Mineral and Water Function 

Mineral and Water Function

De and Garrigues (2015) define minerals as inorganic nutrients that are void of element carbon and are sourced in foods. Minerals are requisite for body growth and good health. Human’s bodies require the elements to ensure proper working of the brain, muscles, heart and bones. Examples of minerals include cobalt, iodine, molybdenum, iron, copper, sulfate, magnesium, manganese, potassium among others. According to Kroner (2011), two kinds of minerals exist which include macro-minerals and trace minerals regarded as major and minor minerals. The essay will shed light on major and minor minerals, functions, deficiency conditions and sources. Moreover, the essay will describe role played by water in human body and elucidate on general effects of dehydration.

Two major and two minor minerals

Major minerals

Calcium and Potassium


Calcium is pivotal for blood clotting and plays an important role in normal functioning of brain. Moreover, the mineral helps in stabilizing blood pressure and is essential for coordination of cell communication (Kroner, 2011). The mineral is requisite for contraction of muscle cells. Movement of sperms into an egg for fertilization is facilitated by calcium.


  • Milk                                                         Salmon
  • Vitamin D                                                Sunflower seeds
  • Yoghurt                                                    Blackstrap molasses
  • Green leafy vegetables for example turnip greens, broccoli, kales and collards

Deficiency Conditions

  • Loss of memory/ confusion                Muscle cramps
  • Frail/weak nails                                  Depression
  • Loss of feeling/numbness on the face, hands and feet
  • Hallucinations



Potassium is fundamental for health of bones especially in women having and advanced age (Kroner, 2011). In addition, the mineral is essential in treating Hypokalaemia. It prevents heart disease and lowers risk of stroke.


Meats such as chicken                                                         Avocados

Bananas                                                                               Salmon

Citrus juices example orange juice                                     Potatoes

Flounder                                                                              Lima beans

Deficiency Conditions

  • Vomiting/nausea
  • Constipation
  • Fainting as a result of low blood pressure
  • Bloating/ cramping
  • Numbness
  • Frailness, tiredness

Minor nutrient/trace nutrients

Iron and Zinc

Functions of iron

  • Oxygen movement in the body
  • Red blood cells production
  • It essential in conversion of glucose to energy
  • Enzymes production


  • Shellfish
  • Fortifies cereals
  • Legumes
  • Red meat
  • Egg yolks

Deficiency Conditions

  • Heart palpitations
  • Lethargy
  • Breath shortness
  • Headache



  • Boosts body immune system
  • Cell growth and division
  • Carbohydrates breakdown


  • Beef
  • Pork
  • Nuts

Deficiency conditions

  • Altered sense of taste
  • Diarrhoea
  • Infertility
  • Bad memory


It is a health condition characterised by drastic reduction of red blood cells/haemoglobin in blood (De & Garrigues, 2015). The condition may result to exhaustion and pallor.


  • Pale skin colour
  • Lethargy owing to energy loss
  • Loss of sleep/Insomnia
  • Dizziness
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Confusion/difficulties in concentration

Minerals and Food Sources

Iron is required to supress anaemic conditions. The mineral manages the condition by helping in haemoglobin formation (De & Garrigues, 2015). Food sources that contain iron include red meat such as liver or beef, chicken, fish and pork.

People or Areas affected

The population most affected comprises of young children and infants who require more iron to grow. Others include teens, women of childbearing age and adults having internal bleeding

Disease is Management or Treatment

Anaemia is treated through various ways for example through dietary changes and supplements and intake of vitamin B12 supplements (De & Garrigues, 2015). The condition is also managed through blood transfusion or blood marrow stem cell transplant.

Functions of Water in the Body

Water in human body is vital for regulation of body temperature, lubrication of body joints and movement of oxygen and nutrients to the cells in various parts (Rosborg, 2015). Also, water is essential in constipation prevention, protection of body tissues and organs as well as dissolving minerals and other nutrients to enable the body access them.


General Effect of Dehydration

Change of urine colour, extreme thirst, low blood pressure as well as irritability and confusion include the general effects of dehydration.


De G., & Garrigues, S. (2015). Handbook of Mineral Elements in Food. Hoboken: Wiley.

Rosborg, I. (2015). Drinking water minerals and mineral balance: Importance, health significance, safety precautions.

Kroner, Z. (2011). Vitamins and minerals. Santa Barbara: Greenwood.

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