Critical and Creativity
- The difference between genusand species
A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce viable offspring. An example of a species cats, dogs and human.
Genus comes below family, and above species in the binomial nomenclature and a genus can have many species, and therefore their interbreeding does not lead to the production of viable offspring. An example of a genus is canis and felis.
- The difference between deductive and non-deductive arguments.
A deductive argument is an argument that has some true guarantee of truth regarding the conclusion provided.
Non-deductive arguments, on the other hand, are arguments that do not guarantee some truth in conclusion or rather the facts that are given are not justifiable.
- The difference between modus ponens and modus tollens.
Modus ponens is a reasoning mode with hypothetical proposition and in this is the antecedent can be confirmed to be true then the consequence is alsoconfirmed.
Modus tollens, on the other hand, is a logic stating that if a statement is accepted and the consequent does not hold then that the negation of the antecedent can be inferred.
- The difference between a sound argument and a valid argument.
A sound argument is an argument that has some truth, and its conclusion has some truth in it. A valid argument, on the other hand, is an argument that has some truth and the truth guarantees that the conclusion is also valid or rather can be justified.
A statement is true if the person saying it is honest, and someone is being honest when they are telling the truth.
The definitions of the terms used in someone’s speech maybe have different meanings and therefore making it problematic to dictate its truth.
- Submarines are vehicles that travel through the water.
It is true that submarines travel through water but calling them vehicles contradicts ith the normal vehicles as the features of the two are not the same, and therefore the pictorial thinking of the two could mislead.
- Rain is the precipitation of cumulus bodies of atmospheric hydrogen dioxide in accord with the dictums of gravitation.
There is complexity in the definition in that it makes it hard to understand the definition of water as it brings in some complicated terms and therefore making the whole statement even more complex and hard to comprehend.
- The territories of Australia are the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and Western Australia.
The definition is problematic because it is not specific. The territories outlined are large sections, and therefore it becomes hard to determine the specific section where the Australian territories are.
- Revenge is an icy river with a strong current.
The definition brings in a complexity that does not easily define or bring out the concept and therefore ends up confusing even more.
- Whenever a black cat crosses my path, I go on to experience bad luck. A black cat hasn’t crossed my path recently so that I won’t have any bad luck.
A black cat has not currently crossed my path, and that is the reason as to why I have not had any bad luck.
The statement is deductively valid as he states that he only experiences bad luck when a black cat crosses his path and recently none of that has happened and therefore is assured that there is no bad luck.
- If inflation increases, then unemployment does too. Unemployment is on the rise. Thus inflation must have increased.
Tan increase in inflation leads to an increase in the level of unemployment.
The statement is deductively valid as inflation and unemployment are directly proportional, and an increase in one leads to an increase in the other one
The principle of charity
It is a methodological presumption mode that is aimed at looking for an understanding of the issues under consideration whereby people try to understand the strongest view and its most persuasive forms before evaluating it.
Decide whether each argument is deductively valid.
- No birds can fly. All penguins can fly. Therefore, no penguins are birds.
Not deductively valid
- We will buy some fruit, or we will have ice cream for dessert. We had ice cream for dessert, so we must not have bought any fruit.
- If Violet goes to the store, then she will buy lemons, and if she is craving lemonade, she will also buy lemons. So, if she goes to the store, then she will crave lemonade.
Not deductively valid
- There’s no point in going to the beach unless you like to swim. I do like swimming; hence there is a point in me going to the beach.
For those that are non-deductively successful, state whether the premises make the conclusions: barely more likely than not, a great deal more likely than not, or close to certain.
(We are concerned here with the degree to which the premises support the conclusions. Assume the premises are true for this exercise).
- A chemist tried oxidising ethanol 50 times, and each time she produced ethanoic acid. So, oxidising ethanol will produce ethanoic acid.
Non-deductively unsuccessful the premises make the conclusion a great deal more likely than not
- Almost everyone who watches the rugby also watches the footy. So, if someone watches the footy, they likely also watch the rugby.
It is non-deductively successful as the premises make the conclusion more likely than not with all the considerations in place.
- Whenever I fall asleep on the bus, I lose my wallet. I still have my wallet, which means I must not have fallen asleep on the bus this morning.
- The oxygen in the room allowed the fire to start.
Sufficient condition: The oxygen abundance in the room was sufficient enough to start the fire.
