Health Advocacy Campaign against Diabetes
The advocacy campaign is important because it helps in improving the health condition of the population in a particular community. It is relevant for creating awareness concerning a certain health problem. Therefore, the research paper records diabetes as a population health issue. There are two types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. Type 1 is insulin dependent diabetes which accounts for about 5 out of 10 in 100 (American Diabetes Association, 2015). In type one diabetes the body’s immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin cells cannot absorb glucose and produce energy. In type 2 which is non-insulin dependent diabetes can develop at any age but usually in adulthood. In type 2 diabetes the body is not able to use insulin in the right way. This is called insulin resistant where the body’s pancreas makes less and less insulin. Type 2 diabetes affects about 1.25 million adults and children in America (Siegel, 2008).The campaign outlines two scholarly articles which explains an effective advocacy campaign for diabetes. In addition, the essay discusses the attributes of the campaigns and current policies to improve the health of the population.
World Health Organization strives to develop the strategic plans for controlling diabetes in the particular community. The aim is to create an effective campaigning mechanism that will help people to understand the methods of annihilating diabetes. Also, advocacy campaigns focus on research and health training process to promote creative methods of concentrating on safe health practices. Medical policies on how to control diabetes is a relevant concept of healthy living community. Fighting diabetes is necessary since the issue cause unfair lifestyles to the victims. The chronic sickness is a burden to the patients because it requires expensive medical treatments. It causes a barrier for happy living on the affected individuals. Diabetes is a major reason for global high mortality rates.
The Unit for Diabetes Campaign
The article presents key aspects of the advocacy program to prevent and control diabetes. The global advocacy plan ensures that members of the global diabetes community are provided with appropriate campaign kits (Siegel, 2008). Collaboration and interactions with pharmaceutical firms allow the supply of enough treatment tools or medicines. In addition, countries are encouraged to develop a national diabetes plan that allows the government to allocate enough resources on diabetes agendas. The goal is to prevent, treat, and provide care to people living with diabetes. The Unite for Diabetes Campaign was established to promote cohesion, recognition and proper treatment to all individuals with diabetes. The campaign targets main policymakers in all parts of the world who create awareness on diabetes (Siegel & Narayan, 2008). It strengthens nations that have less concerned governments on issues relate to prevention and control of diabetes (Siegel, 2008).
The article presents an advocacy campaign meant to control the cases of diabetes. It increases the chances of training people concerning health dieting and improved physical activities. The implementation process is affected by low funding from the respective institutions (Siegel, 2008).
The campaign is characterized by the need to increase funding for the activities of creating awareness about diabetes. The United Nations introduced a diabetes campaign in 2006 to help people cope with the problem.
The campaign had the following policies: Place the mechanism of controlling the issue as a top global agenda (Siegel, 2008). Mass education campaigns should be used increase awareness of diabetes. Also, poverty should be addressed as a major barrier to accessing quality health services and insulin injections. The governments are advised to create a national plan for preventing and treating diabetes (Siegel, 2008).
The changing diabetes leadership forum managed to bring together several policymakers, governments’ specialist and patient organizations from about 20 nations to discuss diabetes issues (Siegel, 2008).
Healthy People 2020 Campaign
Diabetes | Healthy People 2020 (2017) outlines the problems that institutions have encountered in launching advocacy campaigns to stop diabetes. Also, there is a clear outline that preventing diabetes is affected by increasing number of challenges such as poor testing and other diagnosis problems. Patients lack appropriate access to healthcare services that may cause an improvement in body health. There is a need for funding the campaign process. The article presents the importance of providing diabetes diagnosis services to the high income earning group.
Critically, the author did not present the method of controlling diabetes in the low-income groups. Therefore, the article did not consider that lower class individuals have no access to funds for purchasing insulin prescriptions. Notably, insufficient information about diabetes on poor people does not help in fighting diabetes (Diabetes | Healthy People 2020, 2017).
