Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

 Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

Dajiang (DJI) Company is a multi-national leader in the commercial drone manufacture industry. The company’s headquarters are in Shenzhen, China and was founded by Frank Wang in the year 2006 (Hongjia, 2017). The firm has redesigned and shaped both the external and internal commercial environments to enhance its profitability and triumph. The company has invested in the creation of a broad range of aerial photography and videography products that meet the needs of a diverse society (Hongjia, 2017). This is centered on the production of high quality and affordable brands that meet the customer’s expectations. This paper focuses on the strategic competitiveness and management tactics of the company. It also gives an analysis of technology and globalization and how this has impacted the industry. The resource-based and industrial models are also employed to show how DJI might earn excellent results. The vision and mission statements impact to the success of the corporation and also the stakeholders’ impact is also depicted in this work.

Impact of globalization

Changes in technology and globalization have transformed the way the business is done in the world today. It is evident to say that technology is a major driving force to globalization. This can be attributed to improved infrastructure and communication. Globalization refers to the escalation of links, interaction modes, and flows that interconnect the globe (Morgan, 2015). This concept is quite diverse in its meaning. The emergence of globalization has resulted in a number of both challenges and opportunities. DJI has been able to use this strategy to its advantage. Changes in globalization have helped the company to achieve across the border retailing by having global sourcing, logistics, and pricing. Since the video and photography sector is rapidly evolving, there is high demand for high-quality equipment that will be affordable and stand out of the crowd. DJI has used this globalization strategy to tap into other markets that are affiliates of their primary industry target such as filmmaking (Hongjia, 2017).

Globalization has also helped DJI in the identification of potential areas for specific areas. Having done a research of the consumer base and its needs puts a company way ahead of its competitors. The company has exploited this strategy since the risk associated with foreign liability does not impact their market base as their products are globally recognized and accepted. Entry into the global markets is not an easy task, but DJI’s innovation has taken its toll as new and efficient drones are more preferred, and the other good thing is that that the quality is well matched with the price. Globalization has also helped DJI to diversify its brands to satisfy the growing demand in the video, photography, film and drone market (Morgan, 2015).

Impact of technology changes.

Technological changes have improved DJI by aiding in marketing its products. DJI has employed tactful marketing strategies using various digital platforms such as YouTube and other social media sites. It has also reached out to a lot of consumers using search engine optimization (SEO) which also helps in the diversification of its brands (Hongjia, 2017). The firm’s success can also be attributed to technology as it conducts market situation analysis and also requests for feedback from the clients and potential customers to deliver quality products as per their preferences.

The firm has enhanced its competitive edge by focusing on the use of latest and cutting-edge technology in its brands and also try to balance the prices with quality to increase profitability. In its drones, it incorporates global positioning systems and sensors that aid in seamless control of the devices. In the further exploitation of this competitive edge, the firm has gone out of its comfort zone to delve into the camera industry to deliver comprehensive products (Morgan, 2015). This is evident in its development of robotic gimbal arms that have also been adopted in filmmaking. Changes in technology have helped DJI come up with innovations that keep up with the changing trends in the drone industry. They also use technology to create features that help their products have a variety of uses such as in weather forecasting and monitoring, creative photography, landscaping and mapping, filming and navigation among other areas that other manufacturers have not been able to tap.

DJI’s resource-based model.

The model focuses on the firm’s internal environment and how it influences success and profitability (Hongjia, 2017). This is based on the presence of capability and resources. This, in turn, affects the external environment including analysis of markets, customer preferences, political, social and economic aspects and competitor analysis. DJI has developed a strong network of research and manufacturing schemes that help in the development of high-quality brands. The company also has a robust financial resource and focuses more on the talent of its employees.

DJI has heavily invested and emphasized in research to develop unique products tailored to suit their customer’s preferences (Hongjia, 2017). They also invest in the development of multiple products for different target consumers and ensure that they frequently introduce new products in the market. They have used this model to create an attractive industry that earns the firm above-average proceeds and also lead to a competitive benefit. They also make sure that the in-house ideas result in products that are costly to imitate and unique thus having a global presence. This will help in taping more diverse markets as they have tapped into the opportunities and have laid out strategies to limit risks.

Influence of the vision statement.

DJI’s mission statement has impacted the company’s success by the fact that it ensures that individuals using their products can do more. This is evident since the enterprise manufactures revolutionary products driven by the needs of the customers. DJI has stood out to achieve this by being the top in the drone industry.

Influence of the mission statement.

The company is tailored to spark up creativity to all its users that will lead to groundbreaking changes. DJI ensures that they live up to their mission statement by providing clients with not only the products but more improved versions of the same and provide constant feedback to their customers. This helps them to make their products more efficient and suited to the customer’s preferences. This is shown by the way it incorporates new technology into their goods to enhance performance.

Impact of stakeholders in the firm’s success.

Capital market investors such as creditors fund the business in its ventures in the expectation of positive outcomes from them (Morgan, 2015). The company does not disappoint and returns adequate profits to their sponsors. Through this approach, the company can finance the manufacture of new products and conduct research. Product market stakeholders include suppliers and primary clients that influence the company’s performance. By employing an efficient supply chain, DJI fulfills the prospects of each shareholder thus allowing it to attain profits and success globally. Consumers of DJI products demand reliable products at reasonable costs (Morgan, 2015). The competent relationship developed by the firm is used to create and deliver affordable, timely and customized products. Organizational stakeholders include the management and the employees also contribute to the success of DJI by working together to develop high quality and affordable products that have garnered global attention.

It can be analyzed from the above discussion that DJI considers all the four views of value creation namely stakeholder approach, resource-based models, technology and globalization changes enables it to develop competitive advantage and capture substantial opportunities in the market.


Hongjia, X. (2017). Techno-entrepreneur from Emerging Economies: A case of DJI in Global Competition and Innovation. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. 1178). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.

Morgan, D. (2015). China’s DJI drones flying high among US companies. Thomson Reuters.

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   Type 1 diabetes

       Type 1 diabetes


Type 1 diabetes or diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease that is commonly found in children caused by failure of beta cells of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas to produce enough insulin. The beta cells may also fail to produce insulin hormone due to pathogenic infection where certain viruses destroy the beta cells in the pancreas (In Dyson &In Goff, 2016). It is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia accompanied by disrupted fat, protein and starch metabolism which is caused by inadequate secretion of insulin molecules. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is known to be caused by an autoimmune reaction that destroys the beta cells of islets of Langerhans leading to production of inadequate or no insulin.

High blood glucose level

Type 1 diabetes is an increase in the glucose level in the body of a child. The beta cells in the pancreas fail to secrete enough insulin and the glucose is prevented to enter the body tissues. The body breaks down fats and proteins to release energy instead of the glucose and therefore the glucose increases in the blood (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). Beta cells of islets of Langerhans in Briana’s pancreas had been destroyed by autoimmune reaction hence insulin hormone was produced in low quantities. This made the cells to prevent glucose from entering the muscle and other tissues and it accumulated in her blood. The osmotic pressure of the blood raised and thus Briana felt thirsty and drunk water frequently. The blood sugar in Briana’s blood had risen beyond the normal levels, hence her body responded by a negative feedback to remove the excess glucose from the blood using the kidneys. In the process, her kidneys filtered out plenty of water hence Brianna passed out urine frequently and even wet the bed.  After being reviewed for two hours in the emergency department, Briana was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type one which may have been passed on to her by the mother as the medical history showed. To raise the insulin level in the blood, Briana was prescribed an injection of Aspart insulin through a Flex pen.

Glucose in the urine

The glucose presence in the urine is known as glycosuria. When the blood glucose is high than normal levels in children, the condition is known as diabetes mellitus type 1. It occurs when the glomerular filters much glucose than the amount the distal and proximal tubules of the kidney can absorb. If the renal threshold for sugars is reached, then glucose is filtered out with urine (In Dyson &In Goff, 2016). The renal threshold for glucose is raised by conditions such as persistent hyperglycemia. Briana’s renal threshold for glucose and after the glycosuria test was done, the doctor found there were glucose molecules in her urine. The accelerated amount of glucose present in the renal tubules made her kidneys unable to prevent all the glucose from being excreted in the urine. The glucose level in Briana’s urine was high than it may be expected hence the doctor suspected she might be suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 and was immediately sent to emergency department for an insulin molecule injection.

