Issues to Consider To Increase Validity of the Assessment
Abilities of Melanie
The assessment needs to take long enough for Keith, the psychologist to be able to learn all the abilities that Melanie possesses. It is, therefore, rooting the assessment to her age and how she can process information that is delivered to her, what she learns in school and her level of education (McLoughlin, 2017). It will ensure that the psychologist does not go off-limits to assess the girl beyond her level of knowledge. Hence, this type of test focuses on the intelligence level of the girl which will determine her weakness and strengths in her moral conduct and her attempts to gain knowledge (Gerrig, 2015). Various methods of acquiring knowledge, abilities, naturally acquired talents and the power to generate an outcome may be deliberately assumed, and a blind eye turned on them (McLoughlin, 2017).
Use of the come out of the examination done by Melanie’s parents
The parents may not have been able to understand the examination earlier done on their daughter. Therefore, Keith can use the results to determine the cause of the problem in Melanie. It will enable the psychologist to be aware of what to look deeply into in such a way that it will be of help in examining her.
The concentration level of the girl
The psychologist should look into the ability to concentrate on the girl. He could use games and issue reading materials that will be able to make her more active during the assessment session. It will be a way to fully understand what hindrances were limiting the success of Melanie in class. They are distractions, and through use of games, it will be easier to determine the level of concentration Melanie.
Family History on Similar Issues
Keith should look beyond Melanie and consider the family background. There may be a history in the family where there has been the difficulty of understanding from generation to generation (Flanagan, 2017). The psychologist can hence be more knowledgeable and know how to deal with the girl without annoying her or the parents. Therefore, knowledge about the issues stated above will increase the validity of the assessment and the results obtained by the psychologist will be more viable and helpful.
Accommodations Keith Need to Make Given Melanie’s Challenges and Why
There are various accommodations that the psychologist can use in Melanie’s case. They include:
Know the right administration of medicine
It is the most desirable method to use when trying to get the attention, ability to concentrate and attention that is demonstrated by Melanie. It is hence the best medication at that the psychologist can use at the time. Extravagance in the ease with which a person’s concentration can be interfered with by external stimulation or irrelevant thoughts comes by naturally. It can, however, be managed by a change of behaviour since it is neither charisma nor a fault in the character of an individual.
People who have problems comprehending things, for example, Melanie may not exactly remember things in the long run. Being aware of the problem will enable the psychologist to be able to give the necessary advice at a particular time.
Making eye contact
To assist Melanie to increase her ability to pay attention, it is important that Keith holds her attention (Gerrig, 2015). Actions such as standing in front of her and making eye contact in a way that the whole session involving dialogue can be more effective. Most children with problems which are not common with other children tend to shy away from eye contact. When Keith makes eye contact with Melanie in all sessions, she will be able to adapt and become more comfortable. In the long run, the concentration level of Melanie will be increased. It is, therefore, an accommodation that the psychologist can adopt so that the results he gets will be more viable.
Involvement of practice
It is the step by step practice which Keith can use to get the attention of Melanie during sessions. For example, he could ask Melanie to turn on or off the television which is a one-step activity. With time, he could ask her to do two activities, for example, turn on the television and arrange the seats in the counselling room. Several steps will help Melanie be able to accommodate change and learn to concentrate more (Flanagan, 2017).
Engaging the girl in games that capture attention
This is a very interesting and fun method of learning in children which can be used by Keith to capture the attention of Melanie (Gerrig, 2015). Promising a reward for winning a game will also capture the attention of Melanie which will facilitate more listening. For example, a game such as Simon says, and musical chairs can be used during the sessions which will lead to an acquisition of concentration by Melanie.
Coordination of tasks with the abilities of Melanie
All the assignments that are given to Melanie should be in line with her attention span. Where there are huge tasks to be undertaken, they should be broken down in a way that they will become more manageable (Naglieri, 2017). Keith can give tasks that can be done over a long duration so that she will not be disappointed when she fails in some. He should also consider the interest of the child in that he will give a task that Melanie is more interested in so that the level of boredom is minimized (Naglieri, 2017). For example, if Melanie likes dresses, Keith can give a mathematical task using toys with beautiful dresses in that she will be more interested in learning.
Ensuring the place where psychological sessions and homework area is spacious
The surroundings to where Melanie will meet Keith should be accommodative. The psychologist can also advise her parents to ensure that where she does her homework is quiet and free from distractions such as toys. Therefore, Melanie can fully focus on her assignment or what the psychologist is telling her. It, in the long run, can heighten the level of concentration by Melanie which will be beneficial to her studies. In school, the teachers can be advised to place her in the front seat where she will be free from distractions from classmates or can tap her on the shoulders in case she diverts her mind from class.
Teaching her active learning
Keith can advise her on how to make learning easier so that she can be able to concentrate more. For example, he can tell her to be underlining the points she feels most important when reading or noting down points down when the teacher is teaching so that she will stay alert during the whole class. She could ask for help from her teachers and parents in case she does not understand something. Keith could tell her to ask questions after the sessions so that he can know whether she had been concentrating.
Other accommodations that Keith should take include advocating for break frequently, advising Melanie to positively talk about herself and being clear about what is expected of her after the psychological sessions (DuPaul, 2014). These accommodations will be essential considering the age of Melanie and her problem since they enhance the level of concentration without pressurizing her at all.
Impact on Standardization and Interpretation of Results
May take some time to adapt to the accommodations
Melanie may not fully adopt the accommodations that have been laid out for her. Thus, the results that will be obtained by Keith may not be as much viable as expected.
Inability to fully adapt to the accommodations
Melanie may fail to adapt to new conditions at all. The results that Keith will obtain will be ineffective and cannot be reliable when other people who may have similar problems want to use them (McRoy, 2016).
Test Format Most Viable
It will be more reliable to meet Melanie’s needs since she seems more of a person who is shy but tries to cover it by talking a lot in class. She does not consider asking for help from her classmates and teachers to raise her grades. An individual test will hence be more viable to assess her since she can be able to express her troubles without fear of being judged by her classmates. In groups, she may not be able to fully open up due to fear of judgment and therefore this type of test will be more viable and results obtained will be easy to interpret and more useful.
Difference today from beginning of assessment
A decision of Keith might differ from what he made at the beginning of the evaluation in that he will now be more aware of the special needs of Melanie and can be able to justify the reasons behind her behavior. The decision will be more viable.
Change over time and impact of assessment results
Technological advancement has influenced the assessment of results since people have become more open to changes thus when analysing the results, is easier.
DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies. Guilford Publications.
Flanagan, D. P., & Alfonso, V. C. (2017). Essentials of WISC-V assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
Gerrig, R. J., Zimbardo, P. G., Campbell, A. J., Cumming, S. R., & Wilkes, F. J. (2015). Psychology and life. Pearson Higher Education AU.
McLoughlin, J. A., Lewis, R. B., & Kritikos, E. P. (2017). Assessing students with special needs. Pearson.
McRoy, R. G. (2016). Special needs adoptions: Practice issues. Routledge.
Naglieri, J. A., & Otero, T. M. (2017). Essentials of Cas2 Assessment. John Wiley & Sons.