Emerging Infectious Diseases

Emerging Infectious Diseases

World Health Organization (WHO) report listed a couple of emerging infectious diseases posing health threat to human race. Swine flu, Ebola, West Nile Virus are perfect examples such diseases. This study will develop a research question regarding Ebola, based on causes, diagnosis, prevention strategies and undertake a literature search regarding the formulated research question.

Research Question

What are the possible ways of diagnosing Ebola and appropriate strategies for prevention?

Information search on diagnosis

Current research on the topic 3 shows that initial steps of Ebola diagnosis entail taking blood or a patient’s body fluid then sending collected samples to a laboratory for testing.  A couple of tests are applied to diagnose Ebola after onset symptoms are detected. The tests are carried in a laboratory and help in detecting the virus genetic material. The tests reveal the presence of antibodies and the disease causing organism. Polymerase Chain Reaction is one of the most accurate tests carried to identify presence of pathogens. It is a highly definitive test that can pick extremely small amounts of the virus. According to WHO report 1,2 diagnosis of the virus is undertaken by carrying a test that seeks to identify antibodies generated by a patient’s body immune system in response to the virus.  Specialist term it as the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A positive result after testing indicates presence Ebola virus in the patient’s body.

 Prevention strategies

Avoiding direct contact with infected people

The disease primary mode of transmission is through direct contact with patients who have tested positive for the virus 3. Families of ailing patients and doctors should put on protective clothing when handling the patients. Prevention also entails avoiding direct contact with blood and other body fluids and tissues including semen, vaginal secretions and saliva from people who are sick. Touching an infected person would lead to possible infection. Moreover, prevention strategies involve avoiding direct contact with surfaces such as clothing and bedding used by sick people. According to previous studies 1 extreme care is paramount when handling bodies of the diseased because touching with naked hands would lead to possible infection.

Avoid consuming wild-caught bush meat

Research has proven that Ebola virus originated from animals through consumption of primate meat 2. People should avoid purchasing, consuming or coming into direct contact with wild meat to avoid possible infection. Prevention strategies involves avoiding buying and eating wild animals such as non-human primates’ species retailed in local markets. Perfect examples include gorillas, baboons and monkey meat.

Frequent washing of hands

Doctors and health specialists argue that one of the most fundamental disease preventative measure is frequent hand washing.  People should use soap and clean water or use alcohol based hand rubs to maintain their hands clean and free of disease causing viruses 1.

Wearing protective medical clothing

Health care providers and volunteers should put on disposable masks, gloves, google and gowns at all times when handling infected patients 3. Care givers at home should put protective attires when handling infected people or their belongings such as clothes and beddings. Putting on a Level 3 suit with a protective hood and taped seams avails maximum protection against possible infection.

Isolating infected, the deceases and their belongings

Individuals should exercise isolation practices to people whose lives were claimed by Ebola disease. People should undertake separation and burning of the deceased belongings.  Health practitioners should undertake isolation and quarantine exercises to infected patients. This minimizes the risk of diseases spreading to the general population.

Bibliography

Alton, Joseph. The Ebola Survival Handbook: An MD Tells You What You Need to Know Now to Stay Safe.N.p. 2014.

Daszak, Peter, Andrew A. Cunningham, and Alex D. Hyatt. “Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health.” Science,N.p. 2013. doi:10.1126/science.287.5452.443.

Rooney, Anne. Infectious Diseases. Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media, 2012.

Appendices

Part 2

Research question: What are the possible ways diagnosing Ebola and appropriate strategies for prevention?

Reference data bases: doi:10.1126/science.287.5452.443, doi: 10.1038/35046108.

Nature or resource: The study has employed primary sources such as journals, letters diaries, and newspaper reports. Furthermore it has used materials such as Periodicals, magazines and government reports.

Author’s expertise: Authors to materials used are frequent seasoned writers earning them necessary skills and knowledge on the subject of the study. The three authors have acquired doctorate level of education in their fields .Sources published by the authors are reliable and are used as reference sources by researchers.

Intended audience: The authors target the general public and health care practitioners as recipients of their work.

Currency of resources: The three references were published in the year 2012, 2013, and 2014 respectively. Their recent nature makes them useful in addressing current issues on emerging infectious diseases.

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