Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Communities

Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Communities

Section 1

Childhood obesity is a major health issue that low-income communities have had to deal with. Researchers have traced the condition of obesity to be prevalent among black and Hispanic children. When compared to race, family income highly contributes to the reason why the children are overweight.

Research Question

How does low income in communities affect childhood obesity?

Rationale for selecting the question

The reason as to why I selected the research question is that low income is related to childhood obesity. Victims of the health condition in most cases are from communities who have low income. It is therefore important to know how low income brings about childhood obesity.

According to (Kirkendoll, 2016), data on 111,799 Massachusetts students indicate that

Increase in poverty rate leads to increase in obesity among children in the district public schools. In the school districts, an increase of income by 1 percent led to the percentage increase of overweight students by 1.17%. To bring about a correlation between the rate of communities in childhood obesity and low status of income, a percentage of obese students were compared to the percentage of students in every district who took free and lunch with a reduced price. The result showed that low-income children are more obese than high-income students.

Few resources such as recreation programs have great influence on childhood obesity. Places to play and supermarkets may be scarce in low-income communities. As a result, consumption of foods with low nutrition and fast foods is promoted. Once this is added to little or no physical activity, the chances of being obese become high.

SECTION 2

Skinner, A. C., & Skelton, J. A. (2014). Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(6), 561-566.

The research question is finding out how trends in obesity and severe obesity are prevalent among children living in the United States. Skinner (2014) reveals childhood obesity as a major focus of public health. Following an increase in the prevalence of obesity among children, addressing the issue is very important to the long-term health of children living in the United States (skinner, 2014).  Findings from a qualitative study on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey show that younger children who are non-whites are faced with the risk of obesity great prevalence rate among class 2 and class 3 is noted.

Based on all levels of severity, overweight and obesity are highly increasing among Hispanic girls and non- Hispanic boys. Obesity is in the United States is likely to increase in the coming years, through to 2030. The author states that severe levels of obesity are associated with the severity of the risk factors leading to cardio-metabolic conditions. Future research should be able to determine if certain specific factors should be looked into among the groups faced with high risk.

Black, R. E., Victora, C. G., Walker, S. P., Bhutta, Z. A., Christian, P., De Onis, M., … & Uauy, R. (2013). Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, 382(9890), 427-451.

The research is based on the question how maternal and child under nutrition is evident in middle and low-income countries. According to Black (2013), Maternal and malnutrition among low and middle-income countries are a composition of under nutrition and a major problem that is related to overweight and obesity. Low body mass index showing maternal malnutrition has been declining but remains prevalent in some parts of the world. Research findings on a quantitative study on global nutrition indicate that the issue had affected up to 165 million children globally as at 2011. The reason behind the issue is mostly associated with low income since the low-income earners are unable to afford right foods with right vitamins.

Maternal overweight and obesity have increased maternal morbidity and death among infants (Black, 2013). Overweight in childhood is becoming a great contributor to obesity in adulthood. This, in turn, leads to diabetes and non-communicable diseases. Present and future burden of diseases brought about by malnutrition of women who are of reproductive age and children in the first years should prompt for intervention on the two groups.

Blaine, R. E., Fisher, J. O., Taveras, E. M., Geller, A. C., Rimm, E. B., Land, T., … & Davison, K. K. (2015). Reasons low-income parents offer snacks to children: how feeding rationale influences snack frequency and adherence to dietary recommendations. Nutrients, 7(7), 5982-5999.

The research question is why low-income parents offer snacks to children.  A quantitative study of the United States was carried out. It shows that children of the age gap between 2 and 12 years are high consumers of snacks on a frequent basis. Snack foods have less fiber, vitamins, and minerals too. Great consumption of snacks is associated with foods which are energy dense such as cookies and fries. This poses a great risk for gain in weight. According to Blaine (2015), close to one in three children are overweight or obese by the time they join the elementary school.  Low income Hispanic and African American children are most likely to experience obesity. Little knowledge gap for parents’ intentions when offering snacks to their children is associated with families with low socioeconomic backgrounds who are not so educated.

