Fall of the Roman Empire

Fall of the Roman Empire

The reign of the roman empire came tumbling in the late fourth century,having served as a global superpower for nearly 500 years. Claims have been put forward that the fall of the Empire was not in the 476 A.D, but rather in a thousand more years when the eastern part of the Empire continued for the given period (Heather, 2006). Different issues depending on the timeframe affected the fall of Rome. The factors that led to the fall of the Roman Empire on along the 5th Century have been discussed below.

Principle factors in the Empire’s decline

            Different Scholars have put forward theories that try to explain the fall of the Roman Empire. The factors that have been made in describing the Fall of Rome in the 5th Century, among others, include:

Invasion by the tribes of the Barbarians

The Western Empire faced a blow when the Germanic tribes invaded their state. Groups such as the Franks, Saxons, Vandals, Lombards, and Angels took turns in ensuring the Empire was ravaged and kept the wave blowing the Roman Empire. According to Heather (2006), the groups had encroached past the empire’s frontiers. However, in the late 4rth century, the Romans staged a rebellion against the German uprising. Eventually, in 476 C.E, the remaining emperor in the West, Odoacer, their overall leader who resisted, overthrew Romulus and became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome. Since then, no Roman Emperor would ever be in a position to decide from a post in Italy.

The rise of the Empire on the East

According to Markel (2008), when Emperor Diocletian divided the Empire into the two halves, governance was made easy in the two separate empires, but as time passed, the two halves drifted apart, and this partially led to the fate of the Western Rome Empire to fall. The Eastern Empire seated in Byzantium while the Western Empire was located in the City of Milan. Both the East and West Empires did not work together in combating the threats that were posed by the outside world. While the Eastern Empire grew in their wealth and improved the security within their borders, the Western Empire tumbled into economic crisis, and this led the invasion by the Barbarian.

Corrupt Governance and Instability of the politics

Bribery and abuse became a norm and trended between the late fourth and the fifth Century. The very officials who were responsible for investigating and curbing corruption within the Western Rome Empire would use their prominent positions in protection from the government in accepting a bribe and promoting the abuse of the laws (Nardo, 2001).

There was inconsistent and ineffective leadership that served to magnify and enlarge the problem of the large size of the Western Roman Empire that was not easy to manage. There was inconsistent leadership within the Empire as during the third century, more than 20 men had died as they took hold of the throne to be emperors within a range of 75 years. The personal bodyguards of the emperor assassinated and installed new sovereigns at will. The poor leadership resulted to the collapse of the empire.

Spread of Christianity and loss of the traditional values

            Christianity played a key role in destruction of the empire. The religion was more common among the poor, and at times, the Romans persecuted the Christians. Constantine brought to a halt the persecution of believers and declared toleration of the religion. Later in 380 C.E, Christianity became the official state religion of the Empire. The religion displaced the polytheistic religion of the Romans that saw the Emperor having divine status and shifted the glory of the nation to Christianity. The change of focus to Christianity from led to undermining the traditions of the Romans and this, in turn, affected the fall of the Empire (Markel, 2008).

 Military Overspreading and Overexpansion

            The Roman Empire stretched from the River Euphrates in the Middle East to the Atlantic Ocean, which promoted a lot in its fall. The administration of the empire was faced with encumbrances in dealing and governing such a vast empire (Nardo, 2001). Communication was not efficient even with their perfect systems of road and transportation in place. The resources and troops that were deployed to control it did not curb the local rebellions that occurred within Rome, and when outside attacks started to happen, the Empire failed to defend their frontiers. Technological improvement in Rome slowed down the civil infrastructure of Rome, and the state fell in despair.

Economic Crisis and the slave labor

The financial crisis within Rome was tearing the Empire apart as the outside forces pulled out constant attacks on them. The poor and the rich had a wide gap between them due to the inflation rate within the state that caused an increase in the taxation. Also, the inflation was due to constant wars that needed funding. The empire was faced with the challenge of labor deficit and the economy of Rome depended vastly on the slaves to work as craftsmen, and till the fields of their state. As a way of avoiding taxation, the wealthy families had set camps in the countryside, and they had their ways of making money from the other ends. Rome’s supply of slaves deteriorated when Vandals began to disrupt the trading system of the Empire as pirates in the Mediterranean Sea (Markel, 2008). The Empire began to fall as a result of the decline in production of agricultural and commercial products which had led to the collapse of their economy and the lack of slaves to provide their services for the firm to use in improving their economic status.

How Rome could have prevented their Fall

Rome’s fall was inevitable since the Empire itself promoted most of the factors that led to the collapse of the state. The Emperor’s leaders were in a position of ensuring that the state was better and that cases of bribery did not exist but they failed to do so, and the Empire had corrupt leaders. In such a way that they punished Christianity in the beginning, the Roman Empire should have condoned the corruption from the start (Heather, 2006). Additionally, the Empire should have sought ways of improving their economic status by gaining the confidence of the people they served and urging them to help curb the financial crisis that was facing the Empire.

Conclusion

Key principles that contributed to the empire collapse could not have been avoided from the start. However, if enough work had been put into play, the Empire could have taken its ground, fought for their rights, and achieved victory. On the other hand, factors such as invasion by the Barbarians were inevitable and curbing them would have been an uphill task.

References

Heather, P. (2006). The fall of the Roman Kingdom: a new past of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press.

Markel, R. (2008). The fall of the Roman Empire. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.

Nardo, D. (2001). The end of ancient Rome. San D

Supreme court and stastistics

Alejandro Avila Trial

Case Identification

On July 15, 2002, a five-year-old girl, Samantha Runnion was kidnaped while playing with her friend outside her home at California condominium complex by Alejandro Avila. The accused pretended to ask for his missing Chihuahua after which he grabbed (kidnapped) the girl and forcefully pushed her into his car, after which the girl was sexually molested and strangled (Concannon, 2013).

