leadership style

Leadership & Perceived Organizational Support

Leadership influence the performance and attitude of the employees. Leadership suggests such activities that lead people toward a certain goal. In order to achieve organizational goals, leaders are required to play a vital role. They influence the performance of the employees in several ways. Leadership styles can be defined as the combination of leadership behaviors (Alonderine and Majauskaite, 2016). According to Epitrpaki and Martin (2013), Each leadership style is characterized by the set of leadership behaviors. For example, coach leadership style is highly directive and supportive, concern and consideration are shown. It also shows the need for power and affiliation. In contrast, perceived organizational support is one of the theories that has been covered for more than the past three decades, it explains the benefits in which the organization values the employee’s contributions to their well-being (Ghosh, 2016). These findings of previous research show that leadership, in general, has a positive impact on perceived organizational support. However, there is a lack of empirical research that intends to provide a vivid description about how different leadership styles mediate the variable of perceived organizational support. Thus, this is an important gap the present study aims to address.

Different forms of leadership style

Alonderine and Majauskaite (2016), discussed many types of leadership such as laissez-faire leadership, democratic, autocratic, transformational and transactional type of leadership. Various authors (Altinoz et al., 2016; Ghosh, 2016; Epitropaki, 2013; Alonderiene, 2016; Yahaya, 2016) have demonstrated particular leadership styles. The most commonly studied are transactional, transformational and laissez-faire styles. The organizations adopt several types of leadership for a specific work environment. Different leadership style consists of different work style, advantages and disadvantages.

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Laissez-Faire leadership suggests the minimum impact of the leaders on the employees. According to Epitropaki, & Martin, (2013), it is important to possess efficient skills to perform the role of intermediaries between the authority and the employees. Certain factors are related with the application of laissez-faire leadership style. Under this style of leadership, leaders are unable to supervise the subordinates. As a result, they are unable to deliver proper feedback. Thus, this leadership is restricted only for the employees with high skills and minimum requirement of supervision (Epitropaki,2013).

Transactional leadership:

Leaders under transactional leadership style are required to perform a certain task and they often apply carrot and stick policy in order to perform under this leadership style. Both the leaders and the employees are required to perform towards certain goals as determined early. Employees provide consent to follow the direction of the leaders in order to meet the objectives. As stated by Pieterse et al.(2010), leaders act as a supervisor and should provide proper training and direction to the employees in order to accomplish the predetermined objectives. Accomplishing such goals allows the employees to earn certain benefits.

Transformational leadership:

As stated by Yahaya & Ebrahim (2016), leadership dimension of Bass includes laissez-faire leadership and transactional leadership along with transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is based on communication in order to meet organizational goals. Communication between the employees and the authority plays a major role in this leadership form. Leaders under this leadership style are required to motivate the employees toward their job responsibilities in order to enhance the organizational productivity. They are also required to build efficiency through high visibility and communication. This style of leadership involves the leaders accomplishing the organizational goals. Leaders often delegate the smaller tasks under this leadership style considering the bigger picture regarding the accomplishment of organizational goals (Yahaya,2016).

Autocratic leadership:

As stated by Alonderiene & Majauskaite (2013), autocratic leadership suggests the autocracy of the leader in the work environment. Under such leadership, leaders carry both the authority as well as responsibilities. In autocratic leadership style, leaders determine strategies and objectives without the consent of anyone else and convey them to the followers or employees. Hence, such leadership offers no flexibilities (Alonderien,2013).

Democratic Leadership:

As opined by Bhatti et al. (2012), democratic leadership offers a vast level of flexibilities in the work environment, as the employees are also involved in the management decisions. This style of leadership includes the subordinates and inspires them toward greater contribution. Though the subordinates play a vital role in democratic leadership style, democratic leaders have the authority to take final decisions.

The influence of leadership style on Perceived Organizational Support


Leadership suggests the relationship between the leaders and the employees. Organizations adopt different leadership style in order to manage the organizational performance. While the earlier researches put importance on employee behavior and performance, this research intends to present the impact of leadership on perceived organizational support. Perceived organizational support (POS) has a close link with the organizational identification (Ghosh, 2016). According to Epitropaki & Martin (2013), the conception of transformational leadership is highly related with the rational and soft implication of the tactics of upward influence. In contrary, it also depicts that the transactional leadership is related with the implication of hard and soft tactics of upward influence. It also presents a 3-dimensional interaction between the perceived organizational support (POS), relative leader member exchange (RLMX) and transformational-transactional leadership.

As researched by Altinoz et al. (2016), the present business environment provides benefits to the individuals along with stress in life and this creates many challenges for them. In other words, POS prepares employees for dealing with various challenges that are associated by enhancing their distinctive capabilities. Thus, the present literature suggests that POS not only plays a significant role in inducing positive pro-organizational behavior, but also helps employees develop themselves. Alike to POS, Leadership also plays a significant role in growth of an employee in the context of organizations.  Different leadership style influences the employees in different way regarding their job satisfaction.  According to Epitropaki and Martin (2013), the influence of leadership style on organizational support is determined by several factors including environment of the workplace, job responsibilities and evaluation of the organisations. All in all, the reviews shows that there is a significant correlation among POS and leadership style for contributing the organization success.


In conclusion, earlier researchers have placed emphasis on the leadership style in order to figure out the impact of leadership. This study has examined the gap between different forms of leadership styles and influence on POS. Furthermore, the review shows the importance of leadership styles factors such as transformational-transactional leadership. However, in areas where leaders have no concern with the organization, negative or no effect exists. We can suggest that personal characteristics of leaders have a vital influence on the organization. Thus, the leadership style can cause the employees to use the company resources in a sustainable manner (Alonderine and Majuskaite, 2016). Future research could expand by knowing the influence of outcomes and the impact of employee’s choices of influences tacked when they perceived the different leadership style. Subsequently, further research such as how leadership styles and their impact on POS would differ in different countries could have impact on organizational support could also be examined.


Altinoz, M., Cop, S., Cakiroglu, D., & Altinoz, O. T. (2016). The Influence of Organization Support Perceived in Enterprises on Burnout Feeling: A Field Research. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences235, 427-434.

Alonderiene, R., & Majauskaite, M. (2016). Leadership style and job satisfaction in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 140-164.

Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., & Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International Business Research5(2), 192.

Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (2013). Transformational–transactional leadership and upward influence: The role of relative leader–member exchanges (RLMX) and perceived organizational support (POS). The Leadership Quarterly, 24(2), 299-315.

Ghosh, S. K. (2016). Linking Perceived Organizational Support to Organizational Identification: Role of Organization Based Self-Esteem. Contemporary Management Research, 12(2), 225.

Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Organizational Behavior31(4), 609-623.

Yahaya, R., & Ebrahim, F. (2016). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review. Journal of Management Development, 35(2), 190-216.

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