Nursing Theories

Nursing Theories

The Leininger’s Culture Care Model is a nursing theory that attempts to provide nursing services that are congruent with the culture of patients as stated by Smith,  & Parker (2015). The method promotes the provision of supportive, caring facilities and making decisions that are personalized to come across the patient’s discrete cultural beliefs and values so as to be able to provide health care services to different people from similar or various cultural backgrounds.

Factors Considered When Planning the Discharge

Mrs. Franklin-Jones is said to have recovered as it was expected of her. According to her statements to Nurse Hernandez, her cultural beliefs somewhat influence how she makes her final decisions. Mrs. Franklin-Jones says that she needs to study the papers that were given to her concerning the nourishments that she is supposed to eat. This shows that she had not given any prior interest to them and this is supported by her statement saying that “I may have to learn how to cook in a different way than which I was taught to in Jamaica.”

Also, Mrs. Franklin-Jones claims that her sister from Jamaica will be coming soon to visit her and she might be carrying bush tea which she believes will help her. Her cultural beliefs are part of what Nurse Hernandez should be considering before deciding to discharge her. If the bush tea that Mrs. Franklin’s sister is bringing has no effects whatsoever to her health, then Nurse Hernandez should be in a position to agree with her claims.

Importance of the Theory of Cultural Care Diversity

Patients within the hospital setting usually come from different cultures, and thus they portray various cultural beliefs and values of life. As such, practices that are continually accepted in one given society may not be the same as those in another culture. It is important that patient’s cultural beliefs are taken into consideration while in the treatment process (Matzo & Sherman, 2010). Some of the cultural beliefs that benefit the patients include the type of meal that they may choose to take or the preparations that should be done before the commencement of the treatment, among others. These beliefs help the patients have a relaxed mind state, and they are thus able to withstand pressure and be ready for any outcomes.

For the case of the nurses, they earn the patient’s confidence by considering and respecting the cultural beliefs that their patient’s bear. This helps in confirming that the long-suffering is free with the nurse and can be able to share enough information in the treatment process. In the case of Mrs. Franklin-Jones, she has enough confidence in Nurse Hernandez, and thus she is in a position to disclose information concerning her diet and what she expects from her visiting sister.

Using Leininger’s Theory of Culture to Develop a Plan of Care for Mrs. Franklin-Jones

Date Nursing Outcome Nursing Intervention Evaluation
3rd Feb 2017 -Medication is taken as prescribed



-Weekly visits to the hospital to ensure that the expected outcomes are achieved.


Status: achieved
10th Feb 2017 Good Nutrition as stated in the manual -Health checks and weight measures. Status: in progress


Strengths And Limits to Leininger’s Theory

The sunrise model is complicated, and this is one of its strengths. Due to its complexity, nurses can depict the importance of cultural behaviors in nursing practices. The sunrise model can as well provide the guidance necessary to obtain information that is needed for nursing practice while considering the patient culture. Also, the theory has been tested by a variety of people in different cultural settings and is known work.

The significant limitations of the method proposed by Leininger are that it requires nurses to be academically equipped to provide transcultural treatment care; however, there are few assets for study in this field and sustenance for further study of these practices. Also, the sunrise model due to its complexity can be viewed as a restriction. Its complication can portray the prominence of cultural deeds in nursing practices; however, the model’s intricacy can also lead to misapprehension.

Moral and Ethical Concerns

The ethical and morals concerns that have been put in place to ensure that the patient’s culture and rituals have been followed are shown in the study where Mr. Jean-Baptiste is urged to invite one of his relatives to be at his side so as to ensure the nurses they support the ethical nursing competency while operating the patient. The nurses also inquire from Mr. Jean-Baptiste about any other Haitian beliefs and customs which they may have to honor within the treatment process. These inquiries conform to the transpersonal caring for patient’s concepts by Jean Waston that demands that patient’s cultural needs be satisfied while enhancing human dignity by being morally committed to them

Evidence of Love as defined by Watson

Meleis (2011) defines love as the act of showing kindness and caring, a deeper way of showing transpersonal caring. It is evident from the case that the Rehabilitation Institute to which Mr. Jean-Baptiste is transferred to has welcoming signs that show they are caring. The signs are written in several languages. When none of the available nurses can be able to speak in Creole, the administration does not hesitate to find a translator to help Mr. Jean-Baptiste be able to express himself. The nurse also inquires about his customs that they should follow to ensure that he feels safe and accepted.

Using Self to Create a Healing Environment

Nurses can provide support to Mr. Jean-Baptiste especially since he is recovering from his post-hip replacement surgery. The nurses can help him in movement by taking him outside with a wheelchair, ensuring the room that he is admitted in is always cleaned up and maintaining a fair level of silence for a peaceful, healthy environment.

Strengths And Limits to Watson’s Theory

The art of minding hypothesis has qualities and shortcoming as a hypothesis and as it applies to nursing rehearse. The real segment of the study of minding upgrades the attendant patient connection and enhance repeat for patients. It is close to home in nature and view of the esteem arrangement of the person (McFarland & Alamah, 2015). An extra quality of the hypothesis is that it puts the customer with regards to the family, the group and the way of life. Nursing home got to be distinctly customized while in the meantime less non-specific and specialized in nature. The customer turns into the concentration of care and not the innovation accessible for medications

On the other hand, the real shortcoming of Watson’s hypothesis is that the biophysical needs of the patient are given less significance, and the principle center is around the psychosocial requirements of the person. This is additionally constraining in that wellbeing still, has a physiological part that should be tended to (McFarland & Alamah, 2015).


Matzo, M. & Sherman, D. (2010). Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life. New York: Springer Pub. Co.

McFarland, M. & Alamah, H. (2015). Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality: a worldwide nursing theory. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Meleis, A. (2011). Theoretical nursing: development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Parker, M. (1993). Patterns of nursing theories in practice. New York: National League for Nursing Press.

Smith, M. & Parker, M. (2015). Nursing theories & nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.

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