed that she had had sex, but had never told her mom? Why or why not?


  1. For parents, do you think your teen would tell you they had had sex? For teens, would you tell your parents when you became sexually active? Why or why not?


  1. Do you think most parents and teens have frank discussions about sexuality? What factors might keep parents and teens from talking? How can teens and parents improve their communication about sex?


– FastFact Teens who have had a “good talk” about sexuality with their parents are more likely to practicesafer sex behaviors than teens that haven’t.


  • School for Pregnant/Parenting Teens
  1. Do you think sex education programs that stress abstinence as the only correct choice for teens are a good investment of education time and funds?

– FastFact The federal government has spent over $1.5 billion on abstinence-only-until-marriage programs.

Abstinence-only-until-marriage programs prohibit honest discussion of the health benefits of contraception for sexually active youth. Concurrently, they have repeatedly been proven ineffective – and to contain bias and inaccuracies.


  • Fayetteville, NC (DVD only)
  1. Members of the Fayetteville community have different opinions about when it’s OK for teens to have sex. Do you think it is realistic to expect young people to wait until marriage? If not, what factors should they consider when making the decision?

FastFact By age 19, 70 percent of young people have engaged in sexual activity. Ninety-five percent of Americans have sex before they are married.


  • Loaded Language Around Sex
  1. Does sex belong in the same category as an addiction or a contaminant? Have you noticed other trends in the words people use to discuss sex and sexuality?

FastFact Some abstinence-only-until-marriage programs associate sexual activity with contamination or filth by telling teens that having sex before marriage is like chewing someone else’s gum or drinking their spit.


  • The Dutch Approach toTeen Sexuality
  1. Would you feel comfortable discussing sexuality as openly with your parents, or your teens, as the Dutch do? Why or why not?

FastFact The U.S. teen pregnancy rate is over four times that of the Netherlands; the U.S. HIV rate is over three times that of the Netherlands.


  1. The film depicts “sleepovers,” teens being allowed to have partners sleep in the same room in their parents’ home. What are your thoughts? Are there any situations in which you think this practice might be a reasonable one?


  1. Do you think parents should make condoms and contraception available to teens? Why or why not?

FastFact Research has found that having condoms and contraception available does not make teens more likely to have sex.


  1. Do the teens you know carry condoms? What do you think of teens that carry condoms? What do you think of teens who don’t carry condoms?

FastFact Thirty-nine percent of sexually active high school students did not use a condom the last time they had sex.



  • Abstinence Messages
  1. Do you think virginity pledge programs are effective for young people? Why or why not?

FastFact Although virginity pledge programs do help some teens delay sex, more than 88 percent of pledgers break their pledge and have sex before marriage. Plus, once pledgers begin to have sex, they are less likely to use contraception than non-pledgers.


  1. Which approach do you think is a better societal investment: discouraging adolescents from having sex or teaching kids about safer sex? Is it really an either/or question?

FastFact Programs which include information about contraception and condoms, as well as abstinence, have been shown to help young people delay sexual initiation as well as protect themselves when they do have sex. Teens who receive comprehensive sex education are not more likely to have sex than those who do not receive comprehensive sex ed.


  • Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual , and Transgender (GLBT) Teens
  1. Do you think it is important that schools include GLBT teens in sex education lessons? Why or why not? How can parents make sure their needs are met?


  • HIV Outreach in Washington, DC
  1. Are the teens you know worried about getting HIV, or do they think it’s not a threat?

FastFact The CDC estimates that about 1/3 of new

HIV infections occur among youth under age 30.


  1. How does shame around sexuality contribute to poor sexual health outcomes?


  • Leah and Lizzie (Oregon)
  1. Do you agree with Lizzie’s approach that teaching about good relationships is the priority for young people, with whether or not they’re having sex less of an issue?


  1. The minister featured in this section of the film, and Oregon’s sex education policies, support open communication about sexuality in the school, houses of worship, and at home. Do you think Oregon is on the right track? Why or why not? Could your community adopt these practices? Why or why not?

FastFact Oregon’s rates of teen pregnancy, HIV, and STIs are much lower than national rates.


