The Viking Program

Account for the Mission

The Viking program was a well-known space operation which was conducted by NASA. It involved launching a pair of space crafts to Mars. The launch was done to discover more about the red planet and its ability to sustain life (Encrenaz et al., 2004). The project grossed over a total of 1 billion U.S dollars, but it was worth the money since a significant amount of insight was collected concerning the red planet.

The mission itself involved launching of two space crafts dubbed Viking 1 and Viking 2. The space probes were not launched on the same day since the scientists at NASA used the first launch as an experiment to test the waters (Encrenaz et al., 2004). In essence, Viking 1 was launched on August 20th the year 1975 while the second probe (Viking 2) was launched on September 9th,1975. All the probes had similar properties; the only real disparity existed due to launch times and landing points.

Each spacecraft consisted of two major parts; these were the orbiter and the lander. The orbiter, as the name suggests was primarily designed to take photographs of the red planet from orbit. The photographs were hence aerial (Encrenaz et al., 2004). It had an overall mass of about 2330 kilogram while including fuel. The orbiters were equipped with 1.6 X 1.2 solar panels which were implanted as pairs on both wings. Each of the panels had about 34,800 solar cells which formed a credible power source as the orbiters revolved around the planet. The net energy produced regarding the sunlight intensity was 620W. It is important to note that the production capacity would have been much higher on a planet which is much closer to the sun (Launius, 2004). In addition to the solar power, the orbiters were fitted with nickel-cadmium batteries each of 30 A-h capacities. The connection formed an excellent source of energy for the orbiters. As already stated above, their primary role was to collect information from the planet via satellite imaging. The orbiters also communicated with the landers and processed the information which was sent their way.

Both the orbiters and the landers were launched as one spacecraft. Research indicates that the total mass at launch was about 2328 kilograms. Out of the total mass, about 1447 kg was propellant fuel and altitude control gas (Launius, 2004). This shows that the probes needed an intense amount of firepower to drive their journey across the solar system. Independently, the orbiter weighed roughly 600 kg and the lander 900 kilograms. The total weight at launch according to insight is close to 2.3 tones; this can be likened to the weight of 2 elephants (Pillet et al., 2005). Mars is such a long way off that the two spacecraft took close to a year to reach the surface. The Viking 1, which was launched first, reached Mars on June 19th, 1976 and the second arrived on August 7th, 1976.

The landers were characterized by a hexagonal aluminum base which was supported by three protruding legs. The measuring equipment and satellite links were attached on top of the base. The hardware included photography machines and also some testers which were used to determine the properties of the surroundings (Pillet, et al., 2005). The landers were reported to be excessively sterilized prior to launch which meant that they could not be affected by the organisms which could be found on the surface of the planet. The equipment was also readily offered protection against adverse weather conditions (Shearer, 2003). The sterilization was as follows; each lander was enclosed in a pressurized chamber which is referred to as the “biofield.” The equipment went on to be heated at a temperature of about 111 degrees for 40 hours.

The most crucial phase of the entire operation was the descent into the planet. Each lander was released into the atmosphere by the orbiters, and hence they began descending into the planet’s atmosphere (Launius, 2004). The de-orbital burn was the first stage of this descent which was followed by the atmospheric entry. The atmospheric entry stage is characterized by an intense amount of heat which is generated as a result of heating from the air molecules. A parachute was deployed to help reduce the speed of descent together with rockets which guided the lander until it gently touched the atmosphere. It is important to note that complete Vikings (both landers and orbiters) revolved around the planet for a predefined amount of time, this was so that the surface could be analyzed carefully and the safest region be selected for landing (Launius, 2004). Mars is characterized by valleys seas, and such hence the entire mission could be jeopardized if the lander managed to mount to an area where collective study could not be done. Such a pre-orbit was hence crucial for this purpose.

Following the safe and successful landing of the probes, accurate observation could hence be commenced on the planet (Shearer, 2003). The landers collected soil samples and tested their various properties while the orbiters continued to circulate the planet and observe the atmosphere. This observation was crucial to determine the weather pattern which presided on the planet.


The overall projected demanded a significant degree of financial support and resources. It was still riddled with uncertainty on whether or not it would reach the planet. The probe managed to reach the surface against all the odds hence all doubts were cleared (Shearer, 2003). The area where Viking 1 landed was however not safe and unconducive. According to the landing surface data which was collected by the team on July 20, 1976, the probe had landed on an area which is characterized by steep slopes and rough terrain.

The altitudes of these valleys were unknown hence in the event that the landers fell, they could suffer a significant amount of damage. Speculations even stated that the high-altitude area could be a volcano hence the equipment could be on the verge of destruction while at the surface. To this effect, the landing coordinates of the second probe were shifted to a much more planer and more conducive environment (Launius, 2004). This was thanks to the satellite imaging of the orbiter which scanned for a more favorable landing spot before releasing the second probe. It had been previously agreed upon that the two instruments (orbiter and lander) would last up to 90 days which would bring the project to a close, contrary to this belief, the two devices lasted four years.


