Hand, Mouth and Foot Disease(HFMD)

Hand, Mouth and Foot Disease

Description of the disorder

Hand Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is an infection that is caused by various viruses. These viruses are usually spread through the air resulting from coughing, personal contacts, and the faces of an infected person. The disorder is characterized by high fevers, flat spots within the mouth, the feet and the hands that are discolored which may blister and at times within the buttocks. According to Reich, Psomadakis, & Buka, (2017), the two most common viruses in causing the HFMD are Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16. However, other strains derived from these two viruses can cause the disorder.

Diagnosis of the disorder

Diagnosis of the disease is done primarily through the examination of the presenting symptoms of the patient affected. However, before the symptoms are seen, it may take an average of 3 days. If the diagnosis is not clear, then the patient’s stool or swab is taken as a specimen for further testing to identify the culture of the virus causing the disease.

Treatment Plan

The HFMD is a viral disease. It is usually resolved on its own, and thus medication is not needed as such. The disease is managed by first ensuring that the patient affected obtains symptomatic relief. In this process, the main aim is to reduce the pain from those experiencing the disorder. As such, the sores are eased with analgesic medication. Moreover, warm and fever reducer baths can be used to decrease the temperatures that may be high for the patients. However, a few of the conditions of the disorder may need admission to the hospital due to having complications including inflammation of the meninges, bleedings that may be directed to the lungs and inflammation of the heart.

Health Promotion for the disorder

The health promotion for this disease is based on enhancing the way the children may benefit from receiving the anti-viral vaccination which would otherwise help to avert the causative viruses of the disorder. Based on studies, it is possible that the inhibitors of the EV-17 Viral Capsid will assist in preventing the disease and thus helping the patients to prevent the causative viruses from affecting their health. Moreover, the health of the people who are not yet affected is advocated for by ensuring that the infected patients are isolated from those who may not be affected, thereby ensuring that the chances of the infection of spreading are minimized.

                                                           Disease Prevention           

The prevention of the disease involves the avoidance of direct interaction and contact with any individuals who are infected with the same. Moreover, children who are affected by the disorder are required to stay at home without attending school. Additionally, it is necessary that utensils that are shared should be properly cleaned to minimize cases of the viruses of the disease from spreading. It is also recommended that the utensils be disinfected to remove any contaminations that may be on the surfaces of the same. Through these measures, it is possible to reduce the transmission of the viral infection that is responsible for causing HFMD.

For the children, a vaccine can be administered to them known as EV71 Vaccine. However, the vaccination has only been conducted in China since 2015 and is not available in the United States. Therefore, this injection can be used to prevent the cases of HFMD within the children

Two other diseases

  1. Herpangina

This is an infection that is primarily caused by the virus coxsackievirus which is most prevalent among children and is associated with similar symptoms as HFMD such as a sore throat, fever, and blister within the back of the mouth. The diagnosis of the condition is done on medical symptoms alone. However, the treatment of the disorder involves the minimization of the discomforts that are brought about by the blisters within the mouth. Moreover, the children who suffer from this condition are frequently fully recovered within 5 days.

  1. Encephalitis and Meningitis

This disorder results in the inflammation of most parts of the brain or the whole brain in general. Encephalitis is a rare condition, which is attributed to the causative agents of noninfectious diseases such as the Systemic lupus erythematosus. The disease is persistent among the very young infants and the elderly individuals. The causative agents may be spread by breathing in respiratory droplets from people with the infection, direct contact with their wounds and insect bites which may be carrying the viruses causing the same.

The symptoms of the disease include headaches, sudden high fever, confusion, drowsiness, stiff back and the neck, vomiting, visual sensitivity to different light rays, irritability, and unsteady gait while walking. Moreover, the individuals suffering from the same disorder may also experience weaknesses in their muscles, seizures, lose consciousness and memory, and server and sudden dementia.

References

Reich, D., Psomadakis, C. E., & Buka, B. (2017). Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease. In Top 50 Dermatology Case Studies for Primary Care (pp. 321-329). Springer International Publishing.

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