  • Conclusion
  1. Many adults believe that if you talk about sex, it encourages teens to go out and have sex. Do you believe that withholding information about sex protects kids and teens, or harms them?


  1. How can communities support parents’ communication with their kids?


  1. When it comes to sex education, do you think it’s possible to put politics and ideology aside?


  1. While this film addresses cultural attitudes about sex and their impact on teens, many other factors also affect teens’ sexual health, including poverty, lack of access to health care, and inequitable access to quality education and economic opportunities. Did the film address these issues? How do you think they affect young people’s sexual health? What could government and/or communities do to address these issues? Which factors do you think most fuel the teen sexual health crisis?


  1. What do you think should be done to improve sexual health in the U.S.?

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Dictator Sweepstakes

Week IV, Question 1: Dictator Sweepstakes

Dictator Sweepstakes

Take one or more individuals from the list below. Briefly classify them as traditional/authoritarian, totalitarian, fascist, and/or communist. Why did they seize power? How valid were their reasons?

Adolf Hitler

Antanas Smetona

Antonio Salazar

Bela Kun

Carol II

Engelbert Dollfuß

Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde

Heinrich Brüning

Ioannis Metaxas

Joseph Pilsudski

Joseph Stalin

Jozef Tiso

Kārlis Ulmanis

King Alexander

King Boris

Konstantin Päts

Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt von Schuschnigg

Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja

Miklos Horthy

Vidkun Quisling

Zog I


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sources essay

sources essay

Your third writing assignment in WRTG 391 will be a synthesis of sources essay, often called a literature review.

Please watch video on WA #3 — approaching the synthesis of sources essay.  Then complete the following task.

Imagine that you are working for department within a large company.  The manager of your department is considering allowing workers in your department to telework, in other words, to work from home. 

However, your manager is not sure what to expect from this possible change.

She is not sure what the advantages, pitfalls, unexpected issues, etc. are of allowing teleworking. For example, she is not sure whether workers become less productive because they will be working from home and not supervised.  She also considers the possibility that workers will become more productive because they won’t have to worry about traffic and parking.  They won’t have to take large amounts of time off to get children to a doctor’s appointment, to see a doctor themselves, to take care of errands, etc.  It is possible that working from home will improve productivity. 

Other questions abound in her mind.  For example, how many days a week should the workers be allowed to telework?  Should they be limited to one day?  Two days?  Or should they be unlimited to telework as many days as they would like per week?

In addition, she is not sure if everyone should be allowed to telework or if perhaps only people in certain positions should be allowed to telework.  For example, she knows that the janitor cannot telework.  His job could not be done at a distance.  But some individuals could telework, as their jobs involve meetings and other functions that could be accomplished at a distance.

Overall, your manager is somewhat at a loss on this issue. 

Your manager has asked you to review the literature on teleworking.  She has asked that you submit a literature review to her next month on the topic of teleworking.

From what you have gleaned in this class about what a literature review is, what is your manager asking you to do?

  • Does she want a proposal that supportsa new teleworking arrangement?
  • Does she want a persuasive paper that takes a stand againstteleworking?
  • Or does she want something entirely different from those two options?


Please give your answer in a paragraph of 5-10 sentences.

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Motivation and Emotion

Motivation and Emotion


In terms of psychology, there is a clear and distinct difference between motivation and emotion (Talamo, 2012). While motivation is the coherent energized state toward the desire to achieve something, emotions are the feelings encompassed in the reaction of different hormones in our bodies (Talamo, 2012). For example, the hormone dopamine is responsible for the emotions of love, affection etc. (Compton & Hoffman, 2013). Despite the disparities presented in their individual definitions, it is important to note that there, are distinct similarities between the two concepts that allows them to be considered as a pair rather than individually (Compton & Hoffman, 2013).

Question 1

            Motivation can simply be defined as the reasons behind certain behaviors or characters (Nevid, 2012). The reasons referred to as motives, may be either internal or external. Internal motives may be considered the individual’s morals, ethical code and general character (Nevid, 2012). Others such as emotion may also suffice. External motives, or external events, are so many that they are actually defined in the context of the situation. Overall, they may be reasons behind behavior (Compton & Hoffman, 2013). Internal motives, as stated above, constitute the individual’s mental makeup (Compton & Hoffman, 2013). The elements include key character traits, ethics, moral code, and emotion. The factors are more widespread in individuals since the way one was brought up constitutes their character (Reeve, 2015). Internal motives hence can be thought to reside within us since our very own existence.

