evidence-based practice

evidence-based practice

Abstract

Research involves systematically gathering facts to expand knowledge in a field while evidence-based practice entails applying evidence and experience in decision making to make sure that a patient received the best care. Health information and data mining is critical to a care provider as it helps in making informed decisions and reducing errors in care delivery because the health provider has a broader view of the context related to a patient. Through data mining and analysis, a care provider is able to predict the risk in his or her patients based on the family history and other similar cases that have existed in the past. Managed care has proven to be challenging when it comes to ensuring the best interests of the patients are guaranteed to most care providers that participate in it due to the existent limitations. Performance indicators are critical to the improvement of services in a facility

Nursing

 Evidence-based Care and Research

Research can be defined as the gathering of data, facts as well as information formally for the chief purpose of advancing knowledge in any field. Evidence-based practice, on the other hand, refers to using the most current as well as best evidence at all times when delivering care to the patient. In other terms, the evidence-based practice involves the combination of the experience of the care provider as well as the best clinical evidence that is available and one that has been derived from systematic research. One of the differences between research and evidence-based practice is that research is conducted with the purpose of getting a broader understanding of an issue, but evidence-based practice is the application of evidence most of which is obtained through research to make the best decision and deliver the most appropriate and quality care to a patient (Hamer & Collinson,2014). Research involves the systematic collection and analysis of facts while the evidence-based care involves the blend and experience of the care provider, skills, decision making capability as well as the ability to gather evidence through research. Evidence-based considers the values and preferences of the patient unlike in research where the only scientific inquiry is done through systematic methods to test the validity of the existing knowledge or generating knowledge that was previously undiscovered. Research is purposely conducted to come up with new knowledge but unlike research evidence-based care involves innovation through looking as well as the conversion of the new evidence to result in clinical practice (Hall & Roussel, 2016)

Importance of Health Information and Data Mining

Health information and data mining are critical to delivering quality care to patients. Information on patient’s medical history allows the care provider to make an informed decision with regards to administering the best available care to the patient and minimizes the chances of making mistakes. For example, if the care provider sees that the patient has a history of getting reactions from drugs containing Sulphur, the care provider will be able to explore the other available substitute drugs that do not contain Sulphur in their ingredients. Health information is also important to the care provider because it outlines the preferences of the patient, values as well as the cultural background of the patient that help him or her to make the best decision based on the deep understanding of the patient. For example, some communities view certain food as a taboo, and therefore they are forbidden, when a care provider knows from the patients record that a patient comes from such a community, he or she knows how to advise the patient on dietary issues without putting the patient in conflict with his or culture. The health information also contains the family history of the patient that is essential for care delivery and diagnosis of genetic diseases. By comparing the family history of the patient, the care provider can easily decide on whether the individual is at a higher risk of suffering from a genetic disease. It is from the family history that the caregiver can encourage an individual to be attending routine checks to ensure that he or she is not suffering from an inherited disorder and increase the chances of the early detection of disease.

Data mining is critical to patient care because the care provider can analyze the data of the patients that have been treated in the hospital and the most effective treatment for specific diseases (Nguyen, Saranto, Tapanainen & Ishmatova, 2014). The care can effectively compare the patients the outcomes of the patients that were suffering from a specific disease and the type of care each received. From the results, the care provider can accurately determine the type of treatment methods that have historically exhibited the highest success rates and the ones that are likely to fail. For example, in HIV care and compare the patients on different drug regimens and their viral suppression. From the analysis of data, it is possible to determine most of the patients that have not achieved suppression are on what regimen. From the results, the care provider can tell the most effective drug regimens and the ones that the virus has shown a high rate of resistance in the past. The provider from an informed point of view can avoid prescribing drug regimens with the likelihood of failing to a patient. Data mining is also important because it enables the care providers to observe as well as identify the patients that are high risk and the ones suffering from chronic illnesses and come up with plans on how to design the most effective interventions. Data mining helps the care provider to be prepared in advance to handle a patient that has been suffering from a chronic disease and receiving treatment from the provider’s hospital. For example, the caregiver can go through the information of the patients that were booked for a clinic in a specific week and monitor the progress the patient since enrolling into the clinic.  From the analysis of the data, prior the care provider can tell whether he or she will be discussing the change of the treatment plans during the next clinic day. Data mining, therefore, helps the care providers develop and enhance the treatment plans for their patients.