The arising matter is on insufficient resources required for proving treatment people living with diabetes. For example, the funds are not enough to create an effective advocacy campaign. The treatment of type 2 diabetes is affected by the scarce resources (Diabetes | Healthy People 2020, 2017).
Diabetes is a condition that occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. It is a common health problem that causes a high number of deaths in the selected population segment. Therefore, appropriate action should be implemented to minimize the consequence of this health issue. I, therefore, propose a policy that promotes regular physical activities and weight management to control the occurrence of the disease.
The goal of the mentioned policy is to involve the identified population in various physical activities since children for at least one two times in a day. Maintaining body fitness will protect the population from experiencing the effects of the disease to a higher level (Christoffel, 2000). Another goal is to ensure the population controls the body weight efficiently. Therefore, nobody will be defined as overweight.
I will write a proposal concerning the policy to the Department of Health. In addition, I will develop a complete proposal showing the objectives of the program and send it to various policymakers in the country. Furthermore, I will request the chance to present the policies in person to different groups. After the approval, I will present the ideas to the authorities and convince them the importance of implementing policies.
I will justify the policy through evidence presented during the global survey that recorded 50% and 57% of African American men and women respectively do not involve themselves in various physical activities to control their body weight (Christoffel, 2000). The population has a higher tendency of forming upper body fats in the body. There are many people associated with obesity which is the main cause of diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2015).
I will acquire support for the objectives from other groups that create awareness concerning the control of diabetes. For instance, I request American Diabetes Association to provide accurate statistical evidence about the condition (Inzucchi, 2015). I will also involve the national-level policy specialist in to support the change. Religious leaders are a good target that may support the policy. The leaders will help in informing individuals on the purpose of completing several physical activities to control body weight. The seminars will be appropriate platforms to inform people about the importance of preventing diabetes. Training main groups on the relevance of health policy will motivate them to go out and teach others (Christoffel, 2000).
To illustrate how legal authorities would prevent and control obesity along with diabetes, the National Summit on Legal Preparedness for Obesity Prevention and Control analyzed four key areas of intervention settings, additional six target areas (medical care, communities, workplace, and schools), and three areas of social issues of social and environmental policy changes. The areas of the target included vegetables and fruits consumptions, physical activity, breastfeeding start times and duration, and reduced intake of sugared beverages and other high energy density and low nutritional value. Also under consideration was the television watching hours. The social issues that would be tackled included improvement in accessibility of medical equipment and medical care, minimizing health disparities among the obese, control of morbidities among the group, and reducing some morbidities. The organization, as well identified the importance of law-based efforts in managing diabetes cases. The United States, for example has a robust legal diabetes provisions. Based on the proposed policy, no new laws will be necessary; however, some adjustment will be made on the existing laws.
A robust legal framework is essential for effective public health strategies. Additionally, it provides a valuable tool implementation of public health objectives. Law has led to behavior modifications and subsequent control of many epidemics. The Federal Communications Commission’s; for example, came up with a decision on the Fairness Doctrine that controlled the cigarette counter advertising and led a stringent campaign on the harmful effect of tobacco smoking. Through legal channels, the body also forced cigarette companies to demonstrate the dangers of smoking on the packaging. The result was a drastic drop in cigarette advertisements and consequent number of new smokers. Social norms about smoking were significantly changed with the introduction of smoking-free zones. Apart from the cigarette, legal approaches have been used in control of alcohol abuse among other substances. Based on CDC’s Public Health Law Program, there are four primary elements in legal approach to address the various public health concerns: identifying and understanding key aspects of the laws and the authorities concerned with the issue; competency identification and development of professionals who apply the laws; and legal framework coordination. Effective implementation of such frameworks has resulted in positive healthcare intervention outcome in many behavioral related health challenges.
Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill), that works at the federal level brought the hugest health impact in the United States. Roughly 54 percent of appropriated funds are allocated to nutrition programs (Community Food Security, the national school meals programs, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (the Food Stamp program Farmers’ Markets Promotion), and Fruit and Vegetable Promotion). In 2008 Farm Bill was reauthorized a new 15 percent soybean subsidy and in corn production was implemented (American Farmland Trust 2008). The crops are cheaper food option and preferred by states. The crops also form basic farm animal’s food and in turn, increase beef supply. Corn products have also resulted in many cheaper forms of beverages. Farm Bill has ensured that every American can access healthier and cheaper food options. Such actions are geared towards reduction of consumption of unhealthy foodstuff. Despite the progress in increasing food availability, more funds are needed to make the objectives of the bill a reality (Inzucchi, 2015). The government and the involved stakeholders should increase funding of the bill to ensure affordable food access to many Americans who still find their ways to cheap fast food outlets.
The Transportation Bill (the Safe, Accountable Flexible Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)), should be tightened. The bill forms the physical aspect of the Farm Bill since it impacts the transportation policy at every societal level. In the bill, there is metropolitan transportation planning section that addresses various modes of transportation. Based on the bill, thirty percent of Americans using public transport receive the necessary daily exercise requirement as they walk between their offices and home. The opposite is true of people who use private transportations. The bill supports the development of pedestrian walkways, bicycle lanes, and peoples’ recreational trails. It contains the National Safe Routes to School Program, that promote biking or walking to and from schools among students. The transportation bill ensures people access daily minimum recreation requirement. However, the transportation bill has not been fully utilized. The numbers of personal transports are on the increase. Additionally, in many places, the infrastructures still do not promote the bill. The bill should be amended to ensure improved infrastructures and accessibility to personal transport options. Either, the public transport should be made cheaper to attract more people to the program.
The Federal Communications Commission should enforce the Fairness Doctrine. After implementation, the doctrine affected tobacco smoking and can equally be of important among obesity population. In 2007, the Federal Trade Commission made food and beverage companies to showcase their practices targeting children (FTC, 2007). The commission determined that about $870 million went to child-directed marketing, slightly above $1 billion was spend among adolescents, and roughly $300 million overlapped the two generations (FTC, 2007). A lot of money is spent annually on the harmful product of most food and beverage companies (Diabetes | Healthy People 2020, 2017). There is use of excessive advertising to influence societal food consumption patterns. To counter the impact of harmful advertisements, states sponsor consumer education programs.
In 2008, California passed a law that demanded that all calorie content be properly printed on the menu boards in every restaurant. Similarly, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene adopted a rule that demanded chain restaurants print their meal’s calorie contents. The rule was implemented in 2008, despite many court battles. New York, Seattle, and San Francisco are among the states which have their jurisdictions in place. Many states are working with the local governments to implement local government policies with regards to consumable products. In Kentucky for example, a legislation to minimize available beverages in schools to water, low-fat milk, 100-percent-juice drinks, and those with less than ten grams of sugar in every serving was passed. In June 2008, twenty-five states had already established nutritional standards of “competitive foods,” or foods available in school but not reimbursed by the National School Lunch Program. Competitive foods have been restricted in 27 states, tighter than the federal requirements, and eighteen adopted in-school nutritional meal standards, stricter than the U.S. Department of Agriculture (American Diabetes Association, 2015). It is the responsibility of federal government to support the states and the local government to enforce the rules.
At both the local government and at state levels, legal methods are being applied to enhance physical activity. Among the successful cases include Florida and Texas. In the states, physical education programs have been restored to elementary schools. In Indiana, the legislature passed a statute demanding daily physical exercise in every elementary school. Additionally, the Mississippi state legislature developed the Healthy Students Act of 2007. The Act controlled the set minimum physical activity standards. Despite the efforts, Peterson and Fox (2007) survey showed that in high schools, only 28 percent the students have adhered to the physical education program needs, others have scrapped the programs altogether (Peterson, 2007). In 2007, New York City’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed and implemented the Board of Health rule. The demanded that day care services should implement at least 6 minutes daily exercise lessons while reducing video viewing. Despite the effectiveness of the law, implementation has remained the biggest setback. In many schools, the staff implements the provisions at their own will. This has seen many schools free from physical education lessons.