Before moving on to discuss the significance of the mission and how it has positively impacted our lives, it is important to learn about the goals, i.e., why the Vikings were sent there in the first place. The Viking space probes were sent to acquire high resolution and quality images of the surface of the planet. The orbiters were mainly involved with this specific objective.

The Vikings were also sent to analyze and to characterize the structure a composition of the planet’s surface and atmosphere (Launius, 2004). It is important to note that both the landers and the orbiters shared in this objective, although the lander could take photographs of the planet’s surface and also analyze soil samples while the orbiter was only reduced to taking photographs of the atmosphere and satellite communication (Launius, 2004). Finally, the most crucial objective which formed a significant part of the mission at hand was to search for evidence of life on Mars. Such a discovery once made may help us to determine whether or not the planet can support human life and the possibility of starting a whole new human civilization there. In the event that the planet’s resources become depleted over time, life can be transferred to the planet which is characterized by a large degree of untapped resources.

The overall project was a success which was evidenced by the significant degree of findings which were made. The following are examples of such findings and their overall contribution to our knowledge on matters which are outside our solar system (Launius, 2004). Such an experiment was coherently planned, and the benefits were eventually reaped. 


The surface of Mars is characterized by many geological landforms. These are very similar to the ones which are located on the surface of the earth such as volcanic mountains, valleys and so forth. Majority of these geological features were formed as a result of water-based activities. It is said that these particular findings caused a massive revolution on the idea that there was water on Mars, the possibilities of it supporting life were indeed many.

Features such as river valleys showcased the presence of large enough floods which broke from areas of barricade or concealment (Launius, 2004). Mountainous landforms which were discovered to be significant parts of the landform were also created in various ways. The craters which were found on the surface were believed to have been formed by impacts from objects such as meteorites and so on. Further research indicated that the craters resembled that which was to form if a meteorite fell in an area with soft soil or mud (Launius, 2004). This finding further strengthened the belief of the availability of water on the surface of the planet. In addition to this finding and general idea, vast terrains were seen of places with seemingly large amounts of water in the past but lost due to some unknown reason. As a result, deeply cut trenches could be seen on the surface of the planet. Such a trench is what is most likely to be considered in the event that a river dries up during the dry season. These deeply cut channels were given the name, “Chaotic Terrain.” The term chaotic is used since it is widely believed that the area lost large amounts of water at a concise amount of time (Launius, 2004). Evidence of underground volcanism was also sighted and concluded to be the primary source of water for the planet. The molten material/lava is believed to be responsible for melting the ice and hence by doing so, forming the large pool of water which would eventually seep to the surface (Shearer, 2003). It is also presumed that underground volcanicity developed cracks on the land similar to a way an earthquake does. The cracks may have further intensified and hence leading to collapse of the ground thus the disappearance of the rivers/water channels. The possibility of life on Mars became a reality also.

Influence of Understanding on Solar System

As already mentioned above the findings showed without a doubt that there is the presence of water on the planet. Scientists have thus been able to conclude that the planets in the solar system have the same types of elements on their surfaces. Since water is a compound formed from Hydrogen and Oxygen, this led to the knowledge that there is the possibility of life in outside planets. The findings also revealed that UV intensity on the surface of Mars was much more than that found on the earth (Shearer, 2003). This hence concluded that the amount of solar radiation on a specific planet is not only dependent on the distance from the sun, but also on a significant number of factors. The common belief was that planets further away from the sun are characterized with less temperature due to the increase of distance from the sun, this was however proved to be wrong based on the studies (Shearer, 2003). Finally, the study of the soil revealed that there is indeed life on earth, the soil showed acute oxidation properties hence confirming that the planet was indeed characterized by living organisms. This hence changed the typical conventional understanding the earth alone was capable of supporting life.


Encrenaz, T., Bibring., Blanc, M., Barucci., Roques, F. & Zarka, P. (2004). The Solar System. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Launius, R. (2004). Frontiers of space exploration. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Pillet, V., Aparicio, A. & Sánchez, F. (2005). Payload and mission definition in space sciences. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shearer, D. (2003). Space missions. Mankato, Minn: Bridgestone

Differentiating SLE from Fibromyalgia

Differentiating SLE from Fibromyalgia

These two conditions have features and one has to be keen while trying to outline their differences in epidemiological studies. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease of the autoimmune system which involves the immune system attacking the body cells and tissues which results in inflammation and damage to tissues (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013). Whereas, fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder which causes great pain in bones, muscles and tender areas of the body and also characterized by general fatigue (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

SLE can affect any part of the body following a remitting and relapsing course. The disease is characterized by protean manifestations in the urine which can help in differential diagnosis to avoid misdiagnosis. Fibromyalgia is more specific regarding expression as opposed to SLE which can occur in any part of the body. Lupus manifests itself as a rash while Fibromyalgia does not. Their causes also serve as a differing point since SLE is an autoimmune disorder but has also been found to have genetic traces. Fibromyalgia, on the other hand, has some predisposition to genetics but has various triggers such as trauma, emotional stress, and anxiety (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

In diagnosis, samples of blood from suspected SLE patients have elevated levels of positive antinuclear antibodies which are not the same for Fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia Symptom management includes a combination of therapies such as antidepressants, painkillers steroidal therapy and muscle relaxants while SLE responds well to steroidal treatment with immunosuppressant medications than Fibromyalgia (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013).

