criminal behaviour among youths

criminal behaviour among youths

Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(7), 1178-1200.

Religiosity and Violence among Adolescents in the General Population

The author outlines religion as a significant contributor to the decline in fights and attacks among the youths in America. In as much as religion acts as an inhibitor to criminal activities, the article does not go ahead to explain why religion is a protective factor to crimes. The author explains that some religious beliefs influence the decisions being made by an individual. For instance, a person who attends a religious service is less likely to be involved in violent activities such as fights and robbery. However, there are neither examples of religious beliefs that would limit the youth to perform criminal activities nor evidence of the influence of religion of criminal behaviour.

The article can be used as a basis for further research since one can search deeper details regarding the influence of religion. More research should be undertaken so as to clearly establish the influence of religion and its importance in managing criminal activities among the youth. Religion, on the other hand, can be used as a platform for criminal activities and this should be clarified.

Cooley-Strickland, M., Quille, T. J., Griffin, R. S., Stuart, E. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Furr-Holden, D. (2009). Community violence and youth: Affect, behavior, substance use, and academics. Clinical child and family psychology review, 12(2), 127-156

Exposure to Community Violence and Emotional, Social, and Behavioral Functioning

The author in this article outlines communal disruptions as the major disruption of normal psychological behavior and development among the youths. The young people in cities and major towns characterized by high levels of poverty and violent attacks and disruptions manifest symptoms of nervousness and poor school performance. Majority of them end up dropping from school. Those highly exposed manifest higher levels of anxiety and depression compared to the one with limited exposure. The author goes deeper into the issue in which it can be derived that in the United States, the highest affected youth populations are the African Americans and the Hispanics.

Their neighborhoods are characterized by high rates of violence and aggression. Most of the black youngsters are deeply rooted in drug trafficking; a business characterized by gun violence and aggressive behavior. Living in such communities usually ends up instituting the same aggression in the youths.  The recurring violence usually disrupts their behavior and distorts their psychological working and social aspects. The article hence sheds light to a person interested in researching on this topic and can be a basis for further research.

McGee, Z. T., Logan, K., Samuel, J., & Nunn, T. (2017). A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1328772.

A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers

The author expresses deep interest in gun violence among the children and youth of the United States. Many young people have died as a result of shooting that has become rampant in many nations. Urban areas are highly affected by criminal activities since there is a lot of peer pressure among the young people. Children who are brought up in the urban areas, as explained by the author are likely to involve themselves in criminal activities due to exposure and desire to feel included among peers due to fear of victimization.

The article goes deeper to explain that African American youth are most likely to be exposed to criminal activities especially those living in the cities. The article can therefore be used by any person willing to learn more about criminal behaviour in different residential areas. Disparities in the areas and the reasons behind rise of crime in different areas can therefore be easily compared and a plan of action formulated by the police department for the different areas.

Simckes, M. S., Simonetti, J. A., Moreno, M. A., Rivara, F. P., Oudekerk, B. A., & Rowhani-Rahbar, A. (2017). Access to a loaded gun without adult permission and school-based bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 329-334.

Guns in America: The worrying relationship between school-bullying and gun violence

The article sheds light on the increase in exposure to guns among school going youths. The author broadly describes the risks associated with exposure to guns and the places where the guns are easily available to children which include homes, friends’ houses or school among other settings. The youths who have been bullied whether through the social media or physically may tend to be vulnerable to violence using guns that they are easy to access. Some youths may have experienced violence at their homes for instance, where one parent has been shot by another. Schools have become centers where bullying is rampant.

The frequent exposure to violence has made youths more violent. The article is a great base from which more research can be undertaken relating to gun violence among youths. More knowledge can be obtained on how to minimize the exposure to guns among people and how the police can intervene. Availability of guns has been one of the contributing factors to increased criminal activities among the young people.

Day, D. M., & Wanklyn, S. G. (2012). Identification and operationalization of the major risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behaviour among children and youth. Public Safety Canada.

Major Risk Factors for Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviour among Children and Youth

The research clearly outlines that there is no evidence of the risk factors that are associated to the behavior of a person. Bad morals are as a result of a particular pattern that has been adopted for a long time among a certain community. The author explains that it is important for the behavior of individuals to be understood since it acts as a lens through which effects can be ascertained. Failed relationship, as established by the author, can result to delinquent behaviors among the young people. Such failures increase risks of antisocial behavior and mental health problems which act as a catalyst for increased criminal behaviour among the affected youth.

