IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED KINGDOM

IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED KINGDOM

Introduction

Immigration is the movement of people between or among nations. They do not belong to the country they are moving into by birth, therefore, do not possess citizenship (Hollifield, 2014). They cannot be permanent.  People who are migrating to another country are referred to as immigrants. Obtaining employment for this people is not easy since they do not belong to that particular country.  Most migrants face discrimination in their host countries since they are not natives and the lack of identity. Recently there had been a case relating to fishing where one fishery in Oxford shire had put a sign that said no Polish or Eastern bloc fisherman would be allowed into that fishery. It said that legal action would be taken on these people in case they entered the fishery. This brought mixed reaction especially to Polish fishermen who wanted the signpost to be removed since it was discriminatory. The Polish were willing to sue the fishery manager for the rooting of that signpost (Jasmin, 2017). It’s not fair to prohibit people from accessing certain services due to their race and nationality since the trend has become outdated. Polish immigrants are common in the United Kingdom.

Poles in the United Kingdom were involved in activities that were aimed at improving the economic conditions of their families and relatives in Poland. They would send food and money to them. This was usually obtained from war activities and pensions as these were the economic activities they were involved in while in the United Kingdom at that time of Cold War. Poles are employed in London and other cities in all sectors such as construction, banking, education, journalism and agriculture (White, 2017) There is also recognition of the Polish history and culture among British people. Poland has been absorbed into the European Union, and foodstuffs from Poland are becoming more familiar. There has also been an increase in publications in Polish and Polish language has been embraced among the British (Burrell, 2016).

How immigration affects the economy, wages, employment and overall working conditions of UK natives

Labor markets are affected by immigration due to the skills of the immigrant, the skills possessed by existing workers and the nature of the economy of the host country. The increase in labor affects the economy both in a small duration and a wider duration of time. In little duration of time, wages and employment are affected (Ruhs, M. and Vargas-Silva, 2014). This is about the skills being possessed by the immigrants. Immigrants may have skills that are complements and substitutes to those possessed by existing workers. This will raise the level of competition in the labor market. The increased labor force is usually an advantage to employers as they know they can get substitutes whenever in need. This enable them to be able to manipulate the wages they offer to their workers.

This may bring down the wages being received by the workers due to the availability of similar applications (Peri, 2014). Low wages may hence de-motivate the workers since the wage being paid to them may not be able to meet their needs and unemployment levels may rise depending on the consenting levels of the workers (Bratsberg, 2014). Some of the natives may fail to obtain job opportunities due to the flooding of the labor market. When many people have similar skills, there is competition, and some may miss opportunities. However, not many of the natives have been affected.

In contrast , when competencies of the immigrants are a consummation to abilities of their colleagues in a particular industry, there is expected productiveness which may, in turn, raise the wages of the workers both immigrants and existing (Galgóczi, 2016).In the UK, the Polish migrants have brought little effect on the workforce. This is because; most of them do not have distant substitutes in their skills. However, this is not to be taken for granted as some of the UK born workers may lack employment due to the flooding of skills. Others may feel that the reduction in the wages does not favor them, therefore, leaving the employment industry (Brücker, 2014). UK natives, however, are not reluctant and they continue to work without deterring.

Other than the addition of the availability of labor, immigration can raise the level of need for the workforce (Faggio, 2014). With immigration, there is an increase in the number of people in that country hence there will be an increase in the demand for goods and services. Production industries will hence rising the needs of the people. Production industries will produce more food and clothing industries will make more clothes leading to an increase in the levels of investment. With more people in the economy, industries will feel the need to increase their labor force to keep up with the demand. More employment and wages will be experienced. Immigration, therefore, creates more job opportunities as well as increasing competition in the market (Wadsworth, 2016). However, placement of capital in expectation of deriving income and demand for workforce will rely on the features of the economy. When the economy is in a recession, the demand for workforce may be lower than at the boom.

Immigration affects the goods and services being produced in a country. This changes the structure of industries. For example, low skilled workers who have migrated into a country may lead to the production of goods that are low quality. Highly skilled immigrants may influence changes in technology and encourage innovation and invention leading to the production of high-quality products (Ottaviano, 2015). The reason behind this is that, when people come into a country with high levels of skill, employers will want to utilize them maximally in that they will bring positive change in their industries. Most Polish people are working in the low skilled sectors such as manufacturing and hospitality. This indicates that the majority of people in the high skilled jobs are the natives of the United Kingdom. This shows that the migration of Polish people into the country has not had a high impact on the natives since natives can claim their positions in the job markets (Hollifield, 2014).