Information for patient education suffering from SLE

The causes should also be explained to the patients. The disease is more prevalent in women than men with 90% approximate cases reported being women (Fortuna & Brennan, 2013). This means that it usually affects women nine times more than men. Some environmental factors also predispose one to the disease such as ultraviolet light, chemicals, and drugs such as hydrazine, alfalfa sprouts, smoking and infections such as parvovirus.

It is also imperative to undergo diagnosis from a professional due to the similar symptoms posed by the disorder to avoid misdiagnosis and ensure early discovery and treatments. One of the most apparent sign is the skin abnormalities such as rashes and patterns. Concepts of treatment should also be discussed to reduce the symptoms.


Fortuna, G., & Brennan, M. T. (2013). Systemic lupus erythematosus. Dental Clinics57(4), 631-655.

   Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

 Dajiang’s Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness

Dajiang (DJI) Company is a multi-national leader in the commercial drone manufacture industry. The company’s headquarters are in Shenzhen, China and was founded by Frank Wang in the year 2006 (Hongjia, 2017). The firm has redesigned and shaped both the external and internal commercial environments to enhance its profitability and triumph. The company has invested in the creation of a broad range of aerial photography and videography products that meet the needs of a diverse society (Hongjia, 2017). This is centered on the production of high quality and affordable brands that meet the customer’s expectations. This paper focuses on the strategic competitiveness and management tactics of the company. It also gives an analysis of technology and globalization and how this has impacted the industry. The resource-based and industrial models are also employed to show how DJI might earn excellent results. The vision and mission statements impact to the success of the corporation and also the stakeholders’ impact is also depicted in this work.

Impact of globalization

Changes in technology and globalization have transformed the way the business is done in the world today. It is evident to say that technology is a major driving force to globalization. This can be attributed to improved infrastructure and communication. Globalization refers to the escalation of links, interaction modes, and flows that interconnect the globe (Morgan, 2015). This concept is quite diverse in its meaning. The emergence of globalization has resulted in a number of both challenges and opportunities. DJI has been able to use this strategy to its advantage. Changes in globalization have helped the company to achieve across the border retailing by having global sourcing, logistics, and pricing. Since the video and photography sector is rapidly evolving, there is high demand for high-quality equipment that will be affordable and stand out of the crowd. DJI has used this globalization strategy to tap into other markets that are affiliates of their primary industry target such as filmmaking (Hongjia, 2017).

Globalization has also helped DJI in the identification of potential areas for specific areas. Having done a research of the consumer base and its needs puts a company way ahead of its competitors. The company has exploited this strategy since the risk associated with foreign liability does not impact their market base as their products are globally recognized and accepted. Entry into the global markets is not an easy task, but DJI’s innovation has taken its toll as new and efficient drones are more preferred, and the other good thing is that that the quality is well matched with the price. Globalization has also helped DJI to diversify its brands to satisfy the growing demand in the video, photography, film and drone market (Morgan, 2015).

Impact of technology changes.

Technological changes have improved DJI by aiding in marketing its products. DJI has employed tactful marketing strategies using various digital platforms such as YouTube and other social media sites. It has also reached out to a lot of consumers using search engine optimization (SEO) which also helps in the diversification of its brands (Hongjia, 2017). The firm’s success can also be attributed to technology as it conducts market situation analysis and also requests for feedback from the clients and potential customers to deliver quality products as per their preferences.

The firm has enhanced its competitive edge by focusing on the use of latest and cutting-edge technology in its brands and also try to balance the prices with quality to increase profitability. In its drones, it incorporates global positioning systems and sensors that aid in seamless control of the devices. In the further exploitation of this competitive edge, the firm has gone out of its comfort zone to delve into the camera industry to deliver comprehensive products (Morgan, 2015). This is evident in its development of robotic gimbal arms that have also been adopted in filmmaking. Changes in technology have helped DJI come up with innovations that keep up with the changing trends in the drone industry. They also use technology to create features that help their products have a variety of uses such as in weather forecasting and monitoring, creative photography, landscaping and mapping, filming and navigation among other areas that other manufacturers have not been able to tap.

DJI’s resource-based model.

The model focuses on the firm’s internal environment and how it influences success and profitability (Hongjia, 2017). This is based on the presence of capability and resources. This, in turn, affects the external environment including analysis of markets, customer preferences, political, social and economic aspects and competitor analysis. DJI has developed a strong network of research and manufacturing schemes that help in the development of high-quality brands. The company also has a robust financial resource and focuses more on the talent of its employees.