Increased urination

This condition is known as polyuria. Briana experienced frequent passing out urine to an extent of wetting the bed for two nights. The blood sugar level was high and caused a lot of dehydration to her body. (Bhansali, Aggarwal, Parthan, &Gogate, 2016). Briana was drinking large amounts of water as her parents had noticed. This urinary frequency was due to taking in a lot of fluids especially water and drinks that consisted of caffeine. Since Briana’s blood contained a lot of glucose molecules, the glucose molecules were forced to diffuse in the urine. As the urine contained glucose molecules, solvent, which is the water in the blood moved through osmosis into the urine and caused Briana’s urinary bladder to fill fast and urinated frequently.

Increased thirst

This condition is known as polydipsia. It is a primary symptom of diabetes. Briana’s parents noticed that she was becoming thirsty frequently. This condition was caused by hyper concentration of glucose molecules in Briana’s bloodstream. Her kidneys were unable to prevent glucose monomers from diffusing into the urine across the walls of the renal tubules. As a result, water was drained from the blood through osmosis and hence she felt thirsty faster than usual.

Increased appetite

This condition is known as polyphagia. It is used to refer to the increased feeling of hunger in diabetic people. It can be brought about by anxiety, bulimia, stress and depression. The sugar levels in Briana’s bloodstream were excessively high as the beta cells of the pancreas were unable to secrete enough insulin molecules due to autoimmune annihilation of the beta cells. Her cells prevented the glucose to enter them because of inadequate insulin hormone in the blood to make them permeable to glucose molecules (Greydanus& Merrick, 2016). The cells were deprived of a food substrate to break down to release energy hence she felt hunger as her body was weak as glucose monomers were not metabolized to release energy.


Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition where high levels of ketones are produced by the body. The beta cells in the pancreas of Briana had been damaged and hence they secreted no or inadequate insulin hormone which make the muscles and other tissues permeable to glucose molecules. Her tissues therefore produced acids called ketones which accumulated in the blood as they metabolized fats instead of glucose monomers to release energy in form of adenosine triphosphate. Due to hyper concentration of glucose solutes in Briana’s bloodstream, accumulation of high level of ketones was also established by her doctor.

Weight loss

This is a condition whereby the body loses weight drastically in a way that cannot be explained. It is one the symptoms that someone is developing diabetes. From the medical history, Briana had lost five kilograms since she was reviewed for a cold a month ago which was a symptom of Diabetes mellitus type 1. Secretion of inadequate insulin by the cells of the pancreas inhibited the glucose molecules from the digested food from entering the cells (Perry, Hockenberry, Lowdermilk, & Wilson, 2014). This caused her cells to be deprived of the source of energy. To generate energy, the body begun to breakdown the fat stored in tissues and muscles through respiration to release energy. This caused her body to use the reserved fats to produce energy and hence she lost weight drastically.

Discuss the nursing responsibilities and supporting rationales related to the administration of Aspart (Novo Rapid) insulin to Briana via a Flex Pen

Prior to administration

Before administering the insulin on Briana, the nurse carries out the five medication administration rights. He/she identifies the patient, that is, who is Briana (her age, gender and physical and physiological characteristics). The nurse ensures that the right drug is given (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). The label of the insulin and its order are checked. The route of the administration is also considered. In Briana’s case, the effect of the drug was required instantly and hence injection of the insulin through the vein was the most appropriate route. The timing of the medication is also important. The nurse checks twice if the insulin given was the ordered one and is given at the right time. Correct documentation of the time, route and the devices used in the administration of the medication is kept (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015). The medical profile of the patient is very crucial to the nurse. The nurse determines if the Aspart insulin might result in unexpected results due to differences in specific drug metabolism caused by genetic variations in different people. The nurse examines the height and weight of Briana to calculate the doses of the insulin to be administered accurately.

During administration

The nurse carries out the dosage calculations accurately to avoid errors that may result in adverse effects on Briana. The nurse injects the insulin he/she has prepared or has been prepared by a pharmacist who is licensed. The nurse also injects the insulin appropriately and safely to ensure that it has been injected in the right site for it to be effective in its action and to cause little discomfort to the patient.

After administration

The nurse is to educate Briana and her family about the side effects of the insulin and also explain to them of the expectations after the administration of the medication. This would enable Briana and her family to adhere to correct medication and monitoring the effects of the medication. The nurse makes a follow up of Briana after administering the insulin. The nurse checks blood glucose level after administering the medication and keep a record. Any unwanted results from the insulin injected are checked and accounted for by the nurse. This enables the nurse to keep track of the progress of Briana’s condition.

Discuss the effects of diabetes type 1 on Briana and her family

Emotional impacts

Briana faces so many emotional issues due to her illness. She is scared as her condition makes her feel weak and unable to effectively concentrate on her work for instance studies, dancing classes and some house chores. She becomes shy as she wets the bed hence lowering her self-confidence. She feels sad as her lifestyle changes regarding having to take a special diet, and injecting of insulin to control the blood sugar level. She also may her friends as they may see her as having a special case hence lowering her self-esteem.

Her siblings may feel powerless as they cannot be able to help their sister to get well. Loss of joy due to the sickness of their sister and they cannot play well as they used to before Briana fell sick. The parents may become stressed due to financial constraints resulting from the cost of medication of their daughter.

Physical impacts

Briana develops physical problems in her body due to the illness. Some of the problems include: delayed healing of wounds, frequent urination, blurred vision and high appetite.

The parents may experience sleeplessness as they look after their daughter. The mother develops exhaustion as she looks after the sick daughter, the husband who has a mild intellectual disability and the rest of the family.

Explain how you would adapt your nursing care of Briana and her family to accommodate Tom’s intellectual disability

I would be visiting Tom’s home frequently to have closer contact with the family. While at their home I would sit with Tom and spend some hours talking to him as a friend and even make some jokes. Then little by a little talk with him the condition of his daughter and try to help him understand the kind of medication and care that their daughter requires. I would also provide Tom with some brochures giving information on diabetes. Since people with intellectual disability have low cognitive abilities, I would help him read through the information on the brochure and help him understand the condition of their daughter in a better way. I would help him understand that their daughter requires regular injections of insulin to lower blood sugar level, regular exercise and a special diet.


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014 report: New South Wales.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.(2015). Incidence of type 1 diabetes in Australian children 2000-2013.

Bhansali, A., Aggarwal, A., Parthan, G., &Gogate, Y. (2016). Clinical rounds in endocrinology: Volume II.

Greydanus, D. E., & Merrick, J. (2016). Diabetes Mellitus. Hauppauge: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

In Dyson, P., & In Goff, L. (2016). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in diabetes.

Perry, S. E., Hockenberry, M. J., Lowdermilk, D. L., & Wilson, D. (2014). Maternal child nursing care

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Creative Problem-solving

Creative Problem-solving

New Delhi is a city in India that is facing constant water shortages. The city residents have problems of accessing clean and quality water. The demand for water in New Delhi is currently estimated to be 800 MCD while all the available water sources can supply an estimated 650 MGD. It explains the frequent water shortages. There are major disagreements between Haryana and New Delhi regarding how to share the water and the dispute has never been solved through official channels (Cassen, 2011). There are myriad causes and contributing factors to New Delhi’s escalating water problem. The first contributing factor to the water problem in New Delhi is the high rate of growth of slums in different parts of the city. The high population growth in New Delhi has left thousands of people in the city with no reliable supply of clean drinking water neither can they access the sanitation services (Cassen, 2011).

Another major factor that complicates the problem in New Delhi unique is the depletion of ground water table. Because of the high rate of urbanization, the penetration of the rainwater into the ground has reduced significantly. Therefore, the recharge of the ground water has been gradually diminishing (Parr, Arnell, McMichael, Martens, Kovats & Fischer, 2011). In the last decade alone, the ground water resources have experienced a decline of between four and ten meters. The bore wells have also been drying out making it hard for the city residents to depend on the ground water. The city also experiences rainfall deficits and warmer climate further fueling the water shortage for the city residents (Kumar, Singh & Sharma, 2005).

The Delhi Jal Board, on the other hand, has failed in its mandate and has been unable to efficiently manage the distribution of water in the different parts of the city. The board has failed in connecting different neighborhoods to piped water. Many localities depend on water tankers to supply them with water that has never been enough to suit their needs. During every summer, the city has to depend on the neighboring states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh for water supply (Gaur, Biggs, Gumma, Parthasaradhi, & Turral, 2008).The city has failed to utilize water from Yamuna River that is strategically located due to poor water management that leads to wastage. The Delhi Jab board has also been unsuccessful in maintaining the water infrastructure in the city leading to pipe leakages and the water lost due to the leakages accounts for over 50% of the total amount. The available 600 waterbodies need replenishment (Parr et al., 2011). The city is also struggling with the problem of the unmetered water supply that also contributes to the water shortage. The city of New Delhi also has no facilities that can handle water treatment properly.