The Courts Ruling

After the criminal act, the parents pressed charges. Since there was no particular evidence, the hearing was suspended.  On October 8th, 2002 the prosecutor, presented the first evidence of the kidnapping clamming that the DNA test results found of the girl’s fingers were the same as those of Alejandro Avila tissues. Subsequently to the hearing, on 2nd December the legal team of Alejandro Avila requested some more time for serious analysis over the DNA evidence presented to which the judge Francisco Briseno declined. Apart from the judges ruling the case was delayed since the evidence presents were not enough to accuse Mr. Alejandro, along with other developments such as the witness illness and could not avail for the court hearing on 18th November 2004. The delays carried on till the following year April 20, 2005, were pictures from the crime scene were presented to the court. Additionally, there were two more women including Alejandro former girlfriend who witnessed to the court of his harassment. Similarly, a computer expert dealing with the case also brought forth evidence that showed child pornography content on the defendant’s computer.

 

Conclusion of the Case

As a result of the proceedings and the evidence presented, Judge William R. Froeberg of the Orange County Superior Court rejected  Alejandro Avila plead for the court’s mercy over his acts and sentenced him to a death penalty, which happened at a court hearing on July 22, 2005

Topic Two

Person’s arrested for Federal Offenses

Analysis of the Table

In 2001 individuals who were arrested for any related federal offenses, drug offenses seemed to be the highest in that period as it amounted to 28.5% of all the crimes in that category. Immigration offenses came second with 21% score count amounting to 24794 cases, a 16.1% for supervisory cases followed third. The only other major crime in the category that gained more than 10% was property cases that amounted to 14.3%.  Although the property crime was the primary title for crimes like fraud, forgery, embezzlement and fraudulent, to which fraudulent was most popular in the sub category as it amounted to 11.4% of the 14.3% mark of the group. Other offenses like gambling offense, car theft, sexual abuse, child support and civil rights cases to name but a few, were not popular because they were below 1% of the total crimes (Maguire, 2016).

Explanation of the Data

The presented information of the year 2001, is as a result of the recorded data from all agencies involved in crime issues, the table represented an actual image of the situation on the ground. However, crimes such as tax violation, public order offense, and fraud were on an alarming mark as they counted more than 7% of the cases. Overwhelmingly, in relation to the statistics, murder and manslaughter cases were the most disturbing for the reason that for the year they recorded more than 4,843 personal cases.

Reference

Concannon, D. M. (2013). Kidnapping An Investigator’s Guide. Newnes.

Maguire, K. (Ed.). (2016). Sourcebook of criminal justice statisti

Voice Technology

Voice Technology

Introduction

Today, most businesses are increasingly relying on information technology so as to effectively conduct their business operations. More and more businesses are challenged with the most effective applicable methods when using the voluminous amount of data in order to steer growth as well as to improve their competitive position (Vaughan, 2011). Recently, I had the opportunity to experiment with information lines that have become a common medium of communication by many businesses as well as in public services. In this regard, I inquired for different services such as; direction search, horoscope, news feed as well as Oracle’s share stock price. However, to get varying experiences, I used different accents and locations. In this paper, I will share my personal experience and investigate ways of creating and improving mobile friendly websites while at the same time seek to explore services that may be incorporated to voice recognition websites.

  • Question two

My personal experience was quite eye-opening as different systems made me to be aware that both content and sound of my voice have the capacity of providing clues about my personal dialect and emotional state. Therefore;

  1. When I tried to use other accents that do not naturally belong to me, I came to realize that my message got distorted across different communication lines.
  2.  I discovered that effective speaking is more concerned with actually being in a position of speaking in a public context, while at the same time reflecting both clarity and confidence in my voice (Vaughan, 2011).
  3.  I realized that effective voice is achieved in an environment where there is neither noise nor pressure to conform to any expectations or rules. This is because as I tried to communicate in noisy environment where there was pressure, my message tended to get distorted.
  • Question three

While designing a web design, it is critical to incorporate designs that are accessible from all types of mobile devices such as the huge flat-screen and tiny devices. Therefore;

  1. I will ensure that designs incorporate strategies that ensure that they are adaptive and responsive, besides displaying well in various devices (Woods & United States, 2003).
  2. The web designs are supposed to be simplified so that more people are able to access and use them. To achieve this, I may decide to view on certain platforms such as GooglrGoMoMeter, so as to identify any kind of changes that are needed in the design.
  3. I will ensure that design have large font sizes, simpler page design, big touchable buttons as well as having visible critical information concerning cooking recipes.
  4.  Finally to get consumers for the cooking recipes, I will provide important personal details such as name, phone number and any accessible link at the extreme top left in the web site’s home page (Woods & United States, 2003).
  • Question four

As a web designer I know that voice recognition website may not be in a position to speak the exact same way they speak under normal conditions such as when using slang (Pautasso, Bussler & Gschwind, 2008). To improve user experience in for cooking consumers, there are several strategies that I may employ;

  1. The first main important service is having an extensive list of voice commands that would be effective during formatting and editing processes of texts.
  2. Secondly, it is critical to have a dictation that is functional on any type of browser or app that has a virtual keyboard.
  3. Lastly, most consumers would want to multitask while dictating. For this reason, having the services of a voice dictation app would be an ideal solution.

References

Vaughan, J. (2011). Web Scale Discovery Services: A Library Technology Report. Chicago: ALA Editions.

Woods, W. T., & United States. (2003). Contracting for information technology services. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

Pautasso, C., Bussler, C., & Gschwind, T. (2008). Emerging Web services technology. Basel: Birkhauser.