DJI has heavily invested and emphasized in research to develop unique products tailored to suit their customer’s preferences (Hongjia, 2017). They also invest in the development of multiple products for different target consumers and ensure that they frequently introduce new products in the market. They have used this model to create an attractive industry that earns the firm above-average proceeds and also lead to a competitive benefit. They also make sure that the in-house ideas result in products that are costly to imitate and unique thus having a global presence. This will help in taping more diverse markets as they have tapped into the opportunities and have laid out strategies to limit risks.

Influence of the vision statement.

DJI’s mission statement has impacted the company’s success by the fact that it ensures that individuals using their products can do more. This is evident since the enterprise manufactures revolutionary products driven by the needs of the customers. DJI has stood out to achieve this by being the top in the drone industry.

Influence of the mission statement.

The company is tailored to spark up creativity to all its users that will lead to groundbreaking changes. DJI ensures that they live up to their mission statement by providing clients with not only the products but more improved versions of the same and provide constant feedback to their customers. This helps them to make their products more efficient and suited to the customer’s preferences. This is shown by the way it incorporates new technology into their goods to enhance performance.

Impact of stakeholders in the firm’s success.

Capital market investors such as creditors fund the business in its ventures in the expectation of positive outcomes from them (Morgan, 2015). The company does not disappoint and returns adequate profits to their sponsors. Through this approach, the company can finance the manufacture of new products and conduct research. Product market stakeholders include suppliers and primary clients that influence the company’s performance. By employing an efficient supply chain, DJI fulfills the prospects of each shareholder thus allowing it to attain profits and success globally. Consumers of DJI products demand reliable products at reasonable costs (Morgan, 2015). The competent relationship developed by the firm is used to create and deliver affordable, timely and customized products. Organizational stakeholders include the management and the employees also contribute to the success of DJI by working together to develop high quality and affordable products that have garnered global attention.

It can be analyzed from the above discussion that DJI considers all the four views of value creation namely stakeholder approach, resource-based models, technology and globalization changes enables it to develop competitive advantage and capture substantial opportunities in the market.


Hongjia, X. (2017). Techno-entrepreneur from Emerging Economies: A case of DJI in Global Competition and Innovation. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. 1178). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.

Morgan, D. (2015). China’s DJI drones flying high among US companies. Thomson Reuters.

Communication Skills

 Communication Skills

In communication, I have developed some strength that has helped me to improve my communication capabilities. I have developed the ability to deal with tricky and confusing situations and making sound decisions. I am also straightforward, and I try to remain an open book and anyone who wants to know my personal information at work has the capability as all my information is readily available. This makes it easy for me when dealing with my seniors as they know my technical competencies as well as the skills that I possess and therefore making it easy to assign me tasks. I also view issues in other peoples perspective, and this helps me avoid issues in arguments as even if I give my point without worrying how people would take me I take time to listen and understand situations from both ends and act accordingly. I am also strong in paying attention to people’s discussion, and this helps me grasp whatever is being discussed at easy. I have also been keen on choosing channels to use to communicate any information to people as effectiveness in communication also depends on the communication channel.

I agree I have some weaknesses when it comes to communication but I strive to overcome them. One of the major weaknesses that I have is trying to find solutions to my problems alone without sharing my issues. This makes it hard for me as sometimes it is stressing to try crack issues all alone without depending on someone for advice. I also have the weakness of saying or stating my point of view without worrying about how people think about me and sometimes this has landed me in trouble as I try explaining my position to different people. This makes it hard as I lack control especially when I am in a situation that is affecting me directly.

I am planning to develop my communication skill set through concentrating on my strengths and trying to polish and improve my weak points. This is through learning to share issues that stress me to close friends and family as that could reduce the load and therefore making me feel free. I am also planning to gauge my thoughts and points that I raise in conversations as I have realized that some points hurt people’s feelings differently and therefore gauging the words before I speak could be the best way of making people view me differently.

Communication is dynamic, and a wide field and many issues need to be considered when assessing the communication competence. One of the major issues that are not addressed in the quiz and is critical is the issue of being judgmental of people during a conversation (Zuckerman, DePaulo & Rosenthal, 2011). Most people are very fast to conclude and judge others during a conversation without fully having to understand why people take certain stands. The other critical issue is the feelings expressed during a conversation or rather the reaction that one has as they communicate. Some people do not understand that different messages being passed should have a different reaction for them to have an impact on the audience and this is also a way of determining the effectiveness of a conversation or rather a communication.

Verbal communication is sharing information through speech. Some of the examples of verbal communication include oral presentations, interviews, lectures, presentations and conversations (Zuckerman, DePaulo & Rosenthal, 2011). Non-verbal communication, on the other hand, is sharing of information using gestures. Some of the examples of Non-verbal communications include winks, smiles, waves, gestures, salute, touch and other bodily movements (Siegman, 2014). In conversation, most of the people use a combination of both verbal and non-verbal skills to drive a point. This is because they complement each other and make it easy to pass information effectively during a conversation.