The author, however, do not mention the remedies to these behaviors nor does he provide recommendations to parents or other stakeholders on how to minimize the risks associated with delinquency. This research can be broadened to capture the gaps left out by the researchers so as to broaden the association of isolation and criminal behaviour.

Perron, B. E., & Howard, M. O. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 243-255.

Prevalence and Correlates of Traumatic Brain Injury among Delinquent Youths

In the research provided in this article, the author provides a basis for reasoning regarding the results of criminal behavior. One of the results of criminal activities is TBI (traumatic brain injuries) which is caused by involvement in high risk behaviors. TBI can result to other problems such as drug and substance abuse which may only elevate the level of crimes committed especially the young people. However, the author does not provide readers with the examples of criminal activities that can lead to serious problems.

The police departments may therefore be unable to clearly distinguish criminals from those who suffer injuries as a result of an accident. Criminal behaviour is hence not easily recognizable through use of the details in the article. The study cannot be used to make critical decisions by police or detectives in a crime committed. It can however be used as base to obtain more information of criminal behavior and its consequences.

Samenow, S. (2012). Inside the criminal mind: Revised and updated edition. Crown.

A Criminal Personality or So-Called “Radicalization”?

The author makes it known that terrorists use the root cause of a problem to their own advantage in a way that they will be able to express their personalities. Criminal behaviour is in a way related to the personality of an individual and the environment surrounding that person. Radicalization can be said to be a form of influence among the young people especially those who are isolated from the rest of the society. The author goes deeper to explain that the Islam is among the highest ranked group who undertake terrorist attacks.

The information in this article, however, seems to be biased to only a single group of individuals and religion. Scholars reading the article might tend to lean on one side which is not logical. In as much as this information may be used to study criminal behaviour among the youth, more research needs to be undertaken which relates to personalities.

Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Crossan, J. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Parent–child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 94-107.

 

The author of this article states that mental health professionals have for a long time associated criminal behaviour with the upbringing of a person who has committed a crime for example, mass shooting. Low income families may be the most affected by criminal activities as most children turn to violence. He continues to expound that parents have been judged and blamed for having delinquent children. The reason behind this, as explained by the author, is that parents are supposed to shape their children similar to a lump of clay. The author describes that every child has a different personality and that there exists genetic components relating to criminal behaviour.

The author, however, demonstrates weakness in the study since he does not have a firm stand. He does not argue against nor support that parents are to blame for the behaviour of their children. A firm stand should have been established so as to ensure the research done is concrete and reliable. More research needs to be undertaken so as to establish whether parents contribute or not towards criminal behaviour of their children.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending (Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime). Bulletin, 1.

From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending

The article exposes that children who have been involved in criminal activities are likely to involve themselves in crimes as they grow older and become adults. The author explains that criminal activities tend to increase with age in that at teenage, offenses are more likely to be committed and decline as the youth near their twenties. The author goes on to explain that there is high probability of continuation of criminal activities for the people who started offending at an early age.

Drug dealing and use of weapons persist more than membership of the youth in gangs involved in robbery and violence. The article provides with the interventions that can be undertaken to minimize criminal behaviour among the youth such as training parents on how to handle children and offering enrichment programs to the young offenders. The article is therefore a great reference to those in need of details relating to juvenile crimes for example police officers and detectives.

Beresin, E. V. (2009). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, The DevelopMentor. http://www. aacap. org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_ for_clinical_interventions.

The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions

Violence has become a common term in the modern society. As the author explains in details, the availability of guns and other weapons have increased the risk of violence among the young people. The author deeply explains the topic on violence by providing the reader with examples such as the increased school shootings that have been trending and suicide among the youth. The media has also contributed to violence in that some films that are being aired on television influence bad behaviors among the youth. The author explains that there exists a relationship between aired violence and violent behavior among the young people which have been proven by a number of researches undertaken. Music videos and television programs have continued to impact the views of the youth on violence.

The article provides recommendations to parents and psychiatrists that could be used to reduce the influence of media violence among the youth. However, the author does not provide recommendations to media platforms on how they can set good examples to the youth using the programs they air. Therefore, this can be a platform for further research to those willing to learn more about criminal behavior for example police officers.