Price in Marketing Strategy

Price in Marketing Strategy

Pricing Strategy

A pricing strategy can be either long-term or a short-term plan. Prior to developing a strategy for either the long term or short-term plan, the entrepreneur should consider many factors. Keating (2010) explains that the value of one’s product should be compared with that of the competitor. One should also determine whether the market has the ability and the willingness to purchase such a product. The product should have the ability to increase the company’s profits and enable the firm to meet its returns and market distribution objectives (Davidson & Simonetto, 2012). Even before developing a pricing strategy, it is prudent to identify the position of the company, develop a brand strategy and define the channels hoof distribution so that the pricing reveals the value of the product and support the brand (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). Pricing should be taken seriously, as it has an influence on the thoughts of the customers about the product.

First-class pricing, market incursion pricing, cost-cutting pricing, price floating, psychosomatic pricing and fortune pricing are the main pricing strategies known (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). First class pricing involves setting prices far much higher than the costs the competitors are charging for the same product. The strategy is advantageous to small-scale businesses that produce unique goods and is always effective in the early stages of a product life in the market (Keating, 2010). Market incursion pricing offers low prices for products with an aim of attracting more customers. However, Iftinca and Altier (2016) claim that the strategy can lead to losses in the early stages. Cost-cutting pricing is meant for customers who are cost cognizant. The strategy forces the production industries to reduce their costs of production and marketing with an aim of keeping the prices of the products down (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). Price floating strategy lets companies increase the sales volume of new products in the market by charging high costs during the early stages of the product life and gradually reducing the costs as competitors become many in the market. Psychosomatic pricing is a way sellers attract buyers emotionally rather than logically for example by setting a price at $99 instead of $100 (Svendsen, 1999). Finally, fortune pricing involves selling a package of products at a cheaper price that if they would sell each product individually. It is in some way offering free gifts to buyers for purchasing one’s products.

The pricing strategy that should be employed in photo mix max is price-floating strategy with an adoption of psychosomatic pricing. The rationale behind this price floating strategy is that it will allow the company to increase the profit levels as it adapts to the market before it reduces the prices to attract the cost-cognizant buyers. According to Iftinca and Altier (2016), the strategy helps the company recover the costs it used in its development and create a first-time impression of its exclusive quality when the product is first released out to the consumers. Alongside price floating, the psychosomatic strategy aims at creating an impression of affordable prices even if the difference between $100 and $99 is actually minimal (Krstic & Becic, 2011). This is justified by the habit of customers concentrating on the first digit in a price rather than the last digit.

Testing for Price Suitability

The price strategy is tried against various trading circumstances within the market. The pricing strategy may not be applicable in some divisions of the company. In most circumstances, high prices may lead to wastage of money or lose on major company dealings. In determining the best price, a list of all the trading circumstances is tested and analyzed to know the effects on income that can be caused by different prices (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). To test the fitness of the price, the price selected is compared with that of competitors. The pricing strategy has to be changed for a new strategy if the differences between the competitors and individual prices cannot be justified (Krstic & Becic, 2011). The projections the company makes about nature of products and services in the future should be accomplished so that the customers will build and develop trust on the company products.

 

Profitability Strategy

In order to make profits, the company should be able to cater for the cost of its expenses. Careful evaluation of spending costs is a necessary step to take before determining a price (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). The costs should be categorized into variable and fixed overheads. Fixed costs include spending needs that are always there regardless of the capacity of the profits and sale sizes. Variable costs are the spending requirements that are directly proportional to the increase in sales (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). An example of fixed cost is rent and market rates whereas an example of variable costs is an increase in labor and raw material requirements. The price set ought to be higher than the variable costs of production of the goods and services.

Market Suitability

The product photo mix max in NYC suits the market as before the product had been developed, marketing strategy had been created. Selection of the target market and the placing of the product had also been done before (Keating, 2010) .Apart from the value of the product, price is another key variable used in putting the product in place in the market. The product promotion and distribution decisions of other products produced by competitor’s influences the price (Iftinca & Altier, 2016). The demand curve of the product indicates how the sales of the product have been positively influenced by the pricing selected. However, the company should not stop carrying out various tests of the price above and below the existing price. This is because of the elasticity of price in demand. If inelastic demand is realized then price should be increased.

Distribution Channels Effects on the Pricing

Multiple channels of distribution of the photo mix max should be adopted. It is not possible to sell directly the products from the manufacturer to the consumers. Therefore, it is efficient to have several distribution channels. Intermediaries are of great importance in both the business entity and the customers (Keating, 2010). The players facilitate the enhanced competence, better grouping of products, creating a routine in transactions and connecting of goods to various customers. The company will lose its greater power above the manufactured goods and spend extra on every channel of distribution if the number of middle-men in the channel of distribution rise (Davidson & Simonetto, 2012). More intermediaries, however, cause a wider market. Successful running of the distribution channels includes the creation of better relationships among intermediaries. Iftinca and Altier (2016) argues that encouraging the independence of each member of the distribution channel will lead to efficiency of the pricing strategy selected. Structuring the distribution channels independently improves on how the members of the distribution channel relate to each other.

References

Davidson, A. & Simonetto, M. (2012). Pricing strategy and execution: an overlooked way to increase revenues and profits. Strategy & Leadership, 33(6), 25-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10878570510631639

Iftinca, M. & Altier, C. (2016). Stacking up Cav3.2 channels. Channels, 1-2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2016.1242289

Keating, B. (2010). Distribution Channels: Understanding and Managing Channels to Market20101Julian Dent. Distribution Channels: Understanding and Managing Channels to Market. London: Kogan Page 2008. 338 pp., ISBN: 13: 978‐0‐74945‐256‐8 £35.00 Edited by Geoffrey P. Lantos. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(4), 312-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10610421011059630

Krstic, I. & Becic, S. (2011). Implementation of marketing strategy: Factor of competitive advantage. Svendsen, A. (1999). The stakeholder strategy (1st Ed.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Marketing, 42(2), 118-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.5937/markt1102118k

Plea Bargains

Plea Bargains

Introduction

There are many successful criminal prosecutions particularly in the United States that have not necessarily ended with jury trials. Most of these criminal persecutions have ended through plea bargains. Typically, plea bargains are legal agreements that are developed between prosecutors and the defenders. In this case, defenders agree to plead guilty either partially or fully in regards to charges leveled against them. This paper will discuss why plea bargaining should not be banned in the United States.