External motives, as already explained depend on the context of the event (Reeve, 2015). For example, if an individual whose parents are killed files a lawsuit, then seeking revenge is the external motivator. Someone else who is in a different situation other than individual who is seeking a lawsuit cannot feel the motivation (Deckers, 2010). Given the obvious distinction between the two, a conviction prevails that a person’s choices are related to the internal motivations rather than the external (Reeve, 2015). A person will always act according to their character, even in light of the external motivation (Compton & Hoffman, 2013). If the individual stated above, received teachings that it is never correct to revenge or to pay back others for their misdeeds, he or she may reason that revenge is not what the deceased family member would have wanted, hence may opt out of seeking it. However, the individuals may proceed to file a lawsuit to ensure that no one else suffers the same fate. Overall, the individuals will make judgments according to their characters (Deckers, 2010).

Once, I worked with someone, we had made an agreement in which I was to correct the grammatical mistakes in the various reports he was required to submit by his company since he was not well versed in English. Once I finished with a dozen of the reports, I requested for payment and the individual adamantly failed to return my calls nor reply my texts. I gave up trying to reach him. Some days later, he accidentally sent some money to my PayPal account via mobile. I do not understand what the problem was on his end. He pleaded that I return the money. The external motivation for keeping the money was the fact that it would serve as a lesson to him on the workings of Karma. However, since, that was not the person I was raised to be, I returned each cent to his account followed by a kind reminder for him to be careful next time.

Despite the external motivation being so strong, in the end, I reverted to my roots, my foundation, hence I believe internal motivations will always surpass the external ones; one cannot afford to go against his or her character no matter the prevailing circumstance.

Question 2

Human beings are characterized with a physical and a psychological makeup (Talamo, 2012). The physical make up constitutes the biological functions that all serve to keep an individual alive and running (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007). The psychological and the physical components of an individual are all connected since it is the work of the psychological (neurological center) to coordinates the events of the physical body and hence by doing so, allow it to collect information that may give the neurological center insights on how to function (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007). This shows that a physical function or habit may become lodged into the psychological center and by doing so, become an unstoppable habit (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007). Hunger is a physical and biological need. It occurs when human beings are in need of food for the various physiological processes and needs (Nevid, 2012). In a typical scenario, a person may reside from a poor background where constant hunger was the order of the day. Meals were unheard of and the little moments that there was enough to eat were greatly treasured

The once poor individual has now made it in life and wants to enact a program that aims to feed the hungry people of society. His or her motivation is to make sure that no other unfortunate children go through what they went through at such a small age, this is a clear and well elaborate description on how a common biological function may translate into a psychological motivator. The above case is due to feelings of sympathy and empathy hence qualifying it as an internal motivator. Another common biological need is the need to sleep. Ever since I was young, I had the habit of oversleeping. The scenario would allow me to attend middle school classes late. In a period of about one week, I would always arrive at school late more times than early, the reverse was never plausible. Due to this irregularity, my parents were always being summoned to talk about my condition and how it would affect my overall classroom performance. The occurrence led to my suspension from school for a period of two weeks. The happening jotted me to realize the seriousness of my case; I began sleeping exercises that served to smoothen out my sleeping patterns. The motivator was external since I wanted to maintain a plausible reputation in school; it was an external motivator that had originated from a physiological need. Therefore, the above two situations contemplate of how an external physiological need may be the initiator of a psychological motive. As already stated above, the physiological and the psychological parts of the human psychological system are greatly connected such that one may lead to the other (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007).

Question 3

            External events such as praise and recognition really do play a huge role in building self-esteem. According to Nevid (2012), the self-determination theory asserts that the determination a person exhibits may result from external factors (extrinsic) or internal factors (intrinsic). The motivation that comes from reward and praise are purely extrinsic. Compton and Hoffman (2013) assert that the extrinsic motivation is only effective while continuously administered, in short, that strong athlete or smart student is likely to recede if the constant recognition and praise are suddenly stopped. While it fosters hard work and goal achievement, it might lead to deviation from the path of success when dropped (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007). That highlights both the positive and negative effects extrinsic motivation have (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007).