Floyd, L. J., Alexandre, P. K., Hedden, S. L., Lawson, A. L., Latimer, W. W., & Giles III, N. (2010). Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 36(2), 87-91.

Adolescent Drug Dealing and Race/Ethnicity: A Population-Based Study of the Differential Impact of Substance Use on Involvement in Drug Trade

The author of the article explains that the youth mostly act as drug dealers. The article describes the disparities that exist in the different races and ethnic groups. For instance, the drugs associated with the white people may differ from those being used by the African American community. The author goes ahead to explain that the white people prefer using drugs than participating in the sale of drugs. The reason why there are disparities in criminal activities is not explained in the article.

Drug dealing is a criminal behavior that has been on the rise recently and has been associated with other crimes such as robbery. More research should be done on the disparities and criminal behaviour among youths of different race. However, the author does not provide a clear link of drug dealing and crime. The information obtained from the research obtained can be used for reference by detectives, police officers and psychiatrists.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Nelson, E. J., Vaughn, M. G., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Córdova, D. (2017). Trends in fighting and violence among adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014. American journal of public health, 107(6), 977-982.

Trends in Fighting and Violence among Adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014

The articles emphasizes on the trends and changes that have occurred regarding violence among the young population in the United States. The author focuses on the three major ethnic groups in America, that is, the African Americans, the Hispania’s and the Whites. The article stipulates that violent behaviour among the young population in the United States has significantly reduced by a big margin from the year two thousand and two to the year two thousand and twelve. It dropped by a margin of 9.9% which is proportional to the number of youths involved in violence. The article continues to outline the consistency in violence occurrence among the different ethnic groups in the years of study.

The ratings escalate mostly among the African Americans, Hispania’s and finally the whites. The author in the study only emphasizes the study on the three major ethnic groups in the United States. However, the study only focuses on the rate changes in fighting among the youths and places little emphasis on the causes of fighting. The reader will only gain significant knowledge on the drop in figures but will gather minute comprehension in regards to causes and recommendations for the study.

   Reference

Beresin, E. V. (2009). The impact of media violence on children and adolescents: Opportunities for clinical interventions. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, The DevelopMentor. http://www. aacap. org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_ for_clinical_interventions.

Cooley-Strickland, M., Quille, T. J., Griffin, R. S., Stuart, E. A., Bradshaw, C. P., & Furr-Holden, D. (2009). Community violence and youth: Affect, behavior, substance use, and academics. Clinical child and family psychology review, 12(2), 127-156

Day, D. M., & Wanklyn, S. G. (2012). Identification and operationalization of the major risk factors for antisocial and delinquent behaviour among children and youth. Public Safety Canada.

Floyd, L. J., Alexandre, P. K., Hedden, S. L., Lawson, A. L., Latimer, W. W., & Giles III, N. (2010). Adolescent drug dealing and race/ethnicity: a population-based study of the differential impact of substance use on involvement in drug trade. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse, 36(2), 87-91.

Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., & Petechuk, D. (2013). From Juvenile Delinquency to Young Adult Offending (Study Group on the Transitions between Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime). Bulletin, 1.

McGee, Z. T., Logan, K., Samuel, J., & Nunn, T. (2017). A multivariate analysis of gun violence among urban youth: The impact of direct victimization, indirect victimization, and victimization among peers. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1), 1328772.

Perron, B. E., & Howard, M. O. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of traumatic brain injury among delinquent youths. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18(4), 243-255.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Nelson, E. J., Vaughn, M. G., Reingle Gonzalez, J. M., & Córdova, D. (2017). Trends in fighting and violence among adolescents in the United States, 2002–2014. American journal of public health, 107(6), 977-982.

Salas-Wright, C. P., Vaughn, M. G., & Maynard, B. R. (2014). Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: Findings from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2006-2010. Journal of interpersonal violence, 29(7), 1178-1200.

Samenow, S. (2012). Inside the criminal mind: Revised and updated edition. Crown

Simckes, M. S., Simonetti, J. A., Moreno, M. A., Rivara, F. P., Oudekerk, B. A., & Rowhani-Rahbar, A. (2017). Access to a loaded gun without adult permission and school-based bullying. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 329-334.

Weaver, C. M., Shaw, D. S., Crossan, J. L., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2015). Parent–child conflict and early childhood adjustment in two-parent low-income families: Parallel developmental processes. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 46(1), 94-107.

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