Argue For Plea Bargains

Plea bargains allow prosecutors to agree with defenders in reducing the degree or punishment originally intended for defenders. This is accomplished by reducing the severity or number of charges that may be accorded to the defenders. In addition, plea bargains allow both parties to make recommendations such as for defenders to receive reduced sentences. However, it is important to note that some specific plea bargains require the defenders to do more than just pleading guilty. For instance, prosecutors typically provide favorite plea bargains to some defenders who also agree to make testimonies regarding state cases that have been leveled against other defenders or criminals in the society.

Plea bargains should not be banned in the United States also because it allows judicial stakeholders to work in unison regarding specific cases. This means that both defenders and the prosecutors are allowed to work with judges in the process of making determinations in regards to the type of sentence that should be offered to defenders (Legal Information Institute 1). This is only if they agree to accept a plea bargains. This means that individuals in the society who have committed felonies in the state are able to accept their mistakes as well as punishment for their actions. However, it is important to note that in many cases, the roles and responsibilities of judges is seen to be limited. For instance, federal judges tend to retain the ultimate authority regarding sentencing decisions. This means that they are not bound by prosecutors’ specific recommendations.

It is important to note that plea bargains tend to reduce state resources that could otherwise be spent on long and tedious cases. For instance in the case of Robert M. Brandy vs. United States, both the prosecutors and the defender agreed to a plea bargain. Brandy was charged with kidnapping, which is a violation of 18 U.S. 120(a) statutes (Legal Information Institute 1). The petitioner was risking a maximum death penalty since the actual action was not liberated unharmed. Through his counsel, the petitioner agreed to a plea bargain that resulted to reduced sentences of 50 years that were later reduced to 30 years.  This is a classic case where the state could have used more resource since the trial judges were not willing to try it without a jury (Legal Information Institute 2).

In addition, it is important to note that plea bargains should not be banned because they are constitutional. This means that defender’s guilty pleas are usually voluntary in nature such as in the case of Brandy vs. United States. This means that the defenders only agree to plea bargains after fully understanding the consequences of such actions.

Conclusion

In summary, given that they are regarded as contracts between prosecutors and defenders, prosecutors are not bound by any agreed deal if the defenders break their side of bargains. Additionally, a defender is allowed to seek some form of relief if the prosecutor negates their side of bargain.

Works Cited

Legal Information Institute. Case of Robert M. Brandy vs. United States. Accessed through> https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/397/742. Date Accessed. August 1, 2017. Web

Oil Spill

Oil Spill

Oil wastes having access to ocean waters emanate from numerous sources. As Perrons (2013) observe some are accidental spills or leaks from wells and vessels transporting oil and related products.  Other spills are as a result of acute prolonged and careless habitual methods in handling oil usage. The research paper will handle Ixtoc 1 oil spill, give a brief history of the actual happening, corrective actions undertaken to counter the spill and highlight agencies involved. The essay will ultimately discuss the disregarded compliance standards.

Brief Summary

According to United States (2011), oil exploration exercise was undergoing on 3rd June 1979 when Ixtoc 1 blew out and started pouring crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico.  The semi-submersible drilling rig was undertaking the activity northwest of Ciudad Del Carmen when the well suffered a massive blow out resulting to an oil spill of its kind in history. A series on facts show that the blow was gushing oil 20 feet into the air estimated to be approximately 30,000 to 45,000 barrels a day. The well lacked the counter pressure mechanism resulting to excessive force formation in the well column consequently blowing out the well. The aftermath of the blow was fire breakup making Sedco 135F collapse in the sea (Perrons, 2013). Sinking of the rig constrained efforts to control the blow. The fire was caused by the ignition of oil and gas coming out of the well. Three companies i.e. Sedco, a Texas run American company, Permargo and Petroleos Mexicanos, Mexican state agencies were undertaking the oil drilling operation. The well poured out oil into the gulf for nearly ten months releasing approximately 126 million oil gallons. The turn of events of IXTOC-1 catastrophe made the spill the second largest accidental well blow out into the marine waters.

As United States (2011) explains, a day prior to the massive blowout, the three exploring agencies had drilled a depth of 3,615 meters. The level was made of soft sedimentary soil causing the weight of the bit to reduce. A fracture developed on the piping resulting to an entire loss of material circulation in the well. As the engineers from the drilling corporations deliberated on the appropriate corrective action for the glitch, oil and pressure started building up in the well column. The representatives from the companies agreed to mend the fracture by substituting the drill bit with open pipes to force oil downwards. The pressure however was overwhelming and had reached an unstable level causing mud to increase. The operators installed preventer, a safety mechanism to curb potential blow out. The device however failed to work properly after activation attempts by PeMex operators. Increased mud filled the drill pipes hampering the blades from closing and shearing in the right way. The series of events amounted to a catastrophic blowout that transpired at 3.30, June 3rd. The escaping oil and gas ignited leading to a massive explosion. United States (2011) notes that the inferno lasted until 10.00 am following day making the drilling tower collapse and capsize. The oil and gas continued gushing out violently for a duration of 290 days making the venture a total loss.