The inefficiency in water treatment has therefore resulted in the lack of adequate potable water because the sewage water cannot be treated to for human consumption in the city. It can therefore, be concluded that poor urban planning and management of water is to blame for the growing problem of water shortages in New Delhi (Gaur et al., 2008). The scenario is, however, a solvable problem if correct methods and creativity are utilized. The people of India can focus on solving the problem of water shortage especially by using methods that promote efficient use of the little available water. Below are some of the solutions that can be devised to combat the water shortage problem (Batchelor, Ram & Manohar, 2013).

The first solution is the use of proper Water regulation mechanisms including intensive metering and rationing of water using regions. The undertaking will ensure that every region of New Delhi is supplied with water say at least twice a week depending on the rationing schedule (Batchelor et al., 2013). The move will ensure equitable distribution of the precious resource that is water. Also, the water management board should ensure proper piping has been installed across all areas in the city of Delhi. The undertaking is to ensure that all citizens have access to water whenever possible. There is also an urgent need of proper water line management to prevent leakages. Water leakages can be easily solved by installing leak monitoring equipment in the main water pipeline system. The initiative will help conserve water wastage by up to 20%, as leakages are one of the major water wasters (Batchelor et al., 2013).

The government should also embark on a campaign to sensitize the citizens on the urgent need to conserve water at all cost. Most people do not realize that a lot of water is lost at home on a daily basis which can be conserved for future use. For example, shaving, cleaning, taking long showers and watering plants with running water leads to massive loss of water if summed up in all households in Delhi (Batchelor et al., 2013). Water can be alternatively conserved for drinking purposes. People should be taught on the efficient utilization of the available water. Recycling and reusing of water can also be implemented since not all situations require very clean water safe for drinking. Activities like car washing can utilize water from other sources like laundry water and bath water then use minimal quantities of clean water for rinsing (Batchelor et al., 2013). Still, the government should step up water conservation efforts such as making it a requirement for all property developers, homeowners, and industries to build water-harvesting facilities to cope with shortages.

According to Kummu, Ward, Moel and Varis (2010), water reservoirs should also be constructed on regular intervals just outside major cities so that rainwater is harvested for use during times of shortage. More dams should also be constructed to store more water that is wasted during rainy seasons. Another technology that can be applied in the conservation of water is recycling water from sewage treatment plants for drinking (Kummu et al., 2010). It is a technique that the Indian government should seriously consider investing in because it has been used elsewhere where it has been proven viable. The process involves passing the water through ordinary sewage treatment plants and then through the second plant with reverse osmosis technology (Kummu et al., 2010). Finally, the water is passed through another system containing ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide so that any particles that had escaped the previous systems can be broken down.

By doing this, clean water will be available for drinking purposes. The lifesaving bottle, an invention of Michael Pritchard that cleans dirty water instantaneously (Kummu et al., 2010). The bottle uses a pumping mechanism to pump dirty water through a tiny 15-nanometer filter that cleans it of any bacteria and virus. It is an invention that should be widely advocated for in Delhi to provide more sources of drinking water. The lifesaver bottle also eliminates the infrastructural costs associated with supplying water to remote locations. Dry bathing is another application on the conservation of water to increase the availability of drinking water (Kummu et al., 2010). The technique uses a lotion that is blended to get rid of bodily odors, oils, and bioflavonoids. The lotion just requires skin application, and it’s just as effective as a normal bath. A dry bath saves up to 4 liters of water per person, which is a lot of water when added up (Kummu et al., 2010). The water can be used for drinking and food preparation.

Another method I creating communal laundry, cleaning, sanitation and bathing centers. This will help to centralize the water systems. In turn, the process will ensure that all the water used will be channeled into recycling for re-use. The move will also help to enhance sanitation levels, manage water-borne diseases easily and recycling will be much easier. Regulated clean water points should be created by the government at strategic points. In this view, the citizens should register for clean drinking water as per family needs (Gaur et al., 2008). The water should be supplied as per need. This will ensure that everyone has access to clean drinking water. Water for other uses other than drinking should be supplied through other means. The undertaking can be done through the creation of parallel water systems, one with pure drinking water and the other with water from alternative sources such as recycled water for other purposes (Critchley & Brommer, 2013).

Continuously maintaining the sewerage, water supply, and recycling systems should be ensured to maintain the flow and availability of clean water at all times. The problem of water shortage keeps on evolving and thus a specific task force should be put in place to analyze and produce solutions related to water problems (Gaur et al., 2008). This will ensure that the problems are dealt with as they come up and that the people are well adapted to cope with the challenges. The government needs to put pressure on the DJB to ensure that water is distributed fairly to all the areas including the slum areas and avoid the tendency of concentrating on the upper-class estates in the town (Critchley & Brommer, 2013). Also, procedures should be put established by the board to ensure that the water distribution is based on supply and demand in such a way that the areas with the highest water demand get the highest amounts of water (Gohari Eslamian, Mirchi, Abedi-Koupaei, Bavani & Madani, 2013). Also the government should assess areas where many trees can be planted as a way of replenishing the ground water level. Besides, the DJB should change the pricing system currently used (Gohari et al., 2013). There should a limit for household water consumption per month and the households that exceed the stipulated amounts should be charged using high rates. The high rates will help encouraging people to conserve their water and avoid water wastage in their homes.

The government should embark on conservation of the main river in New Delhi Yamuna to ensure that the water is safe for human consumption. There should be strict rules preventing people and industries from dumping wastes into the river and the rules should be accompanied by stiff penalties (Gohari et al., 2013). By cleaning the river, more dams can be constructed to collect the clean water and direct it to the neighborhoods that are experiencing a consistent water problem


Batchelor, C. H., Rama Mohan Rao, M. S., & Manohar Rao, S. (2013). Watershed development: A solution to water shortages in semi-arid India or part of the problem. Land Use and Water Resources Re

Cassen, R. H. (2011). Population and development: a survey. World Development4(10), 785-830.

Gaur, A., Biggs, T. W., Gumma, M. K., Parthasaradhi, G., & Turral, H. (2008). Water scarcity effects on equitable water distribution and land use in a major irrigation project—case study in India. Journal of irrigation and Drainage Engineering134(1), 26-35.

Gohari, A., Eslamian, S., Mirchi, A., Abedi-Koupaei, J., Bavani, A. M., & Madani, K. (2013). Water transfer as a solution to water shortage: a fix that can backfire. Journal of Hydrology491, 23-39.

Kumar, R., Singh, R. D., & Sharma, K. D. (2005). Water resources of India. Current science89(5), 794-811.

Kummu, M., Ward, P. J., de Moel, H., & Varis, O. (2010). Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia. Environmental Research Letters5(3), 034006.

Critchley, W., & Brommer, M. (2013, January). Innovation and infiltration: human ingenuity in the face of water shortage in India and Kenya. In International Symposium on Water, Poverty and Productive Uses of Water at the Household Level. Muldersdrift, South Africa (pp. 74-82).

Parry, M., Arnell, N., McMichael, T., Nicholls, R., Martens, P., Kovats, S., … & Fischer, G. (2011). Millions at risk: defining critical climate threats and targets. Global environmental change11(3), 181-183

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Business in Finland

Business in Finland


Business activities are what determines if the economy of a country will be stable or not. A country benefits from the taxes that they receive from the business activities thus stabilizing their economy and improving the infrastructure of the country. The aim of this paper is to analyze business activities in Finland and how they have benefited the country. This paper will focus on the business structure in Finland, the ethical and cultural behaviors of business persons and organizations in Finland, how women are considered in the business fields, the economic status of Finland, diversity and the revolution of businesses in Finland for the past 25 years.


For the recent years, the economy of the country has been somewhat stagnant. The growth has been due to domestic demands for products and services as the exports have not done so well. Thus, when considering other countries, Finland’s Economy is lagging behind.

Measures have been put to ensure the economy will grow and the GDP to rise. Moreover, firms will focus on the interior market to increase the profit margins they have as the government provides an environment that will be fitting enough for the business activities to be effectively conducted. Unemployment rates have been reducing since 2016, The employment situation is expected to increase in the coming years, thus maximizing the labor intensive jobs in reducing the unemployment rates (Sinha Neeta and Neelam 150).

Organizational Behavior and Standards

Business is considered as an activity that will generate income by people, thus professional standards of dressing are expected. The men are expected to dress in conservative business suits which are preferred to be in dark color including a tie. For the ladies, they have to either dress in trouser suits for women, conservative business suits or dresses portray some degree of etiquette.

