Criminal behavior among youths


Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(7), 1178-1200.

Religiosity and Violence among Adolescents in the General Population

The authors outline religion as a significant contributor to the decline in fights and attacks among the youths in America. In as much as religion acts as an inhibitor to criminal activities, the article does not go ahead to explain why religion is a protective factor to crimes. The authors explain that some religious beliefs influence the decisions being made by an individual. For instance, a person who attends a religious service is less likely to be involved in violent activities such as fights and robbery. However, there are neither examples of religious beliefs that would limit the youth to perform criminal activities nor evidence of the influence of religion on criminal behaviour.

The article can be used as a basis for further research since one can search deeper details regarding the influence of religion. More research should be undertaken to establish the influence of religion and its importance in managing criminal activities among the youth. Religion, on the other hand, can be used as a platform for criminal activities and this should be clarified.

Forster, M., Grigsby, T. J., Unger, J. B., & Sussman, S. (2015). Associations between gun violence exposure, gang associations, and youth aggression: Implications for prevention and intervention programs. Journal of Criminology, 2015.

Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

The research used data collected from middle schools to help in the determination whether there is a relationship between neighborhoods and criminal behavior among the youth. The authors go deeper into explaining that direct exposure and association with criminals, friendships with members of a gang and lack of or low self-esteem lead to easy acceptance of criminal behaviors. There is a common knowledge that in the society, girls who are linked with dangerous criminals are considered heroines and vice versa are true. Areas where there is a high level of criminal activities going on encourage continuous criminal behaviors among the youth since they have been brought up seeing all these delinquencies. The authors provide recommendations that training and counseling should be encouraged in schools which are located in the areas where violence is rampant. The research can be useful in understanding the behaviors of individuals in a particular society which is important to other researchers and people interested in criminal affairs.

McGee, Z. T., Logan, K., Samuel, J., & Nunn, T. (2017). A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1328772.

A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers

The authors express a deep interest in gun violence among the children and youth of the United States. Many young people have died as a result of a shooting that has become rampant in many nations. Urban areas are highly affected by criminal activities since there is a lot of peer pressure among the young people. Children who are brought up in the urban areas, as explained by the authors are likely to involve themselves in criminal activities due to exposure and desire to feel included among peers due to fear of victimization.

The article goes deeper to explain that African American youth are most likely to be exposed to criminal activities especially those living in the cities. The article can, therefore, be used by any person willing to learn more about criminal behaviour in different residential areas. Disparities in the areas and the reasons behind the rise of crime in different areas can, therefore, be easily compared and a plan of action formulated by the police department for the different areas.

Gerard, F. J., Whitfield, K. C., Porter, L. E., & Browne, K. D. (2016). Offender and offense characteristics of school shooting incidents. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 13(1), 22-38.

Offender and Offence Characteristics of School Shooting Incidents

The rampant increase in school shootings has been a major concern in the society today. The research aim is to determine the distinguishing characteristics of the criminals involved in such shootings, reasons why people choose to engage in the criminal activity and the median age of those involved in the crimes. The researchers explored some cases that had occurred in the recent and determined that Caucasian and US citizens are the most common criminals involved in school shootings and often suffer from depression. It has been explained that a majority of these criminals commit suicide after performing such an attack. However, the research does not provide a basis and reasoning why Caucasians and the United States citizens choose to engage specifically in this criminal behaviour. The research is important in that there is the ability to assess the risks associated with the crime as well as provide broader understanding to investigators.

Day, D. M., & Wanklyn, S. G. (2012). Identification and operationalization of the major risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behavior among children and youth. Public Safety Canada.


Major Risk Factors for Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviour among Children and Youth

The research outlines that there is no evidence of the risk factors that are associated with the behaviour of a person. Bad morals are as a result of a particular pattern that has been adopted for a long time among a certain community. The authors explain that it is important for the behaviour of individuals to be understood since it acts as a lens through which effects can be ascertained. A failed relationship, as established by the author, can result in delinquent behaviours among the young people. Such failures increase risks of antisocial behaviour and mental health problems which act as a catalyst for increased criminal behaviour among the affected youth.

The authors, however, do not mention the remedies to these behaviours nor does he provide recommendations to parents or other stakeholders on how to minimize the risks associated with delinquency. This research can be broadened to capture the gaps left out by the researchers to broaden the association between isolation and criminal behaviour.

Perron, B. E., & Howard, M. O. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 243-255.

Prevalence and Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury among Delinquent Youths

In the research provided in this article, the author provides a basis for reasoning regarding the results of criminal behaviour. One of the results of criminal activities is TBI (traumatic brain injuries) which is caused by involvement in high-risk behaviours. TBI can result in other problems such as drug and substance abuse which may only elevate the level of crimes committed especially the young people. However, the authors do not provide readers with the examples of criminal activities that can lead to serious problems.

The police departments may, therefore, be unable to distinguish criminals from those who suffer injuries as a result of an accident. Criminal behaviour is hence not easily recognizable through use of the details in the article. The study cannot be used to make critical decisions by police or detectives in a crime committed. It can, however, be used as a base to obtain more information about criminal behaviour and its consequences.

Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Crossan, J. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Parent-child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 94-107.

