Chronic Conditions

The Prevalence of Chronic Conditions

Part 1

Research Question

What are any specific conditions or risk factors which are associated with chronic conditions and poor health among the aged people with more than 65 years with or without vision impairment?

Primary Exposure and Outcome of Interest

There are a lot of chronic illnesses which the elderly generation faces. The following study will concentrate on thirteen chronic conditions which the people above the age of 65 years are likely to face. Those affected individuals experience hardships in life, whether they have vision impairment or not. The cost of treating chronic illnesses is high as there is reduced social participation, large social costs due to lack of participation of the sick person and a burden to the family due to taking care of the chronically ill person. Some of the chronic illnesses such as diabetes, cognitive decline, depression and stroke prefer people with visual impairment conditions (Crews, 2017). The aged generation is expected to experience muscular degeneration, and it is expected to increase by about 77 % thus increasing visual treatment costs.

Study Design

A cross-sectional study was conducted from the year 2010 to 2014 by the National Health Interview Survey. The chronic illnesses which were examined are a stroke, hypertension, arthritis, heart diseases, asthma, high cholesterol, chronic obstruction pulmonary disease, depression, cancer, hearing impairment, hepatitis, diabetes, and kidney failure. To indicate the association between chronic illnesses and vision impairment, logistic regression approach was applied, and the relationship between poor health and vision impairment (Tay, Wang, Rochtchina & Mitchell, 2005).

Study Population and Sampling Process

The population used in the study is the individuals who are from the age of 65 years and above. At this age group, the individuals are likely to be affected by chronic illnesses due to their weak immune system. They are also associated with generally poor health conditions as the functional body parts are less effective, the muscles are no longer firms and conditions such as visual or hearing impairment are witnessed. Sampling designs is used depending on the chronic illness. The tests conducted on the diabetic patients are different from those of the cancer patients. The study was carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The aged people were the civilian non-institutionalized population of America. The National Health Interview Survey sample was made up of about 35,000 households holding about 87500 individuals annually. The black and Hispanics were oversampled. The methods used for data collection were: survey methods, reports, and questionnaires.

Statistical Analysis

The study indicated that among all the respondents above the age of 65 years, 13.6 % of them had vision impairment.50 % of those who participated in the research were from the age of 65 to 74 years old, 56 % of them were women, 8.6 percent were non-Hispanic black individuals, 20 percent did not have a high school education, and 7.5 % were Hispanic. The patients who had vision impairment were from the age of 85 years and above (Crews, 2017). The patients who had vision impairment had less probability of experiencing leisure-time physical activities thus reducing the probability of growing old in good health. The aged people with vision impairment are reported to have the higher significance of getting affected by the thirteen chronic illnesses studies in the research, in comparison to the individuals without visual impairment. Research indicated that the old people with visual conditions and chronic illnesses are likely to have poor health status, in comparison to the patient with only the chronic conditions.

Potential Cofounders

The age of the elderly individual determines their health status and preference of diseases. At the age of 65 years, the individual is less susceptible unlike when they are at the age of 85years. The older the individual is, the poor their health condition gets and the more likely they are to get visual impairment and chronic illnesses (Elliott, McGwin & Owsley, 2013).

Potential Effect Modifiers

The economic status of the individuals is a confounding factor in chronic illnesses and poor health status. The chronically ill patients from wealthy families are likely to live longer and healthier lives in comparison to the poor, elderly people. When one has finance, they can access high-quality medical attention and always taking the correct medication, adjust to lifestyle easily and are not abandoned by their family as they are not a burden (Crews, 2017).

Summary of Study Results

There are lots of chronic diseases which affect the aged people. From the age of 65 years and above, the elderly are becoming less functional, and their immune system becomes weaker. There are some chronic illnesses which are responsible for visual impairment such as diabetes and the elderly with such a condition are likely to have a visual impairment and general poor health status. There was an earlier analysis of National Health Interview Survey where only four chronic conditions were examined, and the results were the same with the study which involved 13 chronic diseases. Vision impairment condition is likely to be found among the people with poor health conditions.

 Part 2

Random error and how it might have affected the results

The study was not met with any types of error since the results were concise and precise. The author looked at the factor that the research can employ software known as the STATA thus minimizing the sort of human error that could come along with the calculation and thus affect the results.

Possible selection bias of the study

The study used a sampling bias method when conducting the study reason being, there were no random samplings of the population. Consequently there were some of the people who were included in the population while other were not included in the population to determine whether chronic conditions are more likely to affect them as well.  The study was conducted from the year 2010 to 2014 but for a good study must have at least taken 5 year or so as to ascertain the true nature of the study. Therefore, the study was terminated at an earlier time before it could have matured.

Limitations of the study

There was the limitation of the EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), that conducted the mobility, self-care and pain but was limited that did not give results of direct questions regarding health. Therefore it is evident that the study was limited to comparison in the diverse groups. Consequently, the quality of life of all the examination of people across the study declined especially for people with vision impairment.  The study was conducted on a limited number of chronic conditions that could not give assurance except for the study that was conducted in Scottish investigation but all of them were limited to not asking the questions relating to health.


There was the investigation of the chronic disease among adults with vision impairment and that which do not have vision impairment. It was certified that the adults with vision impairment were found out to report more chronic conditions. NHIS examination of the their data bore fruits of showing that people who are impaired visionary have greater odds of attracting chronic conditions specifically hypertension. An examination that was conducted in the Netherlands demonstrated a new trend of what cause self-reported chronic condition which is how people conduct their life and identifying poor forms of life as one associated with it. The study has adequately looked at the mission that was intended for the study as stipulated in the topic, since it has also provided the different forms of study and the correct types of qualitative as well as quantitative.

Information Generalization

There was the generalization of information in the study following the form that people reporting about chronic conditions being rated with ratios but did not provide for the amount of population one is comparing that to. The information and data was studied from specific parts of the nation and used a little bit of information that could have hindered the results, and was thus generalized. The research was not that specific when it comes to the investigation of the chronic condition within a specified location in terms of the number of the total population as compared to that of the specified one.

Critique of the authors conclusions

Looking at the authors conclusions it is evident that the result pointed out that adults of the age equals to 65 or less examined that are more prevalent in chronic conditions. The author has concluded that the people who are more affected are the people that have vision impairment. In all the studies that have been examined in the paper it is evident that the author’s conclusion was credible. The health of a person largely determines whether they will get vision impairment as studied by the author.  The finding have point out that there is an increased number of people getting  chronic conditions  this is after the consideration of sample size and sampling size.

Future studies that would be appropriate

Vision impairment has over the study not been included in the finding out of inventories of the chronic conditions. A future study of the study intends to come up with certain inventories that will make up for the addition of vision impairment that has not received any attention over the years. The study did not use a wide variety of conditions and therefore, in the future the study is looking forward to widen its scope. There was also the problem of people who have vision impairment not able to access eye care, thus in the future coverage of a more advanced medical routine.


Crews, J. E. (2017). The Prevalence of Chronic Conditions and Poor Health Among People With and Without Vision Impairment, Aged >_65 Years, 2010–2014. America Journal of Opthalmology, 18-30.

Elliott AF, McGwin G Jr, Owsley C. (2013).Vision impairment among older adults residing in assisted living. J Aging Health;25(2):364–378

Tay T, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Mitchell P (2005). Vision and self-rated health: longitudinal findings from an older Australian population. Ophthalmic Epidemiol;12(3):179–184.

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