Business activities are formal in Finland, and thus interaction within the organization is primarily based on the industrial activities. The buildup of relationships and friendship is not tolerated in the offices; thus it only happens outside the offices (Cheikh and Nidhaleddine 16). Most communication concerning the firm is done through the email to reduce time wastage in face-to-face meetings.

Opinions of the employees are given a lot of consideration as the employers believe that the firm’s success depends on the input from the working force. In addition, the employees directly tell their colleagues of their mistakes within the offices and try to help each other in finding a solution for the same.

Gender equality in the Business field

Both the men and the women have played an integral role in the business industry of Finland. Although men have been known to be more productive than the ladies, in Finland, both gender

is given an equal opportunity with the men to compete for the jobs depending on their skills and competencies.

In Finland, the senior positions in Firms are not dominated by the men as in many other countries. Here, the women are given the same consideration as the men. According to (Ludlum and Marty 200), the family duties of the women are released by the availability of an excellent state-funded child nursery thus ensuring the ladies get enough time to work as much as the men do. Hence, both the women and the men compete for the higher ranking jobs and are awarded depending on their professionalism and competencies in the related job fields.


Due to the rising retirement age, and increased immigration in Finland, diversity has become an important factor to be considered in the working life in Finland. The increased immigration has led to a wide range of different cultures, religious and ethnic groups. Thus, the Human Resource managers have adopted the diversity when selecting and dealing with the working force.

According to (Ludlum and Marty 220), diversity has been successfully integrated by many organizations and thus there is no limitation to either the age, gender, race or financial well-being of people who wish to undertake business activities in Finland. Moreover, the Human Resource Managers do not consider the ethnic or religious backgrounds when selecting the employees who are needed by a company provided that the applying parties have the skills required by the position applied for.

Bribery and Corruption

According to Sinha et al. (152), Finland has been ranked among the countries in which Corruption is minimum. The country is regarded to be corruption-free zone since the country is small compared to other countries, and they have a system that promotes welfare and education for people thus advocating for honesty and ethic behaviors of the citizens especially those in the business fields.

Related researches have shown that few people have been convicted in Finland for bribery than any other Country. This is because, as much as people may give gifts and recommendations to others, the people view the ideology as a form of appreciation and thus corruption and bribery are done away with as explained by (Cheikh and Nidhaleddine 17). Moreover Sinha et al. (155) argue that a number of companies have not been successful in winning the public tender for the past three years due to lack of corruption, but the same has helped to develop a competitive environment that is based on the quality of produce, marketing for the products and customer relations to increase sales rather than corruption and bribery.

Industrial revolution

Business activities have gradually increased for the past 25 years. This has been so due to the increased immigrations that have resulted in an increase in the population of people in the country, thus providing a wide market for the most produce of firms in Finland.

Due to reduced corruption and bribery in the country, firms have had a competitive environment and thus the business activities have had to raise their standards and quality of their products to focus on remaining competitive within the market as they provide products and services for the market (Sinha et al. 157).


Finland, being an economically stable country provides a good opportunity for persons to undertake their business activities in the country. Through the reduced corruption and bribery rates, ethical standards are considered and thus the quality management, customer relations and healthy competition among firms are what determines the success of the business activities. Moreover, diversity has been embraced in the country and thus foreigners can undertake their business activities without discrimination. Also, persons of all ages, with different skills and of both genders provide the labor market and thus business activities can obtain labor easily. In addition, due to reduced unemployment, the available labor market thus contains people who are professional and efficient in working due to the high competition for jobs, thus the employees obtained from this group will suffice to benefit the business and its operations (Schermerhorn and John 100

Works Cited

Cheikh, Nidhaleddine. “The role of the business cycle in exchange rate pass-through: the case of Finland.” Journal of Quantitative Economics 14.1 (2016): 15-27. Retrieved from https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/132977/wp1078.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Ludlum, Marty. “Gender, indoctrination, and religious effects on ethical stakeholders: a case study of finish business students.” Journal of Business and Educational Leadership 6.1 (2016): 13. Available at http://asbbs.org/files/2016/JBEL_Fall_2016.pdf

Sinha, Neeta, and Neelam Kshatriya. “Gen Y’s Workplace Expectations on Employment Terms and Conditions: Comparative Analysis of Collegians and Office Goers.” Scholedge International Journal of Management & Development ISSN 2394-3378 3.8 (2016): 137-163. Retrieved from http://www.thescholedge.org/index.php/sijmd/article/download/340/419

Schermerhorn, John. Core concepts of organizational behavior. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004, Print.

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Walmart Stores Inc

Walmart Stores Inc

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is a company that operate in different countries all over the world. Its purpose is to make profit (Danniels, 2001). Enterprisewise, the firm is the largest retail worldwide. The company cares about people who include the employees, the citizen and the consumers of its product and services. Employees are paid in time while the customers are served efficiently. One of its principal objectives is making money through the transportation of fossil fuel. The move aids in effective movement.

According to Kinicki and Williams (2006), the company was started in 1962. It grew rapidly into other states and after that entered the international market. The company has had commendable accomplishments such as in 2001 when it had the largest one-day sales in history. The conglomerate also ranks as the world’s number one retailer. However, the company has gone through various possible issues. For instance, labour organisations have criticised it for gender discrimination (Kinicki & Williams, 2006). Lack of responsible behaviour has led to short-term effects such as lawsuits and fines as well as long-term impacts such as loss of reputation and customers.

Danniels (2001) asserts that stakeholders may be internal or external stakeholders and usually have vested interests in the company’s activities. The primary stakeholders in Walmart are investors, customers, suppliers, employees and board of directors. Investors earn profits through dividends and are therefore determined to see the company gain more profits and reduce operational costs. Suppliers are interested in making maximum sales at an acceptably profitable way. Kinicki and Williams (2006) note that customers are inclined towards low cost, availability and quality of the products. Employees are mainly interested in higher wages and job security. Board of directors is interested in gaining profits and seeing the company soaring in sales and efficiency of its activities.

Various elements of personnel relations exist in Walmart stores Inc. The main elements of personnel relations in Walmart Company are communication and employee recognition. In Walmart’s company, the permanent personnel’s are always informed regarding management plans and company strategies. All personnel’s are also informed concerning new developments especially through employee portals and email announcements (Kinicki & Williams, 2006). In decision making, the management also consults opinions of the personnel’s by analysing their concerns. Employee recognition is also prevalence in the company. Walmart reviews employee’s performance and rewards the workers with exceptionally outstanding performance through promotions and salary increment (Danniels, 2001). The initiative ensures that employees feel engaged and facilitate hard work.

The company has positively impacted the environment in many ways. First, the Walmart has incorporated the use of technological equipment such as computers. The endeavour has led to reduced paperwork (Danniels, 2001). Secondly, the company has regularly encouraged the use of public vehicles, especially for its employees. The move has led to a reduction of vehicle emissions that pollute the environment.

Various situations that have happened in the company have reflected both responsible and irresponsible corporate actions. Among the responsible actions include censorship. Walmart banned sales of CD and movies with ‘mature content’ in their stores. The company is considerate of family-friendly products hence the ban. On the contrary, some of its actions have been irresponsible. For instance, the company is opposed to unionised labour (Danniels, 2001). The corporate action prevents respect for the employee’s founding principles. It has led to problems in wage issues and abuse of workplace rights.

Both the short term and long term effects of Walmart’s environmental policies are likely to bring positive impacts. One of short-term effect is that it will obtain more customers through saving money by cutting unnecessary waste. The long term effects include gaining trust from both suppliers and customers (Danniels, 2001).

The stakeholders include investors, customers, suppliers and employees. Kinicki and Williams (2006) explain that the players benefit through increased sales, less operational costs and increased growth. For instance, increased growth favours suppliers and employees whereas reduced operational costs and increased sales favours investors. All the undertakings result from positive growth of the company’s operations and ensures all stakeholders get substantial gain.


Danniels, H. (2001). CRS fact sheet. (2001). Washington, D.C. N.p.

Kinicki & Williams, B. (2006). Management (p. 67).N.p.

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British Airways-Airline Portfolio

British Airways-Airline Portfolio

1.0       Organization introduction

Turning to Baysura (2001) one finds that the inception of the airline was in the year 1971, following a merger between British European Airline and British Airline Corporation. Formation of the carrier happened after the establishment of British Airways board in 1971 under the civil aviation act. According to Berner (2010), the Corporation is the largest airline globally, in terms of fleet size and passengers. The carrier has its core operation base at Heathrow Airport in London, considered the hub of international flight operations in the entire world. The corporation has established a global flight network through business partners such as America Airlines and Qantas Australia. British airline serves as the sole global network carrier, transporting approximately 36 million passengers yearly. The organization avails flight services to close to 268 destinations and operates in 97 countries globally. The work of Berner (2010) reveals that today the airline comprises of 282 air crafts, the largest aircraft size in Europe. The fleet includes 66 Airbus A319/320/321s, 33 Boeing 737s, 57 Boeing 777s, 13 Boeing 757s, 57 Boeing 747s, 43 Boeing 777s, 21 Boeing 767s and 49 other smaller air crafts used for local business purposes. Keith Williams leads the corporation as the airline CEO. The illustrations depict some of the aircrafts owned by British Airways.