Zuckerman, M., DePaulo, B. M., & Rosenthal, R. (2011). Verbal and nonverbal communication of deception. Advances in experimental social psychology, 14, 1-59.

Siegman, A. W. (2014). Nonverbal behavior and communication. Psychology Press.


Employee Productivity

Employee Productivity


Employee productivity is a measure of a worker’s or a group of workers’ efficiency in an organization. It is an assessment that could be evaluated regarding the output of a given employee at a specific period. This productivity shall be assessed using the average of employees performing the same tasks. Employee productivity is, therefore, an integral consideration for any business since the success and growth of any organization rely on the diligence and productivity of the workforce.

The employees who exert extra effort in most cases lean towards showing big disparities in the profits by the company, and therefore it is necessary to offer some motivation to all the employees to maximize their full potential and optimal levels of productivity. Motivated employees always look for better ways of doing a job and tend to be more quality oriented and productive (Cushman, Knobe & Sinnott-Armstrong, 2015). This will make the company that encourages increased productivity to be more successful as compared to their counterparts that do not. The rewards, therefore, should have a form of influencing the better feeling of the employee concerning their achievement in the company rather than money which will make the employee react each time thinking of their pockets and ignoring the operational goals and their promotion (Rollinson, 2014). Skills improvement, job commitment as well as opportunities for job development are some better ways of motivation to these employees (Armstrong & Baron, 2014).

Several theories have been put forth on employee motivation and productivity, but all of them are centered by a universal principle that managers should determine the needs of their employees to keep them happy as they work and offer motivation for high performance and achievement of the organization’s goals. The relationship therefore between the employee’s performance and the company’s outcome is of great significance. There are some controversial issues that arise on most occasions. A major one is that as much as the employees should be motivated to reach the required levels of productivity, money should not be used as a token as this will not tally with the realization of the organization objectives. Controversies occur since productivity goes in line with the motivation of the employees (Koopman, 2012).

The management of employees requires the employers to take steps that create a productive and a good work environment that makes the workers have a feeling of security and understand the expectations. The employers can minimize the chances of a drop in productivity associated with workplace controversies through getting to know the conventional causes of these issues and being able to stop them from occurring. Employee surveillance has been an issue in the workplace that has grown as a result of the uptake of modern technologies that present employers’ new techniques and ideas in the monitoring of the employees and most cases without their consent.

The employers could monitor the internet users to make sure that workers do not use much of their time doing personal jobs when online while at work. Telephone monitoring, monitoring of the location, and video surveillance all offer an employer some valuable information regarding employee actions, but could, on the other hand, seem like an invasion of the worker’s privacy. A bright, better and consistent policy on surveillance that the workers will be aware of will prevent this issue from creating a rift between the workers and management.

The employer policies can help address gender equality as another controversial workplace issue. Gender inequality, pay and assignment decisions still exist in the workplace despite laws that have been passed that require employers to treat women equally and this affects the employee productivity. The employers should adequately let workers know the reasons as to why they fail to get promoted. This eliminates the notion of gender inequality motivating the decision of the respective employers (McNeese-Smith, 2012).

Paying for incentives and rewarding sure workers for achieving the targets or exceeding the companies has been adopted by many employers. This has come handy with improving the levels of productivity. However, these incentives could cause the workers to work and focus on personal achievements goals rather than solely directing their efforts on the objectives of the organization. Workers that tend to get less could feel inferior to those that get paid more, whereas most pay systems pay off managers and team leaders. This could lead to controversy and unfair treatment claims. On the case of personal differences at the workplace, the employers have to create an ample environment that is respectful of the dissenting viewpoints in case they arise.


Employee productivity, therefore, should be improved and despite the different arguments that arise, they should be manipulated to free any doubts of controversies. Several things have been seen to influence employee productivity, and the companies or employees can control most of the above factors whereas others are at an individual level. These factors could include the work environment, suitability of the worker’s skills to the tasks provided, personal issues, and interaction with the coworkers or bosses (McNeese-Smith, 2012).


Cushman, F., Knobe, J., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2015). Moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Cognition, 108(1), 281-289.

Dundon, T., & Rollinson, D. (2014). Employment relations with non-union firms. Routledge.

Koopman, C., Pelletier, K. R., Murray, J. F., Sharda, C. E., Berger, M. L., Turpin, R. S., … & Bendel, T. (2012 ). Stanford presenteeism scale: health status and employee productivity. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 44(1), 14-20.

McNeese-Smith, D. (2012 ). Increasing employee productivity, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Journal of Healthcare Management, 41(2), 160.

Reading and writing effectiveness

Reading and writing effectiveness

The process of writing the final critical essay was systematic as I had to make sure that all the points are supported by credible, researched and systematically written facts in line with my topic. To choosing the topic, I had to first do some background study and ensure that all the facts that I had to consider were readily available and that the data was credible and supported to avoid chances of misleading in my essay.