When I was little, I used to excel in my studies, I would get much recognition and praise from teachers at school. This all changed when a transfer student joined our class and attained the top position. All the recognition, praise, and motivation shifted to him, while I received little if any. This greatly killed my morale and I never was the same again. My grades drastically dropped and I had never reached the top again. This is because I had thought that everyone had lost faith in me since I allowed my previously secured top position to be taken by someone else. In conclusion, extrinsic motivation is advantageous but disadvantageous when it suddenly stops after being issued many times before.

Question 4

The contingency theory asserts that learning will only take place if there is a stimulus, which must provide the subject information that an expected event will occur (Schutz & Pekrun, 2007). For example, when I was young, I used to love to play in the rain. In one of these ordeals, I was hit with a terrible cold that lasted for three weeks. Hence the external environmental factor (rain) was the stimulus and it made me learn that the expected event (getting a cold) was possible if I played in it. If the stimulus had not provided me the information (getting a cold), I would not have learned. Cognition refers to all process involved in the gaining, learning, and application of newly acquired information. It includes processes such as thinking, knowing, judging comparison and so on (Reeve, 2015).

Whenever I watch YouTube tutorial on how to solve a problem on my personal computer, I am actually applying cognition. I am first acquiring the information; next, I am interpreting it according to my own understanding and finally, I am applying it for the purpose of fixing my computer. Behavior is defined as how one acts or the actions one does when in the presence of others. (Reeve, 2015) I like to shift everyone’s attention toward me whenever we are spending time with friends. My friends call it my ‘self-centered behavior’ hence it can be concluded that attention seeking is part of my behaviors.

Question 5

The need for achievement is basically the desire for accomplishment. Human beings are social creatures who always strive to fit in and be identified with a certain ethnic group (Evans, 2015). Achievements are the factors, which demarcate the boundaries between those who are able and the ones who are not capable. Since everyone wants to be associated with a capable person, the quest for achievement is inevitable (Reeve, 2015). In a typical society, a politician that has made huge realization during his or her political career are more likely to be preferred than that who has not (Nevid, 2012). Even women like men who have made many achievements in their lifetime since it is an illustration of an individual who is abled bodied and hence able to handle the events of a family.

When I was young, my brother I were in constant competition with each other, we were in the quest for the favor of our parents who seemed to hinge on achievement. The sibling who would get the highest grades was showered with praise and recognition while the other will be criticized to work harder to be at the same level as the thriving sibling. To our parents, achievements seemed to be the only fuel to their favor hence we thrived to achieve. This is a clear explanation on why achievement is so important to humans.

            Question 6

The advantages that lie between in the process of setting short-term goals are significant (Talamo, 2012). For starters, the goals are achievable in a short time, this rules out the possibility of getting stuck along the way or straight up just giving up before achieving the goal (Reeve, 2015). Achieving the short-term goals hence provides the basis of the motivation for achieving other similar goals (Reeve, 2015). This increase performance levels. A disadvantage of setting short-term goals is the stagnancy it brings (Evans, 2015). One may not make any significant progress in a significant amount of time hence building on the feeling that one is wasting valuable time. (Nevid, 2012) asserts that a large portion of the population is interested in achieving long-term goals in the shortest time possible hence short term goals are in the end considered to be a waste of valuable terms (Evans, 2015).

Long-term goals are advantageous in many ways. Compton and Hoffman (2013) claim that it allows an individual to see the bigger picture. It allows one to have a straightforward objective. Short-term goals may make one to deviate from the bigger picture but long-term goals serve to keep one focused. A major disadvantage that is associated with long-term goals is the fact that they are so far-fetched such that to some extent, they are considered to be unrealistic (Reeve, 2015). People tend to deviate from trying to achieve them since most require a significant amount of time and resources to achieve. The scenario diminishes motivation and performance (Reeve, 2015).