2.0 British Airways financial performance and economic standing

International Consolidated Airlines Group S.A (IAG) reported that as at the end of 2014 fiscal year the airline posted one of the best financial results. The airways revenue rose by 2.6 per cent to an impressive figure £ 11, 719 million. The operating profits before exceptional items stood at £ 975 million. The carrier realized an operating profit of £975 million, a rise from £708 million from the previous year 2013. The profit from continuing operations increased by £559 million from the year 2013 when the company had registered £300 million. Elliot (2013) reports that the £975 operating profit was a substantial achievement attributed to the solid leadership and management foundation set in the previous year. The remarkable results also got backing from the arrival of the airline first Airbus A380 and Boeing 787s. Moreover the use of technology-enabled innovation in the organization as well as enhancement of customer service. The financial review indicated that the revenue for the year stood at £ 11, 719 million reflecting a 2.6 percent increase from the latter year. The carrier further reported an increase in the passenger revenue to £323 million an equivalent of 3.2 per cent improvement in volume from the previous year. A study by Elliot (2013) shows that the airline’s available capacity rose by 5.9 per cent following an increase in the number of aircraft. The number of passengers consequently went high from 40 million to 42 million resulting in a strong commercial performance (Foster, 2015).

The airline fuel cost went down by £214 million from £3, 755 million to £3,515. Economists attributed the decline from global falling fuel prices. British airline group expenditure excluding fuel expenses rose by £214 million to £7, 229 million an equivalent of 3.1 percent increase. According to Jackson (2005), the scenario represents a fall in non-fuel costs per ASK propelled primarily by cost saving initiatives implemented in the airline. Elliot (2013) further attributes the decrease to a favourable impact on the foreign currency exchange rate. The non-fuel costs went down at a constant 1.1 percent rate comparing with the previous year. The profit before tax was £859 a rise from £300 million recorded in the year earlier. The airline’s net deferred tax liability decreased by £222 million as a result of a decline in deferred tax assets. British airline recorded a £702 million profit after tax a rise from £281 million in the later year.  The total capital spending for the year stood at £1,494 million, inclusive of £1,296 million in the fleet related spend. Elliot (2013) notes that the corporation’s liquidity position stood at £2.5 billion while the net debt remained £ 2.0 billion.

The impressive airline unit cost performance through increased productivity, supplier cost savings and low fuel prices have made the carrier the airline of choice by customers and global investors. The achievement made international investors view the corporation as having a promising future. The work of Foster (2015) shows that the company shares closed at 580p a rise by 3.6 per cent.  The company has maintained an increasing profit curve for the last three years earning the airline a firm economic standing. The fall in fuel cost has made the company reduce flight cost, consequently attracting rising number of customers each year. The high number of clients have enabled the airline to remain competitive amidst stiff competition from rival carriers (Foster, 2015).

British airline performance



3.0       Route structure and airport hub strategies

Jackson (2005) reports that British Airways has diverse routes serving destinations across all the six continents. The airline undertakes passage and cargo flights in multiple countries globally. British Airways fly to Aarhus Denmark in Aarhus airport. Also, the carrier serves other airports such as Aberdeen Airport, Port Bouet, Abu Dhabi and Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in the United Kingdom, Cote D’Ivoire, United Arab Emirates and Nigeria respectively. In an article authored by Jackson (2005) reported that that the largest carrier has additional destinations in Kotoka International Airport, Bole, Adelaide, Al Massira, Alexandria, Houari Bournediene, Alicante, and Almaty international airports. Moreover, the corporation has routes and destinations in other airports such as Auckland, Austin-Bergstrom, Baghdad, Bahrain, Herder, Baltimore, Bengaluru, Suvarnabhumi and Grassley in countries such as New Zealand, United States, Iraq, Bahrain, Azerbaijan, India, Thailand, and Barbados. According to Kupper (2007), in the home country the United Kingdom the airline serves Belfast International Airport, Georgie Best City, Birmingham, Blackpool, Bournemouth, Bristol, Campbell, Cardiff, East Midlands and Eday international airports among others.

Klein and Cameron (2013) postulates that the airline commutes cargo as well as passengers on routes connecting Faro airport, Frankfurt, Lungi, Friedrichshfen Airport, Madeira, Sir Seretse Khama International Airport, Fagernes in Norway and Geneva International Airport in Switzerland. The carrier also operates in Genoa Cristoforo Colombo airport in Italy, Gibraltar International Airport, Gothenburg-Landvetter airport in Sweden as well as Guadalajara International Airport in Mexico (Kupper, 2007). The flight operations manager reported that the corporation commenced flight operations serving routes to more destinations such as Harare International Airport in Zimbabwe, Oued Irara- Krim Belkacem Airport in Algeria, Jose Marti international airport in Cuba, Angelholm-Helsingborg Airport in Sweden, and Helsinki Airport in Finland as well as East Gate Airport in South Africa. The corporation fly to Hong Kong airport in Hong Kong, George Bush Intercontinental Airport in the United States, Rajiv Gandhi International airport in India, Ibiza Airport in Spain, Innsburk Airport in Austria and Benazir Bhutto International Airport in Pakistan. Aslay airport, Istanbul Ataturk Airport in Turkey as well as Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Indonesia serve as some of the airline routes. Müller (2004) reports that the carrier serves countries such as Greece, Canada, Sudan, Ukraine, Jamaica, Poland, Malaysia,  Kuwait and Cyprus in airports such as Kalamata International airport and Mallam Aminu Kano Airport. Moreover, the organization operates on other routes like Kelowna, Khartoum International airport, Boryspil Airport, Norman Manley, John Pail two International Airport and Larnaca Airport.

In the United Kingdom, the carrier operates to other destinations such as Gatwick Airport, London City, Luton, Stanstead and Londonderry airports (United States, 2002). Regions such as Los Angeles International Airport, Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, Lugano, Fidel Airport, Luxor and Lyon-Saint Exupery Airports have the Airline undertaking passengers and cargo freight operations.  Countries such as Philippines, Swaziland, Morocco, France, Belarus, Liberia, and Russia have flight operations connection routes such as Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Matsapha Airport, Marrakech-Menara Airport, Marseille Provence, Minsk International airport as well as Montpellier-Mediterranean and Montreal-Pierre Elliot Trudeau International Airports (United States, 2002). British Airlines has additional routes in Komaki Airport Japan, Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Kenya, Naples Airport in Italy, Lynden Pindling International Airport, John f. Kennedy International Airport in the United States and Newark Liberty International Airport. Newcastle Airport, Newquay Cornwall, Nice Cote D’Azur Airport, Norrkoping in Sweden, North Ronaldsay in the United Kingdom, Norwich International Airport, Nuremberg Airport as well as Orlando International Airport in America include some of the airline’s established routes. Also, Kansai International Airport in Japan, Fornebu Airport in Norway, Paphos International Airport in Cyprus, Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Plymouth City Airport in the United Kingdom and Port Elizabeth airport in South Africa serve as British airline routes.

The work of Zim, Skelly, and Cuffari (2010) indicates that British Airways created a hub strategy to strengthen flight operations and implement a wave structure in London Gatwick International Airport to find solutions to capacity problems. The plan entails reorganization of flight schedules to and from Gatwick to make a 26 minutes connection possible in Gatwick North Terminal (Zim, Skelly & Cuffari, 2010). Furthermore, the airline has enacted a strategy that entails the introduction of regional jets cargo and passenger flight operations to ensure full exploitation of the entire market potential in the United Kingdom. British Airline has implemented Cost leadership hub strategy to make the carrier one of the lowest flight cost service providers. The airline focusses on low-cost inputs and capital programs by availing standardized services to realize a high volume of operations and economies of scale. British carrier has effected tight cost controls, structured organization, and responsibilities and put a policy that entails basing of incentives on meeting strict quantitative targets. The management of the airline positions the two largest airports as United Kingdom’s low-cost model airport hub. Also, the carrier has embraced broad differentiation hub strategy by creating a range of flight products and services perceived to be unique compared with services offered by competitor airlines. The airline offers a superior in-flight service.

