According to MacLaren and James (10-15), all workouts can either be classified as aerobic or anaerobic. The category within which the workout is classified is dependent on the system being used by the body for energy production.  The process through which calories are burnt in aerobic training is different from the one used in anaerobic training. One of the physiological difference between aerobic and aerobic workouts is the heart rate. Aerobic training makes the heart beat at the of between 70 and 80 percent while on the other hand, anaerobic training causes a heartbeat of above 80 percent. In aerobic training, the exercises make the body consume oxygen as the main source of energy while in anaerobic training the energy is mainly produced by breaking down glucose stored in the muscles.

Another difference is that burned calories originate from different sources depending on whether the workout is aerobic or anaerobic in nature. More calories are burnt from fat reserves in comparison to carbohydrates on exercises on the aerobic zone while on the other hand, in the anaerobic zone, more calories are burnt from the carbs usually stored in the muscles in comparison to fat. Finally, exercises within the anaerobic zone produce after-burn effect that burns more calories for some hours after the exercise is over. On the contrary, exercises on the aerobic zone do not have the effect (MacLaren & James 20-30).

Some of the adaptations that take place after long periods of either aerobic or anaerobic workouts include an increase in heart size to enable it to handle greater cardiac output from one session to the other. Individuals who have trained for long periods of time also have more blood than ordinary people because it increases with about half a liter. An understanding of the difference between aerobic and anaerobic training will help me maintain the appropriate level depending on the aim of my training (MacLaren & James, 45).

Many people are scared of accumulating too much fat in the body due to the negative effects it has on one’s health. Most people are very concerned about the best method to get rid of visceral fat. Belly fat as many people call it is associated with higher risks of diabetes, heart disease and some forms of cancer. The magazines argue that some scientific studies have found out aerobic training to burn out more 67 more times calories when compared to resistance training. The magazines go ahead to argue that aerobic exercise is much effective than weight lifting for example when it comes to burning belly fat (Maclaren & James, 70).

MacLaren and James (78-82), argue that it is true that aerobic training can convert the body into an efficient machine, but that is not the desirable response. Aerobic training will demand some level of work from the muscles, but other activities demand much more than aerobics from the muscles. Aerobics do not require the muscle tissue to last, and it would be right to conclude that they are ineffective regarding the building and maintenance of the body’s fat-burning tools. The reason for the conclusion is that the muscle is the only tissue in the body with the ability to burn fat. Another misconception has been that aerobic training raises metabolism. The muscle is what highly contributes to metabolism.

There other ways of losing fat apart from aerobics. Some of the ways include sprinting and weight lifting. Knowledge in this area will help me in building considering building the muscle tissue as an important aspect of training and avoid concentrating too much on aerobics.

Periodization can be defined as the process through which people seek to maximize their performance to be in line with important competitions by application of long-term cyclic restructuring practice and training according to (MacLaren &James, 102-108). Periodization aims to maximize the gains while at the same time reduce the risk of developing injuries. Periodization programs have three distinct cycles; macrocycle, mesocycle, and microcycle. The macrocycle can be explained as the whole program which can take several months up to a full year of training. The mesocycles, on the other hand, are divided into some weeks or a few months. The mesocycles are further divided into microcycles which are made up of weekly and daily variations.The main idea behind periodization is changing some elements in your routine, and this will usually stimulate growth in muscles (MacLaren & James, 109-111)

Periodization is very important to the soccer player because it helps him in making his body adapt to handle the pressures of playing the game for 90 minutes. At the beginning, the soccer player may deal with heavier weights and shorter sets which maximize his strength and power. As he approaches the first game later in the year, the intensity of the weight room can slightly be lowered and do more skills work instead. Periodization will ensure overtraining is avoided, and there is strength conditioning improvement. The sedentary adult would also benefit from periodization. Since he is a beginner, periodization will help him lay a fitness foundation first during the initial weeks of exercise through basic body movements. Stress can be increased later once the foundation has been laid. Periodization is important to a long distance runner because it helps him or her begin training easily and increase the time and distance gradually. It helps the runner increase the pace when competition nears that places him at an advantage during the main event. Periodization is beneficial to anyone with specific goals of exercising. The reason is that it helps a person come with a long term plan that when implemented can guarantee success and assists in sticking only to the goals (MacLaren & James, 113-117).

Some of the popular multivitamin formulas in the world today according to are Garden of Life Vitamin Code For Men and Rainbow Light Women’s One according to MacLaren and James (136-139). Garden of Life Vitamin Code For Men ingredients include; Vitamin A*complex,VitaminC*,VitaminD*,VitamiEcomplex*,VitaminK*,Thiamin*(B1),Niacinamide,Pyridoxine,FolicAcid*,VitaminB12*,Biotin*,PantothenicAcid*(B5),Calicium*,Iodine*,Magnesium*,Zinc*,Selenium,Copper*,Manganese*,Chromium*,Molybdenum,Potassium*, vanadium,Coq 10*, Boron, RAW Enzyme And Probiotic Blend, RAW Carotenoid Synergy Blend,Beta-Carotene, Alpha-Carotene, Gamma-Carotene. RAW Antioxidant And Immune Support Complex, Raw Food-created Beta-Glucans, Raw Organic Fruit And Vegetable Blend, Organic Strawberry, Organic Broccoli Juice, Organic Kale, Organic Spinach Juice, Raw Trace Mineral Blend, Protease, Amylase, Lipase, Glucoamylase, Planetarium and other ingredients.

Rainbow Light Women’s One ingredients include, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E,Vitamin K, Vitamin B1( as Thiamin Mononitrate),Niacin(as Niacinamide), Vitamin B6(as Pyridoxine HCl), Vitamin B12( as Cyanocobalamin),Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 (asCyanocobalamin),BiotinVitaminB5(asCalciumPantothenate).Iron,,Zinc,Selenium,Copper,Manganese,Chromium,Molybdenum,Choline,Inositol,Boron,Citrus,Bioflavonoid Complex, Women’s Nourishing Blend, Organic Spirulina, Beet Complete  Digestive Support, Protease, Amylase,Lipase,Cellulase, Lactobacillus and other ingredients (MacLaren & James, 127-130).

Both the formulas share some ingredients like Vitamin C, B1,K among others but vary in some like B6 which present in  Rainbow Light Women’s  and absent in Garden of Life Vitamin Code For Men. The ingredients vary because one targets men’s special needs like Prostate health while the other one seeks to address the special needs of women. Rainbow Light Women’s one is marketed to women while the other is marketed to capture the attention of men. The multivitamin for men is advertised with an emphasis placed on physical strength, mental health and heart health. On the other hand, for women, the message focuses on the value to hair and strengthening of bones. The manufacture’s combination depended on the intended purpose of the multivitamin. Different Vitamins have different roles in the body and therefore the combination depends on the role intended role of the multivitamin (MacLaren & James, 145-149).

Works Cited

MacLaren, D., and James Morton. Biochemistry for Sport and Exercise Metabolism. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.

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