Corrective actions

Within the period of the disastrous occurrence, attempts were made to cap the pouring out. Though some proved fruitful, the minor successes were realized slowly. Current research on the topic shows that later in August the teams managed to pump 100, 000 steel, iron and lead balls into the well significantly reducing the flow to 10,000 gallons a day. Mexican authorities drilled two relief wells adjacent to the pouring well. Drilling assisted reduce the buildup pressure further. Divers attempted to manually cap the blowout preventer that had failed but in vain (United States, 2011). A combination of cement and salt water was injected into the well. PeMex Corporation successfully sealed and stopped flow of oil using cement plugs. PeMex liaised with Conair aviation to project Corexit a chemical depressant to mitigate impact of spilled oil. The aviation managed to flow 493 aerial missions, handling 1,100 square miles of oil. To lower impact of oil on Barrier Island beaches, skimmers and booms were placed to safeguard inlets to the bays and lagoons (Perrons, 2013).

The spill on areas such as Aransas Pass and Brazos-Santiago Pass was sealed with sand. Cleaning was undertaken to dispense oil slick on environmentally and economically sensitive islands. Rakes and shovels were employed by laborers to maintain the beaches slick free. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service trained volunteers in handling oil birds. The trained crew carried beach patrols on Padre Island. As Perrons (2013) postulate bird cleaning stations were established by the USFWS as part of the corrective measures. PeMex one of the drilling corporations set up drilling platforms that limited shrimpers and fishers from accessing marine region affected by the oil spill. The restrictions allowed replenishing of fish stocks and prevented fishers from tampering with corrective mechanism. Emergency corrective actions on oil contaminated soil in the region adjacent to the gulf were undertaken. A fuel oil storage tank was submersed 100 feet from the coastal water way on the ground to help clean up affected soils. The fuel tank covered with an impermeable liner equipped with a drainage pipe was used to inject storm water inside polluted soils.

Actions such as excavation of tarnished soils and removal of free floating oil on stagnant water were undertaken. The scooped soils were disposed as special waste away from human and animal habitations (Perrons, 2013). The excavated areas were later regraded and filled with clean soils. Revegetation of affected island and beaches was done using native flora. Water collected in the containment areas was manually pumped and consequently treated. Mechanical clean-up was undertaken to dispense oil from water surface. Activities such as corralling of slicks for example using booms and tow-vessels were undertaken. Moreover, measures such as skimming of slicks using special apparatus and vessels were implemented. Equipment made of synthetic polymers were utilized to enable collecting of slick and prevent formation of oil emulsions. Oil slick on water in remote areas was undertaken as a remedial action. Bioremediation, a treatment option was used in removing oil surfaces (Hoang, Washington State & Washington State Library, 2007). As part of corrective actions the corporations undertaking the exploration in the Mexican gulf developed spill prevention, control and countermeasures plan to prevent occurrence of a similar ordeal. The plan outlined the procedures and equipment such as dikes and terms for spill prevention. The companies integrated plant integrity testing and leak testing to ensure sound operating conditions of wells and vessels.

Agencies involved

Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Council

The Economies of the Gulf Coast States Act created the council comprised of governors from states affected by Ixtoc 1 oil spill. According to Hoang et al., (2007) the council was involved in enacting corrective actions to ensure that Gulf of Mexico recovers from the disastrous impacts of the spill.

The Natural Resource Damage Assessment

The agency was involved in separate processes and undertook different responsibilities to ensure recovery of Gulf Environment. The NRDA committed resources used to undertake cleanup exercise in the marine waters. The council mission during the aftermath was to restore the ecosystem and revamp the economy for the Gulf region residents (Perrons, 2013). Efforts by the administrators and stakeholders were aimed at restoring Gulf Coast to its usual vibrant status.

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

The foundation showed commitment to implementing corrective measures stipulated in the Gulf Environmental Benefit Fund. Activities by NFWF were directed at ensuring projects financed by GEBF resulted to natural resource conservation for the Gulf Coast inhabitants (United States, 2011).

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service

The U.S agency invited and trained volunteers in handling affected oil birds. The team undertook patrols along Gulf Coast islands as part of clean up exercise. USFWS established bird cleaning stations for restoration of Mexican Gulf.

Compliance standards violated

The clean water act and the oil pollution avoidance standards were violated. The regulations as Hoang et al., (2007) explain set forth requirements for prevention, preparedness and swift response to oil spills. The standards require corporations to design and execute oil spill prevention, control and countermeasure strategies. The regulations by EPA stipulate that corporations develop and implement plant and machine integrity tests to prevent accidental oil discharges (Committee for Sustaining Oklahoma’s Energy Resources, Enviro Clean Services, Lodes & Laura Worthen, Murphy, 2014). The EPA requires firms to comply to clean water laws and regulations to safeguard human and plant life. Facilities must have SPCC plan and outline measures to prevent and contain a potential oil spill disaster.

References

Committee for Sustaining Oklahoma’s Energy Resources.; Enviro Clean Services.; Lodes, & Laura Worthen.; Murphy, K. (2014). Spill prevention, control & countermeasure (SPCC) and air regulations update. SOER.

Hoang, N., Washington (State), & Washington State Library. (2007). Concise explanatory statement for the adoption of facility handling standards (WAC 173-180-025) ; vessel oil transfer advance notice and containment requirements (WAC 173-184-025) ; oil spill contingency planning (WAC 173-182-030) ; pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WAC 173-183-100 & 320) ; definitions (WAC 317-05-020). Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Dept. of Ecology.

Perrons, R. (2013). Assessing the damage caused by deepwater horizon : not just another Ixtoc oil spill. Elsevier Ltd.

United States. (2011). Macondo: The Gulf oil disaster : Chief Counsel’s report. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling.