The corporation has ensured access to sufficient funding to support service and product development initiatives. Establishing subjective measures and incentives instead of quantitative measures has helped in successfully implementing the hub strategy. Zim et al., 2010) observes that the company employs concentrated growth hub strategy to direct airport’s resources towards capturing a large market share by increasing use rate of existing clients and luring competitors clientele.  Market development hub strategy enables British airline to market airports services to customers in new market segments. The product development strategy adopted by the airline entails creating new freight goods and services for existing markets. Globalization hub strategy has enabled British Airways to become global aviation leader. The hub approach involves expanding global route network through the acquisition of a robust global brand reputation (Muller, 2004). Moreover, the strategy emphasizes on upholding quality in customer service and enacting effective cost control measures to improve efficiency. Concentric diversification hub strategy implemented by the airline entail pursuing synergistic opportunities that are in line with the airline’s aeronautical services.

British airline route diagram


4.0       Aircraft Fleet management and scheduling

A study by Müller (2004) shows that British airline has over the years acquired an extensive experience in managing the aircraft Boeing types. The carrier maintains the aircraft in-house, where the company’s engineers undertake regular checks, overhaul and avail solutions utilising the advanced equipment and technology. The corporation ensures safety, quality, reliability and continuous improvement in fleet management operations. The top management in coordination with employees maximize total network profitability by matching appropriate aircraft with each flight leg to minimize spoilage effects and potential spill (Klein & Cameron, 2013). Assigning planes to scheduled flight segments ensure increased profitability. The airline combines economic and operational operation from across the airline to establish robust, profitable and feasible fleet recommendations. The engineers in British Airways develop optimal fleet assignment based on average forecasted demand on passenger flows.  Also, the carrier improves aircraft utilization by providing resources to planners, enabling the experts to develop profitable schedules.

The management focusses on matching aircraft to route demand with re-fleeting to improve short-term planning. The operational flight team in the airline ensures safe operation of aircraft and undertakes recruitment training and support functions for the pilots (Klein & Cameron, 2013). The expert technical team works in coordination with aircraft manufacturers and airline engineers to establish policies and standards for the safe and efficient operation of the planes. The flight planning specialist creates plane routing, performance and briefing materials for the organization’s daily 400 departures. The commercial team undertakes revenue management, pricing, sales, marketing, distribution as well as network and fleet planning. Moreover, the team monitors the sale of seats during booking and maintains friendly relationships with esteemed customer groups. The engineers manage and keep the plane fleet in the corporation’s maintenance bases (Jackson, 2005). The airline has different departure and arrival programs and timetables that depend on the time of booking and the distance between the place of departure and destination.

5.0       Personnel issues

The world’s largest airline has had personnel issues characterised by a long-running dispute between the carrier and the cabin crew. The organization addresses such rising problems in an amicable style to reach a lasting agreement. Jackson (2005) reports that a bitter dispute existed between the corporation and the employees following a spying operation that involved accessing of the cabin staff phones and emails. The carrier focusses on building employee respect and a firm relationship with unions representing employees. British airline has enacted reforms to form close bonds with workers and help settle rising personnel issues in a professional and objective way. Jackson (2005) postulates that the top management acknowledged that a need existed to form cordial relationships between the company managers and the employees. The chief executive stated that the airline would work on developing a constructive and professional union between managers, workers and staff unions.

6.0       Pricing schemes and fare wars

According to Foster (2015), freight charges applied by British Airline depend on the travel classes that include economy class, premium economy, business class and fist class. Foster (2015) reports that a basic economy class ticket from London dropped from 3,458. British airline has engaged in slashing freight fares in a price war between the carrier and rival companies such as Virgin Airlines. The corporation imposed discounts of almost 50 per cent on the 80 of the carrier’s routes (Foster, 2015). Charges from Athens dropped from £216 to £140. The return journey from Madrid Spain went down from £209.50 to £120. Foster (2015) observes that a two-way fare to Paris shifted from £130.60 to £80. The cut was a deliberate strike against no-frill airlines providing competitive fare prices. The fare trimming was inclusive of food, drinks and entertainment.

7.0       International operations

Baysura (2001) illustrates that the airline operates in almost all countries across the globe. Berner (2010) describes the company as an international airways scheduled airline operating to over 300 destinations worldwide. The airline undertakes global cargo business in conjunction with the passenger services.  The organization conducts international flights that carry over 45.5 million travellers yearly. Elliot (2013) reports that British airline has a worldwide network in 75 countries. The corporation operates in regions like the middle-east, Africa, Asia and the entire America region. Berner (2010) reports that the carrier serves countries such as Greece, Canada, Sudan, Ukraine, Jamaica, Poland, Malaysia,  Kuwait and Cyprus in airports such as Kalamata International airport and Mallam Aminu Kano Airport. Also, the corporation undertakes international flights in Kelowna, Khartoum International airport, Boryspil Airport, Norman Manley, John Pail two International Airport and Larnaca Airport. Regions such as Los Angeles International Airport, Quatro de Fevereiro Airport, Lugano, Fidel Airport, Luxor and Lyon-Saint Exupery Airports have the Airline undertaking passengers and cargo freight operations (Elliot, 2013).

British Airlines has additional international routes in Komaki Airport Japan, Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Kenya, Naples Airport in Italy, Lynden Pindling International Airport and John f. Kennedy International Airport in the United States. The carrier also serves Newark Liberty International Airport, Newcastle Airport, Newquay Cornwall, Nice Cote D’Azur Airport, Norrkoping in Sweden, North Ronaldsay in the United Kingdom and Norwich International Airport. Nuremberg Airport, Orlando International Airport in America, Kansai International Airport in Japan and Fornebu Airport in Norway comprise of some the multiple international regions served by the corporation. The diagram shows distribution of the airline international freight operations


8.0       Cargo Management

The work of Foster (2015) reveals that British Airways is the world’s fifth largest international cargo carrier. The carrier undertakes cargo management practices in stations such as Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow airports transporting million tonnes freight, mail, and courier consignments. The corporation has a reliable cargo transportation schedule and owns advanced automated freight handling systems in the world (Jackson, 2005). The elevated transfer vehicles and tracking bar coding system assist in efficient consignment management. British Airways operate premium loads and fresh produce handling through the airline’s carrier’s regional cargo. The company owns 83,000 square kilometres technologically advanced structure symbolizing the airline’s commitment to global cargo freight operations (Küpper, 2007). The carrier avails a safe, fast, secure and reliable as well as cost effective cargo transportation. Robust IT solutions simplify handling processes and provide innovative tools and capabilities for efficient cargo manage


Baysura, K. (2001). British Airways Cargo carrier. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke. N.p.

Berner, K. (2010). Airways industry in Britain, 201-210. doi:10.1017/cbo9781316151617.054. N.p.

Elliot, C. K. (2013). Cargo management. A case study for British airline New Delhi: Random Publications.

Foster, S. (2015). Airlines economic crisis a case study for British Airways 24(14), 761-761. doi:10.12968/bjon.2015.24.14.761.N.p.

Jackson, A. S. (2005). Imperial Airways and the first British airlines, 1919-40. Lavenham, Suffolk: T. Dalton.

Klein, A. F., & Cameron, C. (2013). Cargo Freight in British airways. North Mankato, MN: Stone Arch Books.

Küpper, T. (2007). Medizinische Ausrüstung bei Airlines (3) – TUI Fly und British Airways. Flug u Reisemed, 14(02), 72-75. Doi: 10.1055/s-2007-984566. N.p

Müller, M. (2004). Safety lessons taken from the airlines. British Journal of Surgery, 91(4), 393-394. doi:10.1002/bjs.4617. N.p

United States. (2002). Executive Airlines, British Aerospace J-3101, N16EJ, Bear Creek Township, Pennsylvania, May 21, 2000. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board.

Zim, H. S., Skelly, J. R., & Cuffari, R. (2010). British airline cargo carrier. New York: Morrow. N.p. 










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 Imago Dei

 Imago Dei

 Imago Dei means Image of God and is a theological term which acts as a symbolism showing the relationship between God and Humanity (Colson, 2009). It is used to denote that human beings are created in the image and likeness of God. Most religions and spiritualists have argued that the meaning of the phrase is not as it sounds but rather it has a figurative meaning and most arguing that the phrase tries to explain that God gave the human being a special honor and that he has the power to rule over the rest of the creation. God gave the man the power to rule over the world and command the other creatures and therefore by so meaning he is superior. Christianity attaches the Image of God statement with Gods man first creation, and that is Adam the concept tries to explain the sins that the first man committed and how they separated with God but also tries to explain the ways that can be traced and reunite man with his God (Fernando & Perera, 2011). For a man to be a good and a true reflection of God they must be in a position to have a good heart and relate with people in a good way that portrays a positive being such that they can be said to be a good example.

