Epidemic, Endemic, and Pandemic Occurrence of Diseases

Epidemic, Endemic, and Pandemic Occurrence of Diseases

At what point does a disease become an epidemic, endemic, or pandemic? What are the parameters that define each of these states of a disease’s effect?

A disease is said to be an epidemic when it spreads to a lot of people within a short period. An example of an epidemic disease is the severe acute respiratory syndrome that broke in 2003 which claimed 800 people’s lives all over the world.  A pandemic disease is a global disease outbreak that affects the whole world (Merrill, 2017). A good example of a pandemic disease can be HIV/ AIDS. An endemic disease is a disease that is found in a certain locality or area. An example is like malaria as it is said to be endemic to tropical and subtropical regions.

Do you agree that bird flu, HIV, or AIDS could be described as a series of epidemics?

I agree that bird flu, HIV, or AIDS could be described as epidemics. This is because the rate of spread of the diseases has increased at an alarming rate and therefore affecting many people all over the world. This has to an extent lead to overwhelming the health sector as they have been stretches in giving out the medication and the prevention drugs for the diseases.

Inclusion of epidemiology and disease control as a complement to the provision of healthcare services

I believe that epidemiology and disease control study should be included as a complement of the provision of healthcare services. The incidences of the diseases, the spread of the diseases, control of diseases and other factors that affect the spread of diseases are vital and therefore play a major role in the healthcare services. This, therefore, qualifies epidemiology to the study of healthcare services.

Explain the impact of at least one major historical contribution on the current status of epidemiological practices. How can history potentially shape and impact our future work in public health and clinical medicine?

Louis Pasteur made the discoveries about the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization (WebMD, 2017). His discovery about prevention of diseases has had some breakthrough in people’s lives. One of the diseases that he aided reduce mortality in is the puerperal fever, and also he managed to create the fast vaccine for rabies and anthrax. His discoveries directly supported the germ theory of disease as well as how it is applied in clinical medicine. History can shape and impact the future through discoveries and establishment of ways to overcome some health problems that could have huge effects on people’s health in future. For example, some of the pandemic diseases have been fatal to people’s lives and have caused many deaths. This could be stopped and make future secure through the discovery of medications that can stop the diseases or vaccines to the diseases and therefore make the future generation secure. It could also be helpful to develop medications that reduce the effects of the pandemic diseases like the ones that ARVs for the HIV and AIDS diseases that have greatly reduce the mortality rate of people living with the disease.


Merrill, R. (2017). Introduction to Epidemiology, 7th Edition. (Pp. 5, 8, 6, 5, 2, 26, 33). [South  University]. Retrieved from: ttps://digtialbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/#/books/9781284113327

WebMD. (2017). Epidemics, Pandemics, and Outbreaks of Contagious Diseases Like the Flu. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/what-are-epidemics-pandemics-outbreaks#1

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