Dawson-McClure, S., Brotman, L. M., Theise, R., Palamar, J. J., Kamboukos, D., Barajas, R. G., & Calzada, E. J. (2014). Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities. Journal of prevention & intervention in the community, 42(2), 152-166.

The research question is how early childhood obesity can be prevented in low-income urban communities.  With the high rate of obesity among low-income population, preventing it is important. Previous efforts to assist in preventing childhood obesity were only limited to public health (Dawson, 2014). A qualitative study on the present day shows an evaluation of innovative strategy to help in obesity prevention ensuring that parental foundation and regulation of child behavior is promoted. The study evaluated an enhanced version of parent corps where 91 kindergarten students in low-income urban communities were involved. They were tested on knowledge and reports of parents. Findings showed that parent knowledge and application of foundation practices by parents rose while behavior problems by children reduced. Children knowledge on nutrition and participation in physical activities increased while the rate of watching television came down. Boys experiencing sleeping problems had the problem decrease. The results show that regulating the child and parent application of foundation practices promotes health.

Tzioumis, E., & Adair, L. S. (2014). Childhood dual burden of under-and over nutrition in low-and-middle-income countries: a critical review. Food and nutrition bulletin, 35(2), 230-243.

Nutrition diseases in childhood are changing from predominance of under nutrition to a situation of under-and over nutrition in low and middle-income countries. The author challenges health organizations and government to help solve the problem. The research question is based on the trends and what predicts over and under nutrition on children. A review of English literature using the PubMed search terms such as nutritional status and obesity show that global increase in diseases resulting from under nutrition while over nutrition is on a significant rise. On a community level, economic status of persons influences the problem with obesity highly affecting the poor undernourished (Tzioumis, 2014). An individual may experience obesity due to links based on physiology. Child health programs should be adopted to ensure that they are encouraged by the importance of quality diet and physical activity.

Jurkowski, J. M., Lawson, H. A., Mills, L. L. G., Wilner III, P. G., & Davison, K. K. (2014). The empowerment of low-income parents engaged in a childhood obesity intervention. Family & community health, 37(2), 104-118.

According to Jurkowski (2014), parents have great influence on the risk factors associated with obesity but are less targeted where interventions are necessary. The study was based on a research question on how to empower low-income parents so that they engage in obesity intervention for children.  A pre-post quasi-experimental design was used.  The study type showed a positive change in the rate which parents are empowered. In turn, empowerment resulted in improved practices among parents. The study shows that childhood obesity can be reduced when parental intervention is incorporated.

Reference

Black, R. E., Victora, C. G., Walker, S. P., Bhutta, Z. A., Christian, P., De Onis, M., … & Uauy, R. (2013). Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet, 382(9890), 427-451.

Blaine, R. E., Fisher, J. O., Taveras, E. M., Geller, A. C., Rimm, E. B., Land, T., … & Davison, K. K. (2015). Reasons low-income parents offer snacks to children: how feeding rationale influences snack frequency and adherence to dietary recommendations. Nutrients, 7(7), 5982-5999.

Dawson-McClure, S., Brotman, L. M., Theise, R., Palamar, J. J., Kamboukos, D., Barajas, R. G., & Calzada, E. J. (2014). Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities. Journal of prevention & intervention in the community, 42(2), 152-166.

Jurkowski, J. M., Lawson, H. A., Mills, L. L. G., Wilner III, P. G., & Davison, K. K. (2014). The empowerment of low-income parents engaged in a childhood obesity intervention. Family & community health, 37(2), 104-118.

Kirkendoll. S, (2016) Low-income communities more likely to face childhood obesity retrieved from http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/archive/201601/low-income-communities-more-likely-face-childhood-obesity

Skinner, A. C., & Skelton, J. A. (2014). Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(6), 561-566.

Tzioumis, E., & Adair, L. S. (2014). Childhood dual burden of under-and overnutrition in low-and-middle-income countries: a critical review. Food and nutrition bulletin, 35(2), 230-

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