History and Religion of Ancient China and India

History and Religion of Ancient China and India

Work of early Chinese Art

Turning to the work of Clammer (2012), one finds that Chinese art is a virtual art that is either modern or ancient and is practiced or originated in China or done by artists from China. History recognises the art from china as the oldest and continuous tradition across the globe. The transmission media that used to be classified in the western culture since decorative art and renaissance have continued being useful and essential in the Chinese art. Most of the work concerning textiles, ceramics among other techniques was produced over a long duration by various workshops and factories in the country that were distributed abroad and also internally as a way of demonstrating powers and wealth of the emperors. The work of traditional art includes:

Painting

According to Clammer, (2012), the early painting in China involved the application of similar techniques like Chinese Calligraphy done with a brush dipped in a coloured ink. The most useful materials with calligraphy on which painting are made were silk and paper. The paintings can also be made on the walls, folding screens, album sheets among other media. Artist from Han to Tang dynasties commonly used to paint the figure of human. Most of figure painting in the country mostly comes from burial areas where the paintings were commonly preserved in lacquered objects, silk banners among others.

Sculpture

The ritual bronzes of Chinese from western Zhou and Shang dynasties has been in existence for a long time frame and has continued influencing the Chinese art. The bronzes were commonly placed in the tombs to avoid continuous sacrificing to the dead members of the country. The sculpture affect the culture and values of the Chinese through application of images to represent different events, occurrences among other ceremonies (Clammer, 2012).

Pottery

Pottery has been an earlier work of Chinese art (Clammer, 2012). The ceramic ware in china has been showing a continuous development and is recognised as one among the most essential types of Chinese arts. The first form of ceramics was performed during Palaeolithic era. The art has been continuing since the ancient periods affecting the culture and value of Chinese.

The origin of Indian culture

Research by Clammer (2012) shows that India is among the oldest civilized countries in the world. The culture of the country has continuously been labelled as an amalgamation of different cultures came from Indian subcontinents. Invaders in the country have been influencing the culture of the country. Through invaders the Dharmic religion was introduced in the country that continues affecting the culture of the country. Through introduction of different culture by the invaders, the philosophy, architecture, music, art and literature of the country has been changing (Clammer, 2012). Invaders contributed to the culture of India through introduction of different religions that including Hinduism and Buddhism that have been spreading throughout the country. Invaders brought about the Muslim religion in the state that practically played a critical role in shaping the cultural heritage in the country. Clammer (2012) postulates that there has been integration of Jains, Sikhs with Muslim and Hindu across the country due to the influence of invaders.

Work of early Indian art

Research by Clammer (2012) shows that art in India began during the Stone Age in the Palaeolithic culture. Much of the Indian art has religious context and the work of early Indian art include sculpture, painting, architecture among others.

 Sculpture

The oldest examples of art in the country came from Indus Valley that flourished from an approximate of 3200 to 2000 BC. Many, small and different sculptures of clay and metal survived from this period (Clammer, 2012).  The sculptures commonly represent animal or human figures. Additional object includes soapstone. Sculpture in the country included the Buddhist Sculpture that flourished between 321-184 BC including large pillars of stones that stood at important sites and crossroad and Hindu sculpture.

Painting

In early years, printing was taken as a serious art by the Indian people. In early period, the Indian people made little difference between artists who used to make images carving stones and those who made in paints. The artist brought reality in from their arts. Painting included wall painting where in the first century, most Buddhist monasteries and temples’ walls were decorated with painted and curved images. Manuscript illustrations were made in the 1000’s in the country (Clammer, 2012). The manuscripts has palm leaf surface used for writing.

Architecture

During the times of Indus Valley, most cities and towns were made following the grid pattern or procedure and the buildings were commonly made of bricks. The Buddhists made their structures using mud or bricks and had pillared balconies, halls with vaulted tops or roofs with dormer type of windows (Clammer, 2012). The people in the country exercised the art during the construction of caves, building strong and standing temples and Islamic architecture where Muslims hired local in construction of their structures. The early art in India shows that Indians place a great percentage on the value and concern for the religion and religious activities.

Influence of religious and philosophical traditions on the development of culture

Clammer (2012) postulates that religion and traditions affects the development and existence of culture in a given society. India and china have different and numerous religions that hold different beliefs and practices. The overall cultural of the country is greatly influenced by the religion because there is no universal cultural code. Lack of coherence and understanding between different groups of people in the country has been influencing culture development in both countries. Furthermore, different groups strongly uphold traditional or early ways of doing things therefore hindering modernization of culture in the countries. Increased immigration into the countries influence culture development through the immigrants holding their home values and cultures and failing to adjust to the cultural undertakings in the two countries.

References

Clammer, J. R. (2012). Culture, development and social theory: Towards an integrated social development. N.p.

Gun Ownership and Work Safety

Gun Ownership and Work Safety

Introduction

Going by words of Kleck (2003), guns, like most firearms, could be dangerous if not well taken care of. The gadgets are a constant threat to lives as well as security. In the recent times, many people are opting to possess firearms, precisely guns for that case, to beef up personal safety and that of friends and families. However, it is pretty vital to take into account the possible threats gun ownership poses to the involved parties (Storey, 2004). The initiative is inclusive of the safety of the other persons around the personalities who own guns and other firearms.

Firearms and safety

For the case of employees, possessing a weapon will raise concern as it affects the other employees who do not own guns as well as the employer as well as the entire staff of the affected firm or company. Apparently, from past incidences, disagreements at work often happen and fights may arise (Storey, 2004). The scenario raises concern, for instance, if the controversy involved a person with a gun and who is also hot tempered. Such an occasion will have a significant probability of a loss of life. Consequently, to curb the occurrence, a couple of rules and regulations should be put in place to effect the necessary changes to contain such happenings. (Kleck, 2003).

Most people only consider gun ownership as the legal right, without regard to the moral or social aspect of such doings. Much as most states permit citizens to own firearms. They only do so to enable the people involved to defend themselves in the case of an attack or an insecure occasion (Storey, 2004). The aspect the persons forget about is the ethical value of owning a gun. The individuals do not consider how socially upright it is to allow gun ownership. However, gun ownership under proper regulations could help solve this puzzle (Kleck, 2003).