Some of the strengths of the essay are that I have addressed a situation that is critical as it is in the minds of the strategic planners, economists the normal citizens and anyone who has a view of the position of the Americans dream. This is a point of concern as progress is on everyone’s mind and therefore making the topic relevant and in line with the current trends in the economy. The data contained in my critical essay is also very strong as I had to go through the strategic planners articles and the articles talking about the economic position in the present and the past and therefore allowing me to make a comparison in terms of the trend and therefore being in a position to make a future prediction through considering the current trends.

The weakness of my essay is that most of the strategic planners have different views of the American dream realization in line with the current trends and therefore it was hard marrying the different views and still driving my view of the current trend. This made me dig dipper in many previously researched documents to have a positive stated in my essay.

I dwelt more on logos way of persuasion more than ethos and pathos. This is because the American dream is something that can be gauged from the past and the current trend and therefore making it easy to make a prediction. I had to use data from previous research and therefore helping me to analyze the current trend and therefore being in a position to know which position to stand in terms of the economic development as well as the entrepreneurial trends in America as this is the main issues showing the trend leading to the realization of the American dream. The data explaining the past and the current trends in both the government projects, businesses and the general economy were the greatest logic issues that are used in driving my point.

My thoughts about the critical essay are that it has been a great tool of knowledge as I have been able to learn a lot of issues concerning the trends in the American economy and the strides the government and the private sector is taking to make sure that the nation maintains a positive trend. My greatest question in this study would be should the growth be solely in America or can the nation also consider uplifting other neighboring nations? What is the American government doing to ensure that they do not only develop and maintain their dream but also realize the dream at the individual citizen level? These are some of the points I would concentrate on in case of further research.


Routing techniques

Routing techniques

Greedy heuristic is a unique routing capacity that works based on approximation of a series of algorithms which usually follow a specific strategy that involves use of local choices optimization (Toth & Vigo, 2014).  Clark and Wright savings heuristic is the most widely used technique whereby a node is randomly selected and labelled as node 1. Afterward, an assumption is made that some vehicles have to travel from a depot to the node and return to the terminal again.

Sweep technique method mainly focuses on the number of individuals that the vessel is supposed to take. It does not put into consideration aspects of congestion among others (Toth & Vigo, 2014).  The primary purpose of the technique is to ensure that it has attained the maximum capacity of passage on either trip of the vessel.  Edge covering is a method that was developed based on the assumption that vehicles are mostly routed on a network that comprises of links and nodes. Edge covering is based on finding a route that can transverse every connection of a system while node covering is a paradigm that has a lot of distinguishing features from the above approaches whereby it has the ability of reusing the previous routing data in mapping of vehicles. However the method is compelled to have a lot of faulty mistakes that are hardly rectified

Most of the routing technique relies on one another and therefore more than one method is used to accomplish the desired targets. Most of the routing techniques were usually done through a series of algorithms however with the coming up of new technologies some systems have been developed to make this entire task easier (Toth & Vigo, 2014). As an entrepreneur, I would use a sweep method due to the limited number of vehicles present. It will ensure that being able to maximise the margins of the profit that am getting and making it manageable to use a single vessel before shifting to other technique that need a lot of resources.


Toth, P., & Vigo, D. (Eds.). (2014). Vehicle routing: problems, methods, and applications.

Transportation Infrastructure

Transportation Infrastructure

Transportation infrastructure is one of the most prone infrastructures with regards to change in weather, criminal activities as well as other human damaging factors. To limit or completely ensure that the transportation infrastructure is not damaged the following masers and policies should be implemented by both the private and the public sector.

Proper Drainage

Roads being one of the transportation infrastructure developments, proper drainage and frequent maintenance are paramount in reducing the damages. This is achieved through constantly cleaning and clearing the blocked drainages on the roads as well as cutting down any barriers such as growing grass that could hinder the free-flowing water. The police and other security bodies sometime volunteer and do some cleaning therefore cutting down the cost for the nation in some states.

Efficiency and Well Defined Development

There should be proper policies that govern the quality of transportation infrastructure during the construction period. This is because if the infrastructure’s well build based on the recommended materials and mixture, one is guarantees that the infrastructure’s lifespan is extended.

Pre Audits for the Infrastructures

Before and after developing the transportation infrastructure, the responsible agencies with regards to the infrastructure should have a well implement frequent audits that would define threats that are probably based on the infrastructures are as well as the climate conditions based on the season. Through such audits, the agencies are in a position to prepare and respond to the damages before they even happen. The police officers are also mandated to see that the facility is used properly and that the rules and regulations set are observed to attain its full potential in terms of durability.

Benefits of the Methods / Policies

Through proper audits, the responsible agents can know probable threats such as soil erosion, portholes and also, dangerous places that would require road signs or bumps to reduce human damage activities. Also, developing policies that maintain quality construction of the infrastructures would help in solving damages brought about by weather conditions such as snow. On the other hand, the issue of proper drainage would also develop effective maintenance and usage of the transportation infrastructure, where in general it protects it for climate, weather and also man developed factors.




The role Twitter plays in mass communication after 2006 among college Students in the USA.