Motivation and emotion hence are closely related although they may seem to be far-fetched and having no correlation. Motivation can bring good, as well as bad results, depending on how it is used. It plays an important role mainly toward the desire for achievement which in turn fosters the need to achieve goals. Motivation is hence an important part of human development.


Compton, W. & Hoffman, E. (2013). Positive psychology: the science of happiness and flourishing. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation: biological, psychological, and environmental. Boston, Mass: Allyn & Bacon.

Evans, P. (2015). Motivation and emotion. Hove U.K. New York: Psychology Press.

Nevid, J. (2012). Essentials of psychology: concepts and applications. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Schutz, P. & Pekrun, R. (2007). Emotion in education. Amsterdam Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.

Talamo, L. (2012). Cracking the AP psychology exam. New York Framingham, MA: Random House, Inc. Princeton Review.

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Disease of Global Concern

Disease of Global Concern


A global concern disease is a disease that affects different nations worldwide and most of the global concern diseases are expensive to handle and maintain and most of the time the governments from different nations collaborate in disease prevention and management and therefore making it easy (Bachrach & Knox, 2012). HIV/AIDS is a global concern disease as it affects almost all the nations and the ARV medicine administered to the patients is too expensive for some country to handle. This therefore has made the different nations collaborate and help providing medications for the patients.

How to use demographic data to characterize HIV/AIDS

The people infected by the disease in various geographical locations help in making the analysis of the spread of the disease. HIV/AIDS is spread through various means and the places which are highly populated have high chances of disease spread as compared to the places densely populated. The demographic data on infection trends and the cases registered daily in hospitals can be used to rate the spread of the disease and therefore be used to make projection on the expected cases in future. This could be used to making adjustments and capitalizing on creation of awareness, investment in prevention measures as well as managing the present condition.

How to incorporate further research to address HIV/AIDS

The daily infection cases could be used for further research to make sure that the health sector maximizes on prevention of the disease spread. The most challenging issue about the disease is that most people are ignorant and reckless and therefore they don’t take care of themselves and therefore escalating the disease spread especially in the community setups. The places that can be researched on in this case are the vaccination or other prevention medications for HIV/AIDS as this would cut the further spread of the disease. The health sector could also invest in research and development of the medications available for the already infected people through improving and making them more effective as most cases the diseases become incompatible with some patients and therefore increasing the effects of the disease. The g0oven-rnmant should also invest in research and development of the cure of HIV/AIDS a lot of research has been done and the scientists have not been able to find a certified cure for the disease. Different governments should capitalize and fund the research and development in trying to come up with the cure as the disease has become a menace and strained the health sector.

How would you use morbidity and mortality in developing prevention strategies aimed at increasing attention to disease and decreasing adverse health outcomes?

Mortality and the morbidity data can be used to assess the spread of the disease and therefore the trend. This can be used to assess whether the trend is in line with the goals and objectives of healthy sector as they have concentrated on reduction of spread of HIV/AIDS. This can also be used to take note on the areas that the disease spread is fast and therefore increase campaigns of creation of awareness and employing the prevention strategies. The data can also be used to make comparison on the different communities, states and other countries and therefore help in making analysis on areas where the disease mostly is spread fast and where there are little cases of the disease spread and therefore know the strategies to take.

Which phenomenon—morbidity or mortality—is better to study to develop preventive strategies? Why?

The morbidity rate shows the actual people infected by the disease and the mortality rate is used to show the people who die as a result of the disease (Novotny, Adeyi, Haazenm & International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2003). I feel that morbidity is the best phenomenon that can be used to develop the preventive measures as the already infected people can be used to create awareness to the people who are infected. Mortality rate is rather too late as the dead people cannot be used to stir and spread information about the disease. I however feel that the areas that have low mobility rate and morbidity rate should be majored on when developing mobilization and awareness creation campaigns as the people can have chances or reducing the disease effect and therefore lower the cases in future.


Bachrach, J., & Knox, C. B. (2012). HIV & AIDS benchbook. Chicago: American Bar Association, AIDS Coordinating Committee.

Novotny, T., Adeyi, O., Haazen, D., & International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. (2003). HIV/AIDS in Southeastern Europe: Case studies from Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved October 17, 2015

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