I opine that employees should not be allowed to carry guns to workplaces because of the dangers they expose workmates to. As May, Gilson and Harter (2004) state, the security concern of the firm or business organization should be left entirely to the employers. The management should take the responsibility to make sure that the business enterprise is secure and conducive for the employees to work in. Considerably, as most laws state, it is the role of the employer to ensure that the venue of work is secure.

Besides, the employees only have the duty to take care of personal safety and security concerns and the workmates. Also, the workers are prohibited from engaging in improper practices that may endanger their workmates (May, Gilson & Harter, 2004). Having a gun at work is one of such practices. The employees also have a responsibility to report any security threats to the employer. The undertaking includes matters that pose a danger to the workers’ health and safety.

Moreover, most laws call for proper security measures in any job scenario. However, the undertaking is solely the employer’s duty. The manager achieves the endeavor by preventing any behavior that puts the safety and security of the employees at peril. Storey (2004) postulates the to implement the initiative, the company must finalize by appointing or employing a competent person to take care of the safety and security concerns of the whole organization, and by extension, the employees (May et al., 2004).

If the employees should be allowed to carry guns to the places of work, the workers must not take the rifles to working desks. Probably, the staff should have the weapon kept in cars or find any suitable place to keep them (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). By so doing, the responsibility of firm protection will be wholly left to the employer and the state at large.

Besides, the security concerns of the other workers will be well taken care of, as none is exposed to the dangers of getting shot or probably getting hurt in case of fights or fracas at the venue of work. The employees may carry their guns comfortably when they leave the places of work. Consequently, the workers may use the guns along the way home in case of an occurrence that calls for the utilization of a gun in self-protection. Such a scenario will not involve the other employees (May et al., 2004).

Definitely, gun ownership is a general state matter. The issue affects not only the work venues but also the entire country. It is also the government’s responsibility to make sure that all employees in the nation work under the right conditions (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). Due to the undertaking, I personally support the involvement of the legislative guidelines of the state in the determination of proper gun handling techniques at the workplace.

The state should put forward the necessary, proper rules and regulations to contain gun handling. There should also be stringent measures to ensure adequate conduction of gun ownership. Besides, the government should draft directions indicating the repercussions of improper gun handling by those who are entitled to own them (Kleck & Patterson, 2003). There should be strict and severe punishment or charges against those that recklessly use their weapons.

The system also needs to outline clearly situations and locations where people may use their guns as a way of defending themselves. It is important to note that in the event of an injury or death resulting from improper gun handling, or the use of a weapon in absurd situations and locations, the government will take the blame from various nongovernmental organizations (May et al., 2004). I suggest that whether inside or outside the company, the legislative system must play an active role in ensuring proper gun handling.

Storey (2004) explain that to this effect, the system must check to make sure that all the workers that legally possess firearms do not violate the rules of gun handling, for their safety and that of their friends, families and workmates. Also to note, loss of life in the company may affect not only the company but also the whole nation. Such an event illustrates the country’s failure to protect her citizens. Storey (2004) asserts that to ensure proper protection and security for her citizens, the government needs to draft legislative measures to guide and instruct on where and when to use a gun for defending oneself.

Just like any other organization or institution, a firm is entitled to privacy. As most states allow, certain pieces of information are only revealed to particular groups or individual people within an agency. There is not much difference when it comes to companies. Storey (2004) affirms that most firms have the right to conceal some information about their working. Such pieces of information include the ones that the company considers so dear.

Consequently, it is possible that a company may choose to allow firearms into the business premises and never let anyone know of the undertaking. However, what beats logic is how noble such an undertaking is. Note all that right is ethical, as we are all aware (Storey, 2004). So, the decision of a company to allow guns in the work venues is relatively right, but somehow unethical. Much as doing so might be advantageous in some way; it is risky all through (Storey, 2004).

Conclusion

To sum up, the concept of gun ownership is a good idea given that people need to defend themselves at times. However, carrying the guns to the places of work or where they are more likely to cause harm is not advisable. It is solely the firm’s role to keep the business premises secure.

References

Storey, D. J. (2004). Understanding the small business sector. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign’s Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. N.p.

Kleck, G., & Patterson, E. B. (2003). The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 9(3), 249-287. N.p.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 77(1), 11-37. N.p.

Development of Political and Social Structures

Development of Political and Social Structures

Greek structures

According to Levack, Muir and Veldman (2011) the archaic period that existed between 800-480 BC witnessed formation of political and social structures that cultivated values of cultural unity and cooperation among the Greeks. Uniting culture arose from aspects such as written poetry and language as well as social and political changes. Levack, Muir and Veldman (2011) describe the archaic period as a duration of structural revolution. The development of clothes, jewellery, pottery and artworks during the period brought oneness to the Greek society. The residents shared community symposiums, festivals, lavish, meals and athletic games thereby bringing together each member who participated in the contests. The period saw multiple changes in the social structure as well as in governance thereby enhancing sense of community. The political structures acted as a uniting factor that brought society members closer. Levack et al., (2011) postulate that during the period villages were absorbed and the tribes incorporated into the substructure of the Polis fostering more unity.

The governance created political will among the Greek settlers during the archaic era thereby developing efficient and fair system of governance that brought the communities together. The social and political structures encouraged the Archaic Greek communities to work together in ownership and land cultivation (Levack et al., 2011). The land owning and political independence amounted to collaboration between the communities, an element that fostered great sense of community and cultural unity. Polis, a characteristic form of the archaic ancient Greece brought social development and spearheaded value of common life and promoted friendship among Greek community ultimately leading to building of strong sense of unity. Research by Levack et al., (2011) reveal that the sharing of natural resources as well as fundamental political institutions and social traditions created sense of cultural oneness.

