History and Religion of Ancient China and India
History and Religion of Ancient China and India
Work of early Chinese Art
Turning to the work of Clammer (2012), one finds that Chinese art is a virtual art that is either modern or ancient and is practiced or originated in China or done by artists from China. History recognises the art from china as the oldest and continuous tradition across the globe. The transmission media that used to be classified in the western culture since decorative art and renaissance have continued being useful and essential in the Chinese art. Most of the work concerning textiles, ceramics among other techniques was produced over a long duration by various workshops and factories in the country that were distributed abroad and also internally as a way of demonstrating powers and wealth of the emperors. The work of traditional art includes:
According to Clammer, (2012), the early painting in China involved the application of similar techniques like Chinese Calligraphy done with a brush dipped in a coloured ink. The most useful materials with calligraphy on which painting are made were silk and paper. The paintings can also be made on the walls, folding screens, album sheets among other media. Artist from Han to Tang dynasties commonly used to paint the figure of human. Most of figure painting in the country mostly comes from burial areas where the paintings were commonly preserved in lacquered objects, silk banners among others.
The ritual bronzes of Chinese from western Zhou and Shang dynasties has been in existence for a long time frame and has continued influencing the Chinese art. The bronzes were commonly placed in the tombs to avoid continuous sacrificing to the dead members of the country. The sculpture affect the culture and values of the Chinese through application of images to represent different events, occurrences among other ceremonies (Clammer, 2012).
Pottery has been an earlier work of Chinese art (Clammer, 2012). The ceramic ware in china has been showing a continuous development and is recognised as one among the most essential types of Chinese arts. The first form of ceramics was performed during Palaeolithic era. The art has been continuing since the ancient periods affecting the culture and value of Chinese.
The origin of Indian culture
Research by Clammer (2012) shows that India is among the oldest civilized countries in the world. The culture of the country has continuously been labelled as an amalgamation of different cultures came from Indian subcontinents. Invaders in the country have been influencing the culture of the country. Through invaders the Dharmic religion was introduced in the country that continues affecting the culture of the country. Through introduction of different culture by the invaders, the philosophy, architecture, music, art and literature of the country has been changing (Clammer, 2012). Invaders contributed to the culture of India through introduction of different religions that including Hinduism and Buddhism that have been spreading throughout the country. Invaders brought about the Muslim religion in the state that practically played a critical role in shaping the cultural heritage in the country. Clammer (2012) postulates that there has been integration of Jains, Sikhs with Muslim and Hindu across the country due to the influence of invaders.
Work of early Indian art
Research by Clammer (2012) shows that art in India began during the Stone Age in the Palaeolithic culture. Much of the Indian art has religious context and the work of early Indian art include sculpture, painting, architecture among others.
The oldest examples of art in the country came from Indus Valley that flourished from an approximate of 3200 to 2000 BC. Many, small and different sculptures of clay and metal survived from this period (Clammer, 2012). The sculptures commonly represent animal or human figures. Additional object includes soapstone. Sculpture in the country included the Buddhist Sculpture that flourished between 321-184 BC including large pillars of stones that stood at important sites and crossroad and Hindu sculpture.
In early years, printing was taken as a serious art by the Indian people. In early period, the Indian people made little difference between artists who used to make images carving stones and those who made in paints. The artist brought reality in from their arts. Painting included wall painting where in the first century, most Buddhist monasteries and temples’ walls were decorated with painted and curved images. Manuscript illustrations were made in the 1000’s in the country (Clammer, 2012). The manuscripts has palm leaf surface used for writing.
During the times of Indus Valley, most cities and towns were made following the grid pattern or procedure and the buildings were commonly made of bricks. The Buddhists made their structures using mud or bricks and had pillared balconies, halls with vaulted tops or roofs with dormer type of windows (Clammer, 2012). The people in the country exercised the art during the construction of caves, building strong and standing temples and Islamic architecture where Muslims hired local in construction of their structures. The early art in India shows that Indians place a great percentage on the value and concern for the religion and religious activities.
Influence of religious and philosophical traditions on the development of culture
Clammer (2012) postulates that religion and traditions affects the development and existence of culture in a given society. India and china have different and numerous religions that hold different beliefs and practices. The overall cultural of the country is greatly influenced by the religion because there is no universal cultural code. Lack of coherence and understanding between different groups of people in the country has been influencing culture development in both countries. Furthermore, different groups strongly uphold traditional or early ways of doing things therefore hindering modernization of culture in the countries. Increased immigration into the countries influence culture development through the immigrants holding their home values and cultures and failing to adjust to the cultural undertakings in the two countries.
Clammer, J. R. (2012). Culture, development and social theory: Towards an integrated social development. N.p.