Research question

How does spending a lot of time on Twitter as a student contribute to and influence mass communication?


The research will Study Twitter and its role on mass communication because since people started using it in 2006, it has had its share of influence on how information passes to many people living in different parts of the world. Twitter has managed to attract college students because it provides a platform where they can be able to link and interact with their favorite Celebrities.  Most college students also love fancy clothes, and Twitter has provided a platform where young college students can like and like and follow Twitter updates from their best fashion houses and companies. The research will help further to explore whether the college students only look for specific information from Twitter when they log in, or there is a high likelihood of reading other interesting news that was not part of their original search.

The research will also focus on determining the average amount of time a college student can spend on twitter a day and how it influences the movement of information. The research on how much the college students spend on Twitter is motivated by the fact that most students often spend some time to surf the internet using mobile phones while others like using laptops. It is therefore critical to investigate how often the students use Twitter and its influence on mass communication considering the fact millions of messages are exchanged through twitter with a short duration of time.

Another critical point that the research will consider is the reason why the Students would prefer getting their news from Twitter as opposed to the traditional sources of news like newspapers. The research will explore whether the college students in the United States of America are finding Twitter more reliable when compared to other forms of mass media like television networks and the radio. The research will also seek to establish whether the speed of passing messages and communicating to many people using Twitter has played a role in making Twitter attractive to the college students as medium for mass communication. The research paper will also interrogate the unique characteristics of Twitter that allows makes it have a following among the young people and whether it has the distinct advantage of fitting into their lifestyle.

Another area that the research paper will dwell on is on the impact Twitter has created on the traditional media houses that have embraced it. It is common for media houses to run their twitter pages and the research will be seeking to establish whether the media houses that are not active on Twitter are likely to lose some of the college students that are very attached to Twitter. The paper will further seek to determine whether the number of hours spent on TV by college students before 2006 has reduced with Twitter gaining popularity in the recent years. The research will also assess whether there are some college students that never bother to get information from the traditional newspapers and television networks but instead prefer getting all their news or new information from links provided by different people on Twitter.

The research paper will also seek to determine the role of Twitter in general elections in America since 2006. The paper will seek to explore whether more college students are driven to participate in politics through twitter. It will also find out whether there are groups of college students that have lost interest in politics as a result of the information they sometimes encounter on social media. The research will also seek to find out whether students politics have been shaped by Twitter from 2006. It will explore whether the traditional methods of campaigning using meetings and sports have been overtaken by the use of Twitter. The research will be determining the effectiveness of Twitter in passing messages to many people as well as how it has contributed to the distortion of information and fake news. It will seek to whether college students can differentiate between the truth and fake story on twitter.


The research will consider gathering facts about college students using the available information from both the academic and online sources. The research will also interrogate surveys that have previously been conducted on some colleges in the United States and determine their conclusions. The outcome of the research will be based on the outcome of analyzing information from different sources and come up with conclusion.


Boyd, D., 2014. It’s complicated: The social lives of networked teens. Yale University Press.

The source will be useful in providing information on how Twitter becomes a part of life for the young people.

Bruns, A. and Moe, H., 2014. Structural layers of communication on Twitter. In Twitter and society (Vol. 89, pp. 15-28). Peter Lang.

The source is key to understanding how information moves along on twitter and whether it has a potential of reaching the masses.

Johnson, J., 2012. The power of Twitter. British Journalism Review23(4), pp.15-17.

The source will be critical in explaining how twitter influences communication.

Junco, R., Heiberger, G. and Loken, E., 2011. The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades. Journal of computer assisted learning27(2), pp.119-132.

The source will help in showing how some students may be using Twitter to learn and pass information.

Kushin, M.J. and Yamamoto, M., 2010. Did social media really matter? College students’ use of online media and political decision making in the 2008 election. Mass Communication and Society13(5), pp.608-630.

The source will be used to determine the role Twitter plays in influencing young voters most of whom are college students.

Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H. and Moon, S., 2010, April. What is Twitter, a social network or a news media?. In Proceedings of the 19th international conference on World wide web (pp. 591-600). ACM.

The source will be used to explain how twitter can be viewed beyond a social site.

Larsson, A.O. and Moe, H., 2013. Twitter in politics and elections: Insights from Scandinavia. Twitter and Society. New York: Peter Lang, pp.319-330.

The source will further help in explaining how Twitter has been used to influence masses and voters.

Lasorsa, D.L., Lewis, S.C. and Holton, A.E., 2012. Normalizing Twitter: Journalism practice in an emerging communication space. Journalism studies13(1), pp.19-36.

The source will be used to compare traditional media houses and journalism has changed after the introduction of Twitter.

McKinney, B.C., Kelly, L. and Duran, R.L., 2012. Narcissism or openness?: College students’ use of Facebook and Twitter. Communication Research Reports29(2), pp.108-118.

The source will be used to explain the behavior of  college students when using Twitter.

