Goals of Inferential Analysis
The hypothesis is a proposal with a relationship of statistics comparing two sets of data as well as the comparison of the alternatives that are the null hypothesis since it has no distinct relationship with the datasets. To find out the differences on the hypothesis that is null as well as the hypothesis that is alternative one need to have identification based on the two types of errors conceptualized as well as specifying parameter limit (Spaar, 2013). For instance, one can determine if the high rate of HPV infection associated with cervical cancer in women is due to non-effective screenings
A study to find out if HPV infection associated with cervical cancer in women is due to non-effective screening can be conducted, and some of the details to be used are;
Taking a group of two thousand women, all cervical cancer patients and then randomly dividing the participants into two groups, containing a thousand members each.
Categorize a group as intervention group where the participant underwent adequate screening while the other category known as control group should not undergo sufficient testing.
The results, in this case, can reveal that probably 90% of the participants screened improved by two points. It can also reveal that 80% of individuals in the non-screened group are ranked with one point.
The outcome of these two groups, therefore, shows a significance of (p < 0.05) implying that participants screened significantly were not affected by HPV infection that is associated with cancer as compared to those in the control group.
Statistical and clinical significance
The most important issue in this case is establishing the Clinical significance as it shows whether the screening will bring a significant effect it is not done (Spaar, 2013). Therefore we can conclude on the importance of both clinical and statistical significance that;
- Clinically relevant as well as statistically relevant occurs when there is significant meaning between the groups compared, and statistics supports them.
- Clinically relevant though none statistically significant occurs as a result of inadequate sample size that can reveal the differences in the study leading to failure.
- Not clinically relevant though statistically significant occurs when there is adequate sample size. Therefore, if treatment has a statistically significant compared to alternative treatment it does not imply that the differences are clinically significant to the patient.
Spaar, A. (2013). Pap-Test oder HPV-Test? Praxis, 097(07), 0397-0398. doi:10.1024/1661-8184.108.40.2067