- The poison Duke Weinsworth had unwittingly ingested hours earlier was the cause of his death.
Proximate cause: The Poison that Duke took in this case can be termed as the real cause of his death.
- Getting eight or more hours of sleep the night before was one of the factors that tended to increase a student’s exam results.
Controllable condition: The hours of sleep are a controllable factor, and therefore its variation could have affected the results and therefore making t a controllable condition.
- Each of the contestants had brought their lucky charm, but only one of them was able to win.
Controllable condition: The charms were aimed at influencing the results, but only one was able to control the situation giving one person a win.
- After many years of political and military struggle, the archbishop lowered the crown onto the princess’ head, making her queen.
Necessary condition: The military and political struggle made it necessary for the archbishop to crown the princess basing this on the struggle of the act which made it necessary.
- In the final days of the war, morale was at an all-time low as each side contemplated surrender.
Proximate cause: The surrender was extreme and therefore lowering the moral of in the war. Therefore, the decrease in moral can be attributed to having been caused by the surrender of each side.
- Imogen bought two chairs of the same design from FurnitureMart, within a day the one that her partner always sat in with the cat had broken and the one that Imogen sat in with the cat was still okay. What was the likely cause of the chair breaking?
The quality of the materials used to make the chairs could have differed and therefore making the one her partner and the cat seat to break as compared to the one that Imogen and the cat sat in.
- A doctor had two patients with similar muscle pain and decided to test which of two treatments was more effective. To the first patient she applied peppermint oil, and within a day the patient’s pain had cleared. To the second patient, she applied acupuncture, and that patient’s pain cleared as well. What is the likely cause of the muscle pain clearing?
The peppermint oil and the acupuncture could have had a similar component that helped relax the muscle and therefore clearing the pain altogether. Some of the treatment methods used may differ, but at the end of the day the result ends up being the same.
- Three candidates were running for the presidency of the local book club: Albert, Brenda, and Xavier. Albert and Xavier both proposed to allow alcohol to be consumed during meetings. Xavier and Brenda proposed that each member should be required to bring a kitten to meetings. Brenda and Albert proposed that only books written in Latin should be read for the club. Which proposal caused Xavier to win the election?
The proposal that could have made Xavier win is the proposal that all each member should be required to bring a kitten to the meeting. Most of the people love pets, and therefore this could have shown that he has compassion for pets and therefore landing a soft spot for people, therefore, making it easy to make a sound decision.
The method of the investigation being explained is experimental. It is claimed that the participants who eat no potassium have the best hand-eye coordination. The prediction applied in the last statement is that eating potassium could affect hand-eye coordination and therefore could affect their performance in athletics as they could have a wrong judgement.
- You studied too hard
If you study too hard, you will get a headache.
Studying too hard will give you a headache
- If you practice every day, then you will master the yo-yo.
If you practice every day, then people will applaud you.
People will applaud you if you practice every day
- We won’t go to the movies if it is too expensive.
The movies are not too expensive.
The movies are not too expensive, and therefore we will get to the movies.
- I don’t like cats very much.
I do like dogs.
I like dogs more as compared to cats
- If our company goes bankrupt, we will need to find new jobs, or we will be destitute.
We aren’t destitute.
Our company didn’t go bankrupt.
Our company did not get bankrupt, and therefore we are not destitute.
- If there is life on Pluto, then we would have discovered it by now. Moreover, if there is no life on Pluto, then there are not any aliens on the planet either. Since we have not discovered any life on Pluto, there must not be any aliens there either.
If there were life in Pluto, we would have discovered it by now, and therefore this means there are no aliens in Pluto
Valid: the fact that there is no discovery of life in Pluto means that even aliens cannot exist there and therefore the argument has some conclusive truth in it.
- I am quite certain that Mr Peacock stole the cookies from the cookie jar. Firstly, he is well-known for his fondness for cookies. Secondly, I saw him sleeping around the time that they were stolen. Earlier, I heard him say “If something goes missing while I am asleep
The reason as to why I am certain that Mr Peacock stole the cookies is because he is well-known for his fondness for cookies and I also saw him sleeping around the time that they were stolen, I also heard him say that something goes missing while he is asleep.
Not valid: There is no substantial evidence that can be attached to this fact as he now not seen or caught stealing the cookies
Johnson, Laura. Animal and Plant Classification. Glenview, Illinois: Pearson, 2012.
Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings. 2016.