Immigration in the United Kingdom has a small effect on the wages in the workforce markets (Dustmann, 2014). However, there is a more significant effect on the distribution of wages that is, the highly paid workers, medium and lowly paid workers (Nickell, 2015).The increase of the number of immigrants into the country resulted in the increase of wages. The rise in the in the number of people who have attained the working age affects the payment of wages in that laborers  lowly paid  are unconsidered whereas the wages of the highest paid individuals rise (Dustmann, 2014). This mainly affected the Polish migrants since they are mainly in the low skilled jobs. Low skill jobs are associated with low wages since the skills being utilized are also low.

However, there are no adverse effects on wages due to immigration since competencies of those who are not natives are closer substitutes to those of the initial laborers in the industries in the UK (Akay, 2014). Immigration has no adverse effects on the employment of UK born workers in overall. Therefore, there is stability among the natives about labor, employment, and wages. The natives hence do not feel left out in their own country as most of the highly skilled job opportunities are given to them.

The overall working conditions have been improved with immigration. This has occurred due to the high number of skilled labor available. With more skills in the market, this means that there will be many inventions. Industries, therefore, have to keep up with the pace and meet the demands of technology and labor force. Employees, therefore, have a high working condition that gives them a platform for inventions. People can go on about their duties at ease since they are not afraid to demonstrate their skills. Polish migrants have therefore added positivity in the labor market in the United Kingdom.

Conclusion

Conclusively, the Polish migration into the United Kingdom has not had adverse effects on the natives of that country. This is mainly due to the close substitution of skills that the Polish possess about the UK natives.  However, the natives of the United Kingdom should also be keen to learn any new ideas that may be brought about by the immigrants. Migrants into a country should also not be discriminated against due to their race or ethnic group as in the case of the fishery farm. The natives should aim to add more skills in their career. This will ensure that they are a step ahead of the Polish. The range of substitution will become wider hence the wages administered will also rise. This way, the labor market will not be affected easily nor the wage rates be diminished. Restriction of immigrants into the United Kingdom can be helpful in that, the low skilled workers who are not natives can get more wages since the markets will not be flooded. The level of employment will also go up since there will be less saturation. A balanced economy is hence easily achieved.

References

Akay, A., Constant, A., and Giulietti, C., 2014. The impact of immigration on the well-being of natives. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 103, pp.72-92.

Bratsberg, B., Raaum, O., Røed, M. and Schøne, P., 2014. Immigration wage effects by origin. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 116(2), pp.356-393.

Brücker, H., Hauptmann, A., Jahn, E.J., and Upward, R., 2014. Migration and imperfect labor markets: Theory and cross-country evidence from Denmark, Germany and the UK. European Economic Review, 66, pp.205-225.

Burrell, K. ed., 2016. Polish Migration to the UK in the new European Union: After 2004. Routledge.

Dustmann, C. and Frattini, T., 2014. The fiscal effects of immigration to the UK. The economic journal, 124(580).

Faggio, G. and Overman, H., 2014. The effect of public sector employment on local labor markets. Journal of urban economics, 79, pp.91-107.

Galgóczi, B. and Leschke, J., 2016. EU labor migration in troubled times: skills mismatch, return and policy responses. Routledge.

Hollifield, J., Martin, P. and Orrenius, P., 2014. Controlling immigration: A global perspective. Stanford University Press.

http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/oxfordshire-fishery_uk_5a3a5072e4b0b0e5a79e7e16.

Nickell, S. and Saleheen, J., 2015. The impact of immigration on occupational wages: evidence from Britain.

Ottaviano, G.I., Peri, G. and Wright, G.C., 2015. Immigration, trade, and productivity in services: evidence from UK firms (No. w21200). National Bureau of Economic Research.

Oxfordshire Fishery Faces Legal Action Over Sign Banning ‘Polish And Eastern Bloc Fishermen’

Peri, G., 2014. Do immigrant workers depress the wages of native workers?. IZA World of Labor.

Ruhs, M. and Vargas-Silva, C., 2014. The labor market effects of immigration. Migration Observatory Briefing, University of Oxford.

Wadsworth, J., Dhingra, S., Ottaviano, G., and Van Reenen, J., 2016. Brexit and the Impact of Immigration on the UK. Centre for Economic Performance. LSE, pp.34-53.

White, A., 2017. Polish families and migration since EU accession. Policy Press.

 

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