The authors of this article state that mental health professionals have for a long time associated criminal behaviour with the upbringing of a person who has committed a crime, for example, mass shooting. Low-income families may be the most affected by criminal activities as most children turn to violence. They continue to expound that parents have been judged and blamed for having delinquent children. The reason behind this, as explained by the author, is that parents are supposed to shape their children similar to a lump of clay. The authors describe that every child has a different personality and that there exist genetic components relating to criminal behaviour.

The authors, however, demonstrate weakness in the study since they do not have a firm stand. He does not argue against nor support that parents are to blame for the behaviour of their children. A firm stand should have been established to ensure the research done is concrete and reliable. More research needs to be undertaken to establish whether parents contribute or not towards the criminal behaviour of their children.

East, P. L., & Hokoda, A. (2015). Risk and protective factors for sexual and dating violence victimization: A longitudinal, prospective study of Latino and African American adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence, 44(6), 1288-1300.

Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual and Dating Violence Victimization: A Longitudinal, Prospective Study of Latino and African American Adolescents

The research place focuses on the rising levels of violence among teenagers especially those in relationships. The authors provide details of the causes and consequences associated with the rise in abuse. Victimization can be considered as a form of criminal behaviour in that; there is one intimate partner who gets in the relationship. The authors continue to explain that the low-income Latino and African-Americans suffer this form of violence in their relationships. Engagement in risky lifestyles and association with criminals can result in increased levels of violence even in the relationships of the young generation as they grow older. The research is therefore important and can be utilized by the police and criminal investigators to find out the causes of various unacceptable behaviours such as murder cases that are rising among youths cohabiting or simply in a relationship. Police can hence be able to identify the ways through which they can easily curb criminal acts among the youth.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending (Study Group on the Transitions Between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime). Bulletin, 1.

From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending

The article exposes that children who have been involved in criminal activities are likely to involve themselves in crimes as they grow older and become adults. The authors explain that criminal activities tend to increase with age in that at teenage, offenses are more likely to be committed and decline as the youth near their twenties. The authors go on to explain that there is a high probability of the continuation of criminal activities for the people who started offending at an early age.

Drug dealing and use of weapons persist more than membership of the youth in gangs involved in robbery and violence. The article provides with the interventions that can be undertaken to minimize criminal behaviour among the youth such as training parents on how to handle children and offering enrichment programs to the young offenders. The article is, therefore, a great reference to those in need of details relating to juvenile crimes, for example, police officers and detectives.

Beresin, E. V. (2009). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, The DevelopMentor. http://www. aacap. org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_ for_clinical_interventions.

The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions

Violence has become a common term in the modern society. As the author explains in details, the availability of guns and other weapons have increased the risk of violence among the young people. The author deeply explains the topic of violence by providing the reader with examples such as the increased school shootings that have been trending and suicide among the youth. The media has also contributed to violence in that some films that are being aired on television influence bad behaviours among the youth. The author explains that there exists a relationship between aired violence and violent behaviours among the young people which have been proven by some researchers undertook. Music videos and television programs have continued to impact the views of the youth on violence.

The article provides recommendations to parents and psychiatrists that could be used to reduce the influence of media violence among the youth. However, the author does not provide recommendations to media platforms on how they can set good examples for the youth using the programs they air. Therefore, this can be a platform for further research to those willing to learn more about criminal behaviour, for example, police officers.

Floyd, L. J., Alexandre, P. K., Hedden, S. L., Lawson, A. L., Latimer, W. W., & Giles III, N. (2010). Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 36(2), 87-91.

Adolescent Drug Dealing and Race/Ethnicity: A Population-Based Study of the Differential Impact of Substance Use on Involvement in Drug Trade

The authors of the article explain that the youth mostly act like drug dealers. The article describes the disparities that exist in the different races and ethnic groups. For instance, the drugs associated with the white people may differ from those being used by the African American community. The authors go ahead to explain that the white people prefer using drugs than participating in the sale of drugs. The reason why there are disparities in criminal activities is not explained in the article.

Drug dealing is criminal behaviour that has been on the rise recently and has been associated with other crimes such as robbery. More research should be done on the disparities and criminal behaviour among youths of a different race. However, the authors do not provide a clear link between drug dealing and crime. The information obtained from the research obtained can be used for reference by detectives, police officers and psychiatrists.

Schildkraut, J., Elsass, H. J., & Stafford, M. C. (2015). Could it happen here? Moral panic, school shootings, and fear of crime among college students. Crime, Law and Social Change, 63(1-2), 91-110.

Could it happen here? Moral panic, school shootings, and fear of crime among college students

The research goes beyond to the earlier years such as in the 1970s, explaining that panics have been common. Moral panic has been described as the reaction that the general public has towards a particular threat whether real or perceived. The behaviours and morals in a particular society determine how the public reacts. In a society where there are rampant criminal activities such as the sale of drugs, robbery gangs, and terrorism, people react differently from areas with low criminal activities. The authors go deeper and explain that panic attacks will be more real than in areas where the crime rate is low. The areas for further research have been provided which makes it easier for further studies. The research can be useful to criminal investigators as they become aware of the most important aspects of crime. Fear of crime is comprehended, and police can find the start points of investigations. Areas rampant in crime are hence secured more and directives to reduce crimes among the youth can be easily formulated.





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