Diagnosis and Management of Metabolic Syndrome
American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) came up with criteria for metabolic syndrome diagnosis and management. In their research, they discovered metabolic risk factors that are likely to raise human’s heart diseases such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Besides, type 2 diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with the metabolic risk factors. AHA/NHLBI listed some of the risk factors linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus such as atherogenic dyslipidemia among others. Moreover, the scientific statement constituted the factors that might cause the metabolic syndrome. However, the roots of metabolic risk factors were not clearly displayed (2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care, 2005).
AHA/NHLBI came up with several sets for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. Later, in 2001, other two organizations; National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) developed other criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. The ATP III criteria were assimilated and widely used in clinical practices. The AHA/NHLBI approved ATP III proposal but recommended its use on minor modifications.
The metabolic syndrome risks human’s lives thus clinical management methods were suggested. The principal aim of the clinical management is to minimize the risk factors associated with atherosclerotic disease. However, there were other minor goals like reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus to the uninfected people. Lowering LDL-C, glucose levels and blood pressure was set out as the best measures to reduce metabolic risk factors. The ATA/ NHLBI proposed lifestyle therapy in an attempt to solve both long-term and short-term risks. The therapies recommended depends on 10-year risk. Also, the metabolic risk factor requires specific therapy, and in some cases, drug therapy is applied.
Recommendation for the four major metabolic risk factors is clearly highlighted. The proposal for reducing Atherogenic Dyslipidemia is by reducing the level of LDL-C. Besides, for the patient under clinical supervision, the lifestyle intervention is deployed as the primary therapy. In minimal cases, lipid-lowering drugs are administered with respect to 10-year risk intervals. For the Elevated blood pressure, the individuals within the blood pressure range of “prehypertension” are recommended for lifestyle therapies to reduce the lowering of blood pressure. At high pressures, the drug therapy is required to reduce the blood pressure.
Application in practical settings
The ATP III criteria help in day-to-day lives since one can do them practically even when at home. For instance, everyone can measure his or her waist circumference using a tape measure. That being criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome, it can be done practically. Besides, the lifestyle therapies are done at home and are done practically. For instance, the physical activities such as running and playing in the field help in reducing cholesterol hence reducing cardiovascular disease. In addition, lifestyle interventions to facilitate weight loss in overweight individuals are done practically. The weight loss therapies contribute to reducing the risk factors linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, prehypertension among other diseases.
In conclusion, AHA/NHLBI proposal on diagnosing and managing the metabolic syndrome highlighted the metabolic risk factors and the clinical diagnosis. The AHA group seconded the ATP III proposal and was widely used. Lifestyle and drug therapies should be applied according to the risk factor.
2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. (2005) (1st ed.). Dallas, Tex.