Creswell (2014) discusses Qualitative Procedures. He suggests ten aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing (I have provided the 10 aspects for you below directly from the book). Considering the salient aspects of qualitative writing as depicted in your text.
Identify three of the most salient aspects of the ten distinguishing characteristics of qualitative writing.
Discuss why these aspects were selected.
Describe how the selected aspects relate to the evaluation and interpretation of criminal justice data and research findings.
Explain why researchers would consider qualitative methods an artistic expression of formalized methodology.
Must be 3 1/2 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA
Must use at least five peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
1. Qualitative research occurs in natural settings, where human behavior and events occur.
2. Qualitative research is based on assumptions that are very different from quantitative designs. Theory or hypotheses are not established a priori.
3. The researcher is the primary instrument in data collection rather than some inanimate mechanism (Eisner, 1991; Frankel & Wallen, 1990; Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Merriam, 1988).
4. The data that emerge from a qualitative study are descriptive. That is, data are reported in words (primarily the participant’s words) or pictures, rather than in numbers (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990; Locke et al., 1987; Marshall & Rossman, 1989; Merriam, 1988).
5. The focus of qualitative research is on participants’ perceptions and experiences, and the way they make sense of their lives (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990; Locke et al., 1987; Merriam, 1988). The attempt is therefore to understand not one, but multiple realities (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).
6. Qualitative research focuses on the process that is occurring as well as the product or outcome. Researchers are particularly interested in understanding how things occur (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990; Merriam, 1988).
7. Idiographic interpretation is utilized. In other words, attention is paid to particulars; and data is interpreted in regard to the particulars of a case rather than generalizations.
8. Qualitative research is an emergent design in its negotiated outcomes. Meanings and interpretations are negotiated with human data sources because it is the subjects’ realities that the researcher attempts to reconstruct (Lincoln & Guba, 1985; Merriam, 1988).
9. This research tradition relies on the utilization of tacit knowledge (intuitive and felt knowledge) because often the nuances of the multiple realities can be appreciated most in
this way (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Therefore, data are not quantifiable in the traditional sense of the word.
10. Objectivity and truthfulness are critical to both research traditions. However, the criteria for judging a qualitative study differ from quantitative research. First and foremost, the researcher seeks believability, based on coherence, insight and instrumental utility (Eisner, 1991) and trustworthiness (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) through a process of verification rather than through traditional validity and reliability measures. [Qualitative characteristics are mentioned.