Levack, B. Muir, J. & Veldman, M. 2011.The west. Encounters & Transformations. 2011. Vol. 1. 3rd Edition. Pearson Pub.

Crime Investigation Case

Crime Investigation Case

Fisher and Fisher (2012) argue that cases of manual strangulation and sexual assault are rampant and shared in areas of residence. The incidences mostly result from malicious activities, usually perpetrated by ill minded people. It takes a good procedure and course of action to combat the malpractices and finally bring the involved individuals to book and perhaps put them behind bars to face the responsibility for their actions. For the case in question, it is proper that we critically scrutinize the evidence and location of crime to reach a conclusion and make a sound decision.

Evidence samples from the scene

In the case at hand, the primary evidence and samples to collect in the aid of investigation may include the trace evidence that includes the tiny pieces of proof in the crime scene. In this case, the trace evidence includes the fragments of cut grass (Christian, Lavelle, De Jong, Loiselle, Brenner & Joffe, 2000). The elements are vital in showing the relative movement of the victim or the criminal during the time of the crime. (Resick & Schnicke, 2002)

The next piece of evidence will be the T-shirt, handbag, and purse. According to Christian, Lavelle, De Jong, Loiselle, Brenner & Joffe (2000) the phenomena too, are critical in the determination of any contact between the victim and the potential criminal. It is vital to note that the purse and handbag could be carrying forensic evidence, usually invisible to the naked eye, but essential in the crime detection criteria. The evidence that could be transported in the bag and purse is mostly the criminal’s fingerprints (Christian et al., 2000).

It is also important to take the general photograph of the crime scene as a piece of evidence. Also, an explicit picture of the woman lying on the ground is essential. The photos show relative motion of the crime activity, from the initial to the final stage. For instance, the drag marks in the grass could provide a vital clue to the course of the crime (Christian et al., 2000).

Merits and demerits and attending scene discovery

Resick and Schnicke (2002) asserts that visiting the crime scene could both be advantageous and disadvantageous. On the practical side, the investigative officers are in a good position to notice pieces of evidence that could disappear with time. For example, the drag marks, if left for a couple of hours, could go. The scenario leads to the loss of driving hints to the course of the crime process. Such clues are useful in the determination of the likely criminal, considering the possible path before the offense happened (Fisher & Fisher, 2012).

It is also advisable to attend the crime scene to rescue the victim if they show any signs of life. Resick and Schnicke (2002) explains that it is possible that the victims may appear dead but possess some traces of life. In the case of presence of an investigation officer or any medical personnel, immediate help can be arrived at, leading to saving of life (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). The officer present can probably call the ambulance and have the patient taken to a health institution if they show signs of life.

Also, the presence at a scene of a crime can lead to the protection of the evidence present at the time of occurrence. An officer present can detect any threats to the pieces of evidence and possibly deter the interference of proof (Fisher & Fisher, 2012). Consequently, the individuals can secure the area by taping its environs to prevent entry of naive persons or people with malicious intentions (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). Doing so helps in the preservation of evidence until the time it is needed.

On the contrary, it is disadvantageous to attend the crime scene for one prime reason. The primary reason for not attending the scene is that it may lead to the distortion of the evidence available at the felony location (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). Such pieces may include forensic evidence such as fingerprints and hair follicles that may contain DNA information concerning the possible criminal. I, however, opine that the investigation officials be present at the location of crime occurrence to save lives if any and protect the area to help keep the pieces of evidence intact.

Forensic science samples from a pathologist

Notably, the police work hand in hand with the forensic scientists and forensic pathologists in the investigation of crime (Christian et al., 2000). In the case at hand, several pieces of evidence will be required to determine the occurrence of sexual assault. First and foremost, the purse and handbag will be vital in this case. Turning to Resick and Schnicke (2002), one finds that the bag could provide leading information to the coroner concerning the probable criminal. Together with the handbag, the elements may contain forensic evidence, fingerprints to be precise that could aid in the determination of the criminal. According to Christian et al., (2000), any foreign fingerprints give essential clues to the possible criminal.

Also, the blood samples from the woman’s nose, mouth, arm, and breast may give vital hints in the crime investigation. Because the scene showed minimal signs of violence, the blood test may be of so much use. The fluid may lead to the discovery of foreign DNA that could give useful leads to suspects and finally the criminal (Christian et al., 2000).

Also, the body of the woman can get scanned to unearth different fingerprints if any. The occurrence of foreign fingerprints on the body shows the presence of a person or persons during the time of crime incident. Further scrutiny of the prints leads to revealing of the responsible individuals who may be taken as suspects. Crucial interrogations can then start to help identify the real criminal (Christian et al., 2000).

Control samples

The control samples, in the given case, include blood and urine samples to help determine if intoxication could have been the cause of the woman’s death. Scientifically, the urinary and blood alcohol content disclosed in the autopsy reveals that the woman might have been intoxicated (Resick and Schnicke, 2002). As stated by Christian et al., (2000), the use of control samples in the determination of toxicology level could be useful in helping reach a sound decision.

In a nutshell, the crime resolution can sometimes be wanting, especially if it brings so many options in the circle. In cases of manual strangulation and sexual assault, the use of forensic evidence such as DNA and fingerprint samples can help disclose possible suspects and eventually criminals. However, the presence of investigative officials at the crime scene is highly recommended to help guard the scene and assist the victims in any possible way. The coordination between the police spearheading the inquiry and the forensic pathologists is the key to success in such cases.

References

Fisher, B. A., & Fisher, D. R. (2012). Techniques of crime scene investigation. CRC Press.

Christian, C. W., Lavelle, J. M., De Jong, A. R., Loiselle, J., Brenner, L., & Joffe, M. (2000). Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. Pediatrics, 106(1), 100-104. N.p.

Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (2002). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 60(5), 748. N.p.