The concept can be used in healthcare as the people, and the medical practitioners i.e. the nurses and the physicians are all from the same origin that is created in Gods image and likeness. This, therefore, should be used to promote love and care for the patient as one should see a reflection of God in the patients and therefore do all whatever they can do to save their lives or rather give them the best service that they can. The good relationship and freeness that a patient has with the physicians and the rest of the medical team determine the recovery speed.


Colson, C. (2009). Quality Control: Imago Dei and Health Care Costs. Retrieved July 19, 2017, from http://www.christianheadlines.com/news/quality-control-imago-dei-and-health-care-costs-11606587.html

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The World Trade Center Towers, in history, were the very first two tallest buildings in the world. However, the former World Trade Center was a more massive complex comprising of seven different buildings in Lower Manhattan, in the United States. Besides, it featured the landmark twin towers that was opened on April 4, 1973, which were destroyed during the 9/11 terrorist attacks. These Twin Towers were the centerpieces of World Trade Center complex as each of them were on 110 stories namely the South and the North Tower, which provided a space for an office for about 430 companies and 35,000 people. Based on this information, this report will provide an evaluation of what these structures mean to the New York history, as well as how they are connected to the city and its people.
The Meaning of World Trade Center to the History of New York
The World Trade Center/Freedom Center has a significant meaning to the history of New York City. It makes this city to be known as a significant terrorist site in the world since there has never been such an attack in the history of New York and the entire United States. This is because, on the morning of September 11, 2001, the Al-Qaeda Islamic terrorists hijacked both the United Airlines Flight 175 as well as American Airlines Flight 11, and crashed them intentionally into these two main structures of the World Trade Center, in which they all collapsed within two hours . As a result, almost 2,606 died in these attacks including 71 law enforcement officers, 2,192 civilians, as well as 343 firefighters, and the ten hijackers who masterminded the attacks.
Also, the Freedom Tower is simply not another name for marketing or even another piece of real estate, but in both its name and design, it represents a symbol of New York City in its commitment to rise above the terrorists’ attacks. As a result, it has remained a significant memorial site in which most people could go to pay tribute to their fallen heroes . Moreover, it was a symbol of this City as well as the steadfast devotion of America towards progress and the future.
Additionally, it made this City to be a bustling hub Financial District of the entire world, which was considered as a dream come true. Besides, it was primarily dedicated to the “world peace through trade” concept. Moreover, seven years after the attack, Winthrop W. Aldrich, who was among the organizers of the exhibit, chaired a new state agency whose primary objective was to provide a permanent exposition of trade in New York. As a result, market research has shown this City could benefit more through modernization of its ports . Also, as a World Trade Center, it created more jobs and therefore made New York to grow and expand significantly. This is because more than 11,000 workers were employed to build this complex.
The Twin Towers plays a significant role in the history of New York City. It became more to the world as compared to how its architects, creators, as well as benefactors could ever imagine of. It was created with the hope of unifying this City since it would later become the home of the lower Manhattan’s United Nations. However, the former Twin Towers was faced with several problems in both its acceptance and the construction, but ultimately became the most terrorism iconic symbol within the entire United States, and eventually reshaped the whole United States. The reconstruction of The World Trade Center 1 will never in history exemplify a similar importance did by Twin Towers, but the hearts of most Americans will often lie at the Ground Zero . Besides, in the history of New York, The World Trade Center is considered to be the first globalization attempt, and for the effects it has, this City will be forever thankful and forever regretful for its existence.
Additionally, the idea of having the World Trade Center was first introduced in the year 1946 just immediately after the Second World War ended. The Legislature of New York State appointed Winthrop Aldrich who by that time was a Rockefeller family member and the Chase Bank Chairman, to look at the feasibility of the project. It was formerly projected be a vicinity of a five-million-square-foot that was supposed in displaying traded goods from across the globe. The pure monstrosity of these buildings, however, was never conceived until later . It would be then known as a site for international trade as well as exemplifying the very reasons for the existence of New York City in addition to its roots to a union of several countries across the globe.
Moreover, the construction of these buildings began in 1966 with Minoru Yamasaki, American Architect was famously known for putting the desires of his clients first before his desires. However, the risk of constructing these buildings was within the architect chosen, as this architect had only ever constructed a tall building with twenty-eight stories before this ambitious project. Moreover, the World Trade Center was to become a new economic as well as physical center for the downtown Manhattan. Before its construction, it was usually imagined to be unusual and giant to downtown Manhattan and not the same to the City of New York . Importantly, it was anticipated to make the New City become an international relations symbol as well as the actual dependence on globalization.
Although the idea of having the World Trade center seemed exciting, it was hated by the local New Yorkers, particularly on building it in the lower Manhattan. However, the Port Authority of New York City concluded that these buildings would significantly benefit the public as it would be the most extensive real estate development in the world and was necessary for importing and exporting trade besides being a platform for broad immigrants in fueling the economy . Moreover, it would boost the economy of the whole New York City as it would provide most of its square footage to people who would like venturing into small businesses.
Besides, the World Trade Center would later become the most prominent single project of urban development in history. However, they were constructed in the most inconsiderate manner as it faster became the most destructive and the most massive renewal urban projected ever created in New York history. It entirely wiped out everything within an area of about sixteen-acre, which destroyed almost two hundred structures including more than eight hundred small businesses. As a result, the City of New York for the coming five years would undergo an intense turmoil as it was losing millions of taxes, particularly in property taxes. Furthermore, thousands of people lost their jobs, several thriving businesses also shut down, as well as having constant protesters who were preventing the continuation of the construction. Most of these protesters became very upset to the extent of holding a funeral mock of “Mr. Small Businessman” , a famous mascot for the movement of protesters. Perhaps the primary challenge came from the agents of real estate, who perceived the construction of World Trade Center as a competition that is unfair, a situation that made them decline in participating in selling out of the units.
The towers started being constructed on 6th August 1968 and took almost three years for the completing ironwork alone on the building, as well as nearly two years for a noticeable amount of progress to be seen. The construction on the North Tower was completed on December 23, 1970, and the South Tower was completed seven months later. In both instances, New York City held a “topping out” ceremony, in which the U.S. flag was raised above these buildings. Besides, some workers were remembered and even honored. However, eight workers died in total while constructing the towers.
Importantly, the construction of these towers after a decade started shaping the history of New York City and the commotion concerning their dishonesty was now becoming a forgotten case. All of a sudden, there was an impressive amount of interest from the New Yorkers on these buildings as they were now thriving. Moreover, their anticipation openly increased as their constructions were being continued . Finally, the South Tower was about 1,362 feet high while the North Tower was about 1,368 tall, which made them in becoming the ever tallest building in the history of New York City, and for some time they remained the world’s tallest buildings.
Also, other researchers including Farrell (2017) argue that the Freedom Tower plays a significant and symbolic role of the New York City, which is not its symbolic height. Next to the top of the building’s spire are the xenon lamps that are responsible for lighting a sweeping beacon as well as flashing the “N” letter in a Morse Code. This idea came a decade ago as a result of the desire of creating a code light ships beacon reminiscent that flashed with the aim of identifying their ports because ships were entering their harbors. N stood for New York while B stood for Boston. Besides the symbolic gesture, the beacon was meant for recalling the beams and past Maritimes of New York as a welcome of a safe-harbor that would be visible as far as 27 miles away . There were as well several functions that would be performed by spire including digital communication and broadcasting.
How World Trade Center Buildings are connected to the People of New York City
There are various ways in which the World Trade Center/Freedom Tower connects to the people of the New York City. After the fall of Twin Towers and Ground Zero was ultimately cleared, the New York people believed that ambitious and thoughtful urban design could result in the city being whole again. In that site that is still known by several people as Ground Zero, there are two towers opened for conducting business, the 4WTC, a new sublime office construction to the east, as well as the 7WTC, a smaller building completed in 2006 and located north of the site.
Additionally, with the killing of nearly 3000 people on that 9/11 marked both national and international disaster, and so resulted in the retributions and wars that follow the incidence of that day. Besides, the people of New York considered it as a local catastrophe that had an immediate political impact. This is because it redeemed the unpopular mayor of New York, Rudy Giuliani, as well as opening the door for the Mike Bloomberg election, who was the second consecutive Republican in this city . There were as well the hellish consequences for the economy and infrastructure in downtown. It was an on streets, buildings, infrastructure, and tunnels, and resulted in both urban and political repercussions.
Pataki, who in those years characterized with illiberalism and terror insisted that nothing should ever be built again where these towers stood as they would usually be a lasting and reminding memorial for those that New York City lost in that 9/11. It was among the very first with several political decrees without direct urban altogether salutary consequences. From the beginning, the Freedom Center could be a living site, which as well memorized the dead. It is because it had to make their deaths visible at a demagogic measure.
In the Ground Zero and the museum, there is a grief pandemonium as the dead are deafening, a mausoleum with complete human remains escalators, mass murder recordings, as well as a gift shop in which the commodified massacre fetish are filling the shelves. It is worth noting that these images connect to the people of New City through metaphor, death, and symbol, as well as through politicians for power . Indeed, The World Trade Center is a mass grave, battlefield, corruption and capital mud-caked trough, and importantly, a place where New York people go as well as come to work.
Additionally, the Freedom Tower holds a warmer place in the heart of the American people. For instance, because of this Freedom Tower, both the Governors of New Jersey and New York, Chris Christie and Andrew Cuomo, are sharing the Port Authority control of New Jersey and New York, as well as owning the 16 acres that its surface was used in building the tower. Besides, even the former President, Barrack Obama, stopped in 2011 at this site with the intention laying wreath just a few days after ordering the killing of Osama Bin Laden, and also signed the beam of Freedom Tower in 2012 . All these indicate how the World Trade Center is connected to the people of New York.
The Freedom Tower base, which is also its most significant burden, as it portrays how the World Trade Center is connected to the people of New York City. The base is made of metal and concrete with a two-hundred-foot cube covered with thick glass as well as stacked about twenty stories high, which was majorly constructed for absorbing and surviving any future terrorist attack. Moreover, the PA proclaimed in 2006 that it would never allow its staff in returning to work in this building, arguing that the horror and trauma they had already suffered at Ground Zero is enough. Moreover, some including Chris Rock in the usual “Saturday Night Live” monologue suggested the building to renamed “Never-Going-in-There Tower” but was never sponsored.
Furthermore, on the Memorial Plaza of the World Trade Center, just a few yards from the Freedom Tower and separated by the force of its base and square footprints of the former Twin Towers are each surrounded by parapets with the names of the 9/11 victims. More than fifteen million pilgrims have visited this place, and much more would still come. This implies that it is a sign of paying tribute to the splendid, solemn beauty of the plaza, which is considered by many as a perfect Ground Zero piece as well as a stroke of urban genius . Moreover, after thirteen years of thoroughly manned checkpoints in addition to chain-link fencing, human beings could now easily walk in through the Freedom Tower’s sixteen acres from the city streets surrounding them.
Also, both the museum and the memorial have had a mixed fortune connections to the people of New York City. The museum that opened in May 2014 has elicited various criticisms for its tacky gift and the exhibitions but has attracted several visitors. Its main spaces of the exhibition are lying down at bedrock while facing the wall that prevents the Hudson River from flooding the lower twin towers level. Besides, it is considered as among the foremost original World Trade Center evocation that is remaining on site, and the only place where the people of New York City feels the hope, sadness, as well as civic righteousness that is being inspired by the new World Trade Center.
The future of culture is as well another way that the Freedom Tower connected to the people of New York City. Several cultural institutions including the Drawing Center, Signature Theatre, and the New York City Opera had already visualized a move downtown. However, during the process of planning, Pataki proclaimed that nothing would be tolerated in that place, particularly anything that could easily denigrate New York, freedom, or America . Moreover, this censorship threat was more than enough on sending most prospective tenants packing. It is because the site was still entitled to a cultural institution, but where it is located between the PATH terminal and 1WTC guarantees challenges for construction.
Finally, by 2016, the Freedom Center evoked other fresher troubles including many income inequalities, the financial sector impunity, a corrupted state government beyond being redeemed, a Congress incapable of doing anything, and an influx of tourists, which is the city’s flipside of pacification and gentrification . Eventually, the Freedom Center lesson is that an urban scheme cannot just be plugged into a grid and wait for the outcome. There must be solidarity, community, as well as civic virtue.
Conclusively, the new World Trade Center has resulted in the growth of private arrangements while anguishing public infrastructure. It is because billions of billions of private cash have been hoarded while the public dollars have been significantly drained. Besides, the New York of today has modestly improved its street planning with one great tower, an unworthy memorial, an acceptable museum, a scandalous transit hub, and anytime sooner there will be more new places to shop from.