Data Mining Influence on Case Management

Data mining not only enables the care provider to have insights on the clinical aspects of the client but also makes it possible to integrate data from other management systems including the administrative data to create the full picture of what the patient will go through. For example, the care provider can see the client’s insurance details and guide him or on the best treatment option for the client without struggling financially. Data mining and analysis are powerful tools for predicting the risk for patients especially the ones suffering from chronic illnesses (Nguyen, Saranto, Tapanainen & Ishmatova, 2014).Unlike in the traditional healthcare where some factors were not considered in the care of patients, data mining allows the care provider to do a deep analysis of the patients health behaviors as well as other social, economic factors like employment history  as well as the patient’s environment and how they are likely to affect the outcome of the patient. For example, if the analysis of data related to the patient shows that he or she has a big family to support but has no stable source of income, the care provider can be able to predict that a diagnosis showing the presence of chronic disease is likely to result in severe stress in the patient. The care provider is likely to include a stress management plan to ensure that the patient responds well to treatment.

 

Managed care  and Importance of Quality Care Initiatives and Performance Indicators

When care providers participate in managed care, they struggle in trying to place the best interests of the patient as a priority and also face the challenge of not being able to eschew the conflict of interest (Blais, 2015).  Managed care also affects the quality of health that a care provider through the limitations it places on things like choice of specialists, the length the patient can stay in the hospital as well as well as the location of the tests for diagnosis. Most of the caregivers believe that managed care impacts negatively on the relationship between the patient and the care provider. Quality care initiatives are important, especially in increasing workflow proficiency.  For example, the introduction of Bar Code Medication administration in hospitals has proven to be effective in ensuring that the patients are issued with the right drug that the patients receive the correct drugs that the physician prescribes. Such initiatives to improve the quality of care such as using bar code for drug administration minimizes errors in drug dispensing and therefore saves lives (Sorra, Gray, Streagle, Famolaro, Yount, & Behm, 2016). Without the initiative to minimize errors people lives would be lost as a result of patients taking the wrong drugs unknowingly. Quality care initiatives also help in improving the decision making by the healthcare providers. Nurses have been able to use clinical decision support tools that are within the electronic health records to offer more personalized care to their patients. The quality care initiatives also play a central role in the improvement of communication between the patients and the care providers through the use of mobile technology. Through the quality care initiatives, there are efforts to come up with a secure mobile communication system where clinicians can exchange information for effective management of the patients.  Performance indicators are important in improving internal quality of services delivered in a healthcare setting (Carinci, Van, Mainz, Veillard, Pichora, Januel & Haelterman, 2015). The performance indicators are used to measure the mortality rate in a hospital and to depend on the rates decisions are made on measures that can be taken to reduce the mortality rate. From the key performance indicators, the care providers re can identify gaps in service delivery and explore ways to close such gaps. Performance indicators are also important in resource allocation to different departments in the hospital. For example, the pediatric ward may record a poor performance compared to the adult wards due to the shortage of nurses. When such an indicator shows the poor performance in the pediatric ward, the management can decide on allocating more nurses to the ward.

Conclusion

Quality care can be improved by a combination of accurate information, evidence-based decision making and the ability of care providers to build good relationships with the patients. It is also important to invest in developing health information systems that are easy to use and have interoperability so as to ensure that care providers can access comprehensive information that is reliable to support clinical decisions. It is also imperative to continually revise the performance indicators in a hospital as a way of ensuring there is continuous quality improvement

 

References

Blais, K. (2015). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Pearson.

Carinci, F., Van Gool, K., Mainz, J., Veillard, J., Pichora, E. C., Januel, J. M., … & Haelterman, M. (2015). Towards actionable international comparisons of health system performance: expert revision of the OECD framework and quality indicators. International Journal for Quality in Health Care27(2), 137-146.

Hall, H. R., & Roussel, L. A. (2016). Evidence-based practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Hamer, S., & Collinson, G. (2014). Achieving Evidence-Based Practice E-Book: A Handbook for Practitioners. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Nguyen, T. T. H., Saranto, K., Tapanainen, T., & Ishmatova, D. (2014, January). A Review of Health Information Technology Implementation Success Factors: Importance of Regulation and Finance. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 2693-2705). IEEE.

Sorra, J., Gray, L., Streagle, S., Famolaro, T., Yount, N., & Behm, J. (2016). AHRQ Hospital survey on patient safety culture: User’s guide. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

                                                                               


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