In conclusion, the statement, “what gets measured gets done,” reverberates with “what gets reimbursed gets treated” in the medical field. Understandably, the practice of medicine is regulated while that of weight control industry is unregulated (Siegel, 2008). Many times, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) have come up with conflicting views on their obesity cover. Some states such as Tennessee and West Virginia, and implemented both partial and full Weight Watchers reimbursement programs. The weight control industry should be properly implemented to and legalized to make obesity measurable as requisite of medical coverage.
Advocacy campaigns are meant to combat diabetes and obesity in the community. They achieve this by focusing on fast food taxation, limiting publicity, banning sugary drinks in academic institutions and advocating for mandatory physical training for overweight workers. The campaign may seem beneficial to community members as it aims to improve their health but it may experience resistance from individuals (Gostin, 2016). Ethical dilemmas erupt when individual’s dispute participating in health campaigns as a result of private reasons. It poses difficulty accepting what they decide having in mind that the program is initiated for their own welfare and well being. The resistance from the society members may be initiated by role description, information privacy and confidentiality, discrimination, disregard for cultural values and social disparity.
Discrimination and stigmatization
Some of the health campaign advocate for mandatory training of overweight workers as a form of improving population’s health and prevention measure for diabetes. It however does not receive the same perception from the obese population. Most of the individuals might feel disregarded or undermined from the rest of the healthy population. They may feel excluded from the rest and this may initiate stress (Lupton, 2015).
Privacy and confidentiality
The nurses may present the patients health information for court cases or may accidentally share medical information with other parties. This may undermine the trust bestowed upon them by the participants who may end up being defamed. If medical information is not properly with held, it may ruin the reputation of members which may nurture stigmatization.
The health campaign may advocate for heavy taxation on fast foods in an effort to discourage their consumption and alleviate diabetes. However, majority of the fast food consumers are low income earners. They may not be able to adequately afford the nutritious fresh foodstuff and this may serve as a bigger burden. The advocacy may end up increasing the gap between the rich and the poor in society. The marginalized population in the community will continue being poor.
Role description and opinion
Nurses act as major stakeholders in the health campaigns as they integrate the members of the society together with the program. The main objective of the health campaign is to enhance public participation and contribution towards community welfare. Some of the stakeholders may act with prejudice by preferring the opinions of some and disregarding others. Such acts may give rise to biasness which may deter and reduce the level of public confidence. Some practitioners only conflict their roles by carrying out both administration and evaluation which may nurture conflict of interest (Lupton, 2015).
Inadequacy in relaying information
Nurses act to relay health information pertaining to nutrition to the participants and advocate for better nutrition and discipline. They also advise the participants on the better lifestyles recommendable for adoption. They inform the members on prevention and cure methods pertaining diabetes, obesity and other ailment. At instances, the practitioners may lack adequate information meaning they will be denying the participants critical information. The members may not be fully satisfied and may end up losing confidence in the campaign.
Health campaign advocate for funding from the government to enable healthy nutritional consumption on members of the society. Lobbyists may try to influence the legislative affiliates in an effort to benefit from the campaign funds. The personal interest of a few in the community inhibits the programs performance and denies the larger proportion nutritional supplementation.
Solutions to the ethical dilemmas
Nurses’ code of ethics
The code of ethics nevertheless stresses on nurses respecting the wishes of the members and respecting their stipulations. Presentation in court acts as a breach of privacy and thus can reduce trust on the part of the participant. The practitioners should thus ensure they receive the necessary consent from the members before presenting their records. The participants will be assured of privacy, increase public confidence and thus defamation will be avoided.