Charney, Igal. 2014. “Transforming a tower: how did the One World Trade Center eclipse the Freedom Tower?.” Area 46, no. 3: 249-255. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Farrell, Matthew. 2017. “Fifteen Years of Rebuilding the World Trade Center.” Cornell Real Estate Review 15, 66-67. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
MARTIN, GENE, and JOHN RITZ. 2015. “skyscrapers: visions of strength.” Technology & Engineering Teacher 74, no. 6: 16-22. Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Palladino, P., and T. Young. 2013. “Fight Club and the World Trade Center: On Metaphor, Scale, and the Spatio-temporal (Dis)location of Violence.” Journal For Cultural Research 7, no. 2: 195. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).
Rosenthal, M. Sara. 2013. “The End-of-Life Experiences of 9/11 Civilians: Death and Dying in the World Trade Center.” Omega: Journal Of Death & Dying 67, no. 4: 329- 361. Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed December 8, 2017).

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Research Project

Research Project


To submit your project, scroll to the bottom and click on the name of the assignment in the left corner.

Your 5 article research project for this class is due at the end of Week 3 — Sunday at 11:59 PM Eastern Time.  Upload to the Assignment link. Submit as a Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) file or as an .rtf file ONLY.

Here is how you complete your project for Week 3:

Using your reference list and project template from week 2’s assignment, complete the project by adding a 250-word summary of each article under its reference. You need to summarize each article factually, using your own words, and refrain from using quotes and opinion. In addition, please make sure your sources do not include encyclopedias, book reviews or article citations.

Have another person proof your project. Please use Times New Roman 12 point font.

If you need help with references, I highly recommend using www.citationmachine.net  Select “APA” from the menu on the left, and then your type of source. Plug in the information and it will create the references for you.

Here is the rubric I will use to grade your paper:


POS 1041 – Research Project
Content—all areas are addressed 80 points total Possible points Earned




Summarized 5 articles on approved topic 20    
Each article is summarized in own words and accurately represents the author’s point of view 30    
Each article is of scholarly content and is taken from theKeiser University library 10    
Each article is 250 words minimum 20    
Mechanics 20 points total      
APA format is used for each bibliographic reference, and paper format 10    
Rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling  are followed. 10    
Subtotal   /100  
Late -5/day if applicable      
Total   /100 Comments:

It is YOUR responsibility to save your project to an external drive FREQUENTLY as you work on it. Computers crash, things happen, thus you need to have it on disk so you can still turn it in on time.


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New Media Interactivity

New Media Interactivity

Technologies are simply tools that form part of the new media and are used to converge, manipulate and send instant information. Technological tools like Photoshop are common in the manipulation of information and are powerful in changing real-life situations to appear differently to the target audience. During political campaigns, for example, the public is fed with numerous photos of the candidates in the contest most of which have been manipulated to change public’s perception, and it is hard to tell what is true and what is false by looking at the images. Technologies are tools that have been used to achieve convergence. All information irrespective of its format including audio, text, and video can be found in one place, and it is the internet (Eadie, 2009). It, therefore, means that the tools make it possible for communication that reaches millions of people without worrying about the distance or the cost of broadcasting the information. Finally, tools like blogs and social media have allowed the communication of messages to be instant. The content creator can send the content as soon as he or she is done with typing without having to wait for publishing to take like it was before the evolution of technologies.

The concept of the intercultural impact of new media increases the complexity of the statement that technologies are simply tools because the same tools have enabled people from different cultures across the world to develop shared meanings for the same content (Youmans & York, 2012). It, therefore, means that although their culture and beliefs influence content creators, the technologies have made it possible for recipients from different cultures develop a common understanding of the concept (Sabir, 2013). For example, a movie developed in an American setting is enhanced through technology tools and makes the viewers from different cultures to develop almost the same experience from watching the movie. A good movie will be rated as good globally and a boring movie is likely to receive criticism from across the world.


Eadie, W. F. (Ed.). (2009). 21st-century communication: a reference handbook (Vol. 1). Sage.

Sabir, M. (2013). Public media and multicultural globe. South Asian Studies, 28(1), 223.

Youmans, W. L., & York, J. C. (2012). Social media and the activist toolkit: User agreements, corporate interests, and the information infrastructure of modern social movements. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 315-329.


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