Teaching about Diabetes

Diabetes has become one of the chronic conditions and contributing to a huge number of deaths all over the world. This, therefore, has raised concerns not only in the healthcare sector but also in the nation at large and therefore creating the need to promote or rather create awareness on the condition, therefore, helping reduce its effects through training and teaching people about the condition and how to control it. Diabetes leads to an abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevation of levels of glucose in the blood. Diabetes can be categorized into Diabetes type 1and Diabetes type 2. In this paper, two articles concerning Diabetes type 1 and Diabetes type 2 will be considered, and an annotated bibliography of the two articles will be intensively assessed regarding their content and their contribution towards teaching about Diabetes.

Annotated bibliography

Wherrett, D. K., & Daneman, D. (2009). Prevention of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics in North America, 38(4), 777-790.

Type 1 diabetes is a disease which destroys the pancreas’s beta cells leading to the production of a low quantity of insulin (Wherrett & Daneman, 2009).  This makes a patient’s ability to monitor insulin levels to decrease.

  • The pathogenesis of T1D is a framework that is very important in making considerations on prevention and curing the disorder.
  • Susceptibility to T1D is inherited through a series of genes, these relate to the HLA class II locus of chromosomes, and this has a lesser contribution for other genes, and also includes the insulin gene, CTLA4, and others.
  • The susceptibility genes are vital but cannot fully explain the immune system pathogenesis of T1D as most people with this disability have not been in a position to discover the disorder.
  • In understanding the treatment of type 1 disorder, one has to also understand that an exposure of one or more environmental triggers changes the immune system and this converts the susceptibility to pathophysiology, therefore, leading to the destruction of beta cells.
  • The numbers of factors that are associated with clinical trials are small despite the intensive search for environmental triggers.
  • In type 1 diabetes the first metabolic disability to be diagnosed the loss of the insulin secretion, and this is about a load of intravenous glucose.
  • The levels of glucose remain normal in response to changes in meals and the glucose tolerance only develops late.

At this point, an increased effect leads to the next phase which is clinical diabetes. Understanding the various phases and of the disorder is vital as one knows the stage at which intervention can be made and the effect it would have on someone’s health. This, therefore, makes it very critical in diabetes training session. This article is relevant in the study as it tries to explain how the disorder affects the body and also the sequential changes that occur once someone has the condition, therefore, moving the condition from one level to another. This, therefore, makes it critical when explaining the scientific issues that are associated with the disorder during the training session.

Pratley, R. E. (2013). The early treatment of type 2 diabetes. The American journal of medicine, 126(9), S2-S9.

Type 2, diabetes has become a major concern globally as it is one of the leading causes of mortality rate and this is mainly due to micro and macro-vascular complications that are associated with the condition (Pratley, 2013).

  • An early intervention however as soon as there is the discovery of glucose levels abnormalities are discovered greatly assist in minimizing the burden of the condition.
  • The disease management, however, is challenging as during the early stages the disease is asymptomatic and therefore making the diagnosis process hard.
  • The article discusses the early intervention in the condition and emphasizes on the trials in showing the progress of type 2 diabetes.
  • The article goes further to show how the pre-diabetes condition can be addressed. This is done through the existing evidence-based guidelines developed to make an optimization of the standards of care at the pre-diabetes and also over type 2 diabetes stages.

The information in this article is relevant and helpful in the diabetes training as it explains how the condition can be controlled. Creation of awareness has been a great challenge in the condition as most people do not understand the effect of the type 2 diabetes and therefore the article has come out clearly and explained the various stages of the type 2 diabetes. The treatment process of the various stages is also varying critical as lack of information is the greatest contributor to the escalation of the condition.

In conclusion type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are a great threat to the people’s health worldwide greatly contributing to the mortality rate. This is also a great challenge to the health sector and the government at large as there is increasing rates of the condition worldwide and managing the condition is a bit expensive. The analysis of the articles, therefore, will be helpful in providing the vital i9nfrmation about the conditions and therefore making it easy to train.


Wherrett, D. K., & Daneman, D. (2009). Prevention of type 1 diabetes. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics in North America, 38(4), 777-790.

Pratley, R. E. (2013). The early treatment of type 2 diabetes. The American journal of medicine, 126(9), S2-S9.


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