Weller, K., Bruns, A., Burgess, J., Mahrt, M. and Puschmann, C., 2014. Twitter and society (Vol. 89, p. 447). P. Lang.

The source is critical in explaining the changes in the society that have been  brought about by the power of Twitter influencing the masses.

Human resource(HR)

Human resource


In every organization, the human resource professionals are entitled to poses essentials skills that enable them to perform their functions efficiently. They are supposed to be innovative, game changers, the capability of building, good leaders, credible activists, technology proponents, strategic planners among many (Butler & Callahan, 2014). Any organization in need of HR personnel will mostly look into the above skills which they need in their company.

Those skills are also necessary for assisting them in making critical outsourcing decisions for the company that they work in.  In essence, when they are capable of practicing these skills they play an essential role in the success of the business that they represent. In this paper, I will efficiently analyze the HR executives’ decisions based on outsourcing together with providing a critical analysis of the skills stipulated by the human resource competency study regarding the impact of the skills in ensuring that the professionals efficiently outsource the agreements among other roles.

HR skills in assessing potential outsourcing partners

Galperin explains a six number of skills that the HR executives should possess, focus on and the specific knowledge that they will impact them. Some of the skills which are highlighted above are not limited to being change champions, strategic positioned and innovators. One of the most critical skills here is the decisive positioner which refers to the aspect of being able to convert business context and stakeholder into a business strategy (Sheehan, 2014).  They should be able to access strategically positioned factors such as social, political, demographic factors that affect the organization. The HR executives should be in a position to identify viable vendors that they can work together in the company for them to even become well. HR as an innovator is entitled to looking for different solutions of organization strategies that will enable them to acquire credible partners to work with for mutual growth. They should ensure that they can cope up with any change in the organization that is entitled to make them better in the activities that they are involved.

HR skills in efficiently managing outsourcing agreements

The HR has a significant role in ensuring that they negotiate for an optimal HR outsourcing agreement. The aid provides that the HR are supposed to be leaders in the organization. A leader is someone who can understand both sides of a party. In our cases, it, therefore, means that the HR executives should be well conversant with the business-related issue. By doing so, they will settle on a price that they negotiated with the other party. An outsourcing agreement will mostly contain fundamental conditions of the contract that both sides should adhere to (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).

The different type of deal frequently used is the master service agreement that is used mainly in large international companies. The main thing that the HR is responsible for is to ensure that the relationship between the two parties who signed the agreement is well managed. HR executives being in possessions of collaborative skills are therefore entitled to bring in vendors and work with them efficiently which at the end will build a proper relationship between the organization and the vendors themselves.

HR skills in advising the CEO

HR executives are supposed to have the competencies of influential skills in the organization. Also, they are entitled to posses cross-functional skills that will enable them to be very conversant with issues that are in contention in a company. A more likely point that will be of contention in an organization is the decision of the CEO on either to outsource or not. Regarding this, therefore, the HR is supposed to bring forth their knowledge and efficiently advice the management on the issues that revolve based on decisions of outsourcing. (Sheehan, 2014) It is important to note that the decisions to outsource might be made by the CEO based on the cost which is only a single factor that should not be used to reach such a critical agreement.

Decisions of outsourcing should be a strategic decision that is made out of the critical analysis that should be done on the pros and cons that may result when such a determination is made. The HR executives are in proper positions to be consulted on issues that are related to personnel outsourcing in an organization. Reasons behind it are that they have been able to interact with the challenges that human resource has been undergoing and also when the need for outsourcing is critical they are at a better position to decide when and why (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).

The rationale for the human resource competency study

The human resource competency study has been able to provide fundamental skills that the HR executives should posses however it’s clear that it has left some gap of skills that are essential in the new error that is based on modernity and technology based. Most of the HR executives over the years have been viewed with the traditional image whereby they have been acting like people who should take orders from top managers. However, that aspect has been proved otherwise since the HR executives should now be capable to not only take part in their departmental mandates but also the functions of the entire organization.

The most critical role is the administrative function that makes them to not only be policy implementers in a company but also involved in coming up with policies that will assist the entire organization to improve fully (Galperin & Lituchy, 2014).  They are supposed to be experts of innovations which make them come up with different designs of management of systems that will ensure proper coordination of various departments.


Regardless of the competency skills that the HR executives might have, the task always falls on the organization itself which is supposed to ensure that the HR professionals are upgraded. Upgrading of HR officials will involve introducing them into training based on the skills that they need which will make them improve in quality. Organisations will need people who are capable of understanding the business, adaptable and those who possess personal credibility that will enhance the day to day activities of the company.


Butler, M. G., & Callahan, C. M. (2014). Human resource outsourcing: Market and operating performance effects of administrative HR functions. Journal of Business Research67(2), 218-224.

Galperin, B. L., & Lituchy, T. R. (2014). Human resource development in service firms across cultures. Human Resource Development Review13(3), 336-368.

Sheehan, M. (2014). Human resource management and performance: Evidence from small and medium-sized firms. International Small Business Journal32(5), 545-570.