Encourage public participation
The nurses should disclose program and assessment modes to receive substantial approval from the participants. The members should agree to the methods of evaluation which are socially acceptable for all. Biasness erupts as a result of stakeholder personal attachment to the program. Evaluation to be provided should always be precise and not inclining or favoring some individuals (Gubrium, 2014). It should incorporate the ideas and issues laid out by other participants.
Clearly defined roles
Positional conflicts occur as a result of biasness and favors on the part of the health stakeholders. The stakeholder in this instance takes both the administration and evaluation roles. The roles of the stakeholders should be clearly stated dictating those to participate in administration and ones in evaluation (Young, 2017). Confusion will be inhibited and the members will be discouraged from developing personal interests.
The stakeholders should enhance transparency and integrity concerning the functionality of the program (Mackey, 2016). They should accept failure and initiate new ways to combat the weaknesses. In the instance the failures surpass the successes; they can choose to end the program. Proper coordination of information should be maintained and all the stakeholders in the program need to be bound by a contract to assure commitment and performance.
The assessors also need to have a clear knowledge of their performance and behavior. They need to have a clear understanding of their strong areas and weak areas. They should also know their preferences and cultural beliefs. Through the knowledge, they will be able efficiently evaluate the programs without prejudice. Knowing where their opinions lie will help them handle initiate better methods of handling their participants (Bayer, 2016). They should not allow their beliefs to cloud their judgment and the nature of opinions.
The nurses should focus on the public welfare by embracing the ‘do no harm’ principle.
Most of the campaigns are characterized by social economic discrimination and comprehensive tax modes meant to combat unhealthy consumption. The campaigns are meant to benefit and equip the participants with methods of combating and preventing diabetes. However, at instances, the initiatives have ended up increasing the social disparity gaps between members in the society (Snyder, 2016). Most of the members who are fast food consumers are low income earners and mostly of the African American community. Strongly campaigning against the consumption of the unhealthy cheap fast foods will exclude some members rather than relating with them. Forging for increment on taxes on the fast foods may also serve as a burden as most of the individuals may not be able to afford the fresh nutritional foods in the markets. Instead, alternative methods should be prioritized such as advocating for volunteer food programs where the farmers can give away vegetables after market days instead of disposing them. Volunteering will bring the members together and increase cohesion in society. The health campaign will achieve success as the participant will feel catered for and accommodated.
A comprehensive research should be carried out before embarking on the advocacy campaign. Any issues addressed by the participants should be fully responded to. The advice given should offer solutions and restore the public’s confidence (Snyder, 2016). The practitioners should be sensitive on the manner and type of response they relay. They should be familiar with the group they are evaluating in order to enhance coordination and participation.
Ethics and Lobbying Laws applicable to advocacy Campaign
Ethics and lobbying laws in the advocacy campaigns start with the seventh provision which outlines nurses impact the society by actively involving and participating in educational programs. Most of the individuals in the society lack proper knowledge and enlightenment on diabetes and obesity. Educational campaigns prioritize on the causes and impacts of the epidemics equipping the public on combat methods and cure for the ailments. The eighth provision prioritizes on coordination and integration of the nurses together with the members of the public. Actively involving the public will help strengthen mass education and contribution to the campaign. The main issue of the campaign is to combat diabetes and obesity through promotion of proper nutrition and emphasizing on physical exercises (Frattaroli, 2015).
The campaign is forged towards supplementing nutritional programs and securing the nation’s food. It’s also aimed at ensuring individual weight management. The campaign should prioritize on starting on a communal level to permit counteraction with suitable individuals. This requires government funding and thus must be passed in parliament for debate and passing into law. It is thus prone to intervention by lobbyist likely to have personal interests in the program (Libby, 2017). They might want to benefit from the government funding and this may be impacted by the influence they posses on the legislators. However, in accordance to the legislative provisions, lawmakers are prohibited from having individual interests when preparing and enacting the lobbying laws. They are also prohibited by the revolving door provision from persuading legislators to incline on a certain side after exiting office for a span of one year. They are also monitored by the ethics centre on their affiliations with politicians. It’s a requirement for the lobbyists to formally give recordings and recount their collusions (Myers, 2016).
Special Ethical Challenges of Population Being Addressed
The population being addressed is one with diabetes and obesity patients. Therefore, there are unique characteristics and feelings that may pose a great challenge during the campaign period. Nurses and caregivers need to be keen while observing these issues so that they do not cross boundaries with their target group. It is due to the fact that the population being addressed is affected by their conditions and might be very sensitive.
Privacy of the target groups
It is the primary ethical challenge that is likely to be encountered as the campaign is ongoing. The population being addressed may want some of their details they share with the nurses to be kept private. Some may have issues when sharing their challenges and may need assurance that their issues are confidential. On the other hand, some may feel as if their privacy is being intruded during the campaign. Therefore, nurses should focus on their obligations and needs of the people being addressed so as to maintain respect even as they aim to exploit the data they have obtained from the population to maximize care giving. It is important to be aware that the population has been severely hit by their problems and the campaign may act as a reminder to them of their problems.
In order to overcome this challenge, nurses should be able to give assurance to their patients beforehand. It will ensure that the patients will be comfortable throughout the whole campaign period. They will be comfortable to contribute and air their problems without fear of being exposed. A nurse should be trustworthy at all times so that patients will be more open.
Addressing negativity of the population being addressed
Another ethical problem that may be encountered by the nurses during the campaign is how to address the diabetic and obese population. The population may be lenient to share due to fear of discrimination and judgment. The nurses have to be careful so that they do not hurt the feelings of these people. It might be a huge challenge since special measures have to be taken so that the people feel accommodated. People who are obese tend to shy away from the society as they feel their needs are not regarded. They hence become marginalized and are affected hugely by stigma due to their size (Lupton, 2015). Therefore, getting these people to open up to nurses may pose a huge challenge. Diabetic people may also feel as a burden to their families since money has to be spent in buying them insulin. The challenge may be convincing of these people without offending them.
In order to curb this problem, nurses should have well structured choice of words to use during the campaign period. A great choice of words will help in addressing the target crowd. Some words may not be favorable to use, other medical terms might be harsh and therefore there is need to censor words so that the feelings of individuals will not be hurt. Nurses should make an effort to accommodate the patients so as to obtain as much information as possible which will help in administration of better care to the patients. Choices should be given to the people being addressed in that they social disparities will be avoided.
Summary of the Paper
Health care has been among the top most priorities in any country. Delivery of quality health care is advocated so as to maintain a health society. Diabetes and Obesity are among the problems being encountered in the world today. Therefore, medical practitioners come up with various methods to create awareness and obtain more details relating to these conditions. Campaigns relating to health care are viable and can be used to provide quality health care as in this case. When a campaign is being planned, some considerations must be put in place so as to enhance success.
Ethical dilemmas that may be encountered during the campaign period are looked into and possible solutions are enumerated. The problems could be general and specific. General means those that might affect the nurses during campaigns in the area chosen while specific relates to the target population that is being addressed as in our case diabetes and obesity patients. These problems include but are not limited to, privacy of the target population, stigmatization, opinions and social disparities. Solutions found include proper choice of words to use when addressing the target population, creation of a comfortable position by the nurses to the patients and providing assurance of privacy to them.
Ethical standards are to be followed by medical practitioners even during campaigns so that the feelings of people being addressed are not hurt. These people are already affected by a large extent by their conditions. Therefore, all measures should be taken so that there will be no reminder of their problems during the campaign period but rather solutions to these problems. Provision of proper medical care is therefore possible by creation o should hence of awareness in the society today and should hence be embraced.
In conclusion, diabetes and obesity have become major concerns in the world today due to the increase in number of the people suffering from the conditions. The concerns that have been previously given to these patients have been minimal which has led to many challenges in the society in general. People with these conditions have been marginalized thus elevating the effects of stigma. Use of campaigns and medical forums can be very effective in giving hope to the affected people. With accommodation, the affected population will not shy away from obtaining medical attention thus leading to a healthy society.
Proper treatment should be advocated so as to reduce financial problems that may have been encountered with poor health care. Nurses follow the set standards of ethics in their profession which advocate for confidentiality and the relationship between the patients and nurses. All in all, the most important things to consider during the campaign are privacy of patients, gaining trust of the population being addressed and maintaining professionalism. Health care administrators should focus on provision of quality health services to their patients at all costs so as to meet their needs.
Campaigning helps to raise awareness and create comfort to the people who have been affected by various conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Additionally, people who have been affected by conditions in the society should not shy away from obtaining care from medical practitioners. Society on the other hand should learn to embrace diversity in that they should understand there are different kinds of people. Observance of ethics is therefore important so as to maintain peace and cohesion both in medical institutions and society in general.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical diabetes: a publication of the American Diabetes Association, 33(2), 97.
American Farmland Trust. (2008). Success in the 2008 Farm Bill, a New Direction for Farm and Food Policy: AFT Overview of the 2008 Farm Bill. 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/analysis/documents/AFT-2008-Farm-Bill-brochure-August2008.pdf
Bayer, R., & Fairchild, A. L. (2016). Means, ends and the ethics of fear-based public health campaigns. Journal of medical ethics, medethics-2016.
Christoffel, K. K. (2000). Public health advocacy: Process and product. American Journal of Public Health, 90(5), 722.
Diabetes | Healthy People 2020.(2017). Healthypeople.gov. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/diabetes
Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Food Industry Marketing to Children Report; Orders to File Special Report. 2007. FTC Matter no. P064504, August. Retrieved from: http://www.ftc.gov/os/6b_orders/foodmktg6b/index.shtm
Frattaroli, S., Pollack, K. M., Young, J. L., & Vernick, J. S. (2015). State health department employees, policy advocacy, and political campaigns: protections and limits under the law. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 43(s1), 64-68.
Gostin, L. O., & Wiley, L. F. (2016). Public health law: power, duty, restraint. Univ of California Press.
Gubrium, A. C., Hill, A. L., & Flicker, S. (2014). A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: A focus on digital storytelling. American Journal of Public Health, 104(9), 1606-1614.
Inzucchi, S. E., Bergenstal, R. M., Buse, J. B., Diamant, M., Ferrannini, E., Nauck, M., …& Matthews, D. R. (2015). Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes care, 38(1), 140-149.
Libby, P., Deitrick, L., & Mano, R. (2017). Exploring Lobbying Practices in Israel’s Nonprofit Advocacy Organizations: An Application of the Libby Lobbying Model. Administrative Sciences, 7(4), 37.
Lupton, D. (2015). The pedagogy of disgust: the ethical, moral and political implications of using disgust in public health campaigns. Critical public health, 25(1), 4-14.
Mackey, T. K., & Schoenfeld, V. J. (2016). Going “social” to access experimental and potentially life-saving treatment: an assessment of the policy and online patient advocacy environment for expanded access. BMC medicine, 14(1), 17.
Myers, N. G. (2016). The Outer Circle: The Importance of NonorganizedAdvocacy Coalitions to the Passage of Smoke-Free Policy. California Journal of Politics and Policy, 8(2), 0_1.
Peterson, K., Fox, M. (2007). Addressing the Epidemic of Childhood Obesity through School-Based Interventions: What Has Been Done and Where Do We Go from Here? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. 2007; 35(1):118
Siegel, K., & Narayan, K. (2008). The Unite for Diabetes campaign: Overcoming constraints to find a global policy solution. Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(3), 15, 34.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-4-3
Snyder, J. (2016). Crowdfunding for medical care: ethical issues in an emerging health care funding practice. Hastings Center Report, 46(6), 36-42.
Young, K. M., & Kroth, P. J. (2017). Sultz & Young’s Health Care USA. Jones & Bartlett