Plant flexion

Plant flexion

Changes that Occur Within Involved Muscles

Plantar reflex refers to a reflex that transpires when the foot of an individual is stimulated using either sharp or blunt object at the sole (Hall, 2014). The reflex can assume two different forms that are upward and downward responses. Plantar flexion takes place in the ankle at the time when the dorsum part of the leg lengths or extends in association with the leg or point down. There are various muscles involved in the process. They show different reactions during the process. When a patient is asked to plantarflex his or her foot, various changes occur in the muscles that move the foot. Carleton (2006) states that different muscles are involved in the process of planar flex and have different reactions.

Triceps Surae comprises of different muscles situated at the posterior part of the leg and are made up of soleus, gastrocnemius and tendons. The muscles are commonly known as calf (Ramsay, 2011). When the patient is asked to plantarflex his leg, triceps Surae through its joint tendons insert to the calcaneus, and during the process, the muscles flex and cause the bones to rise as the other parts of the leg move downwards. Flexor muscles are also involved during the planar flexion process. During the process of plantar flexion, flexor muscles are highly involved. Field and Hutchinson (2012) postulate that the flex action takes flexor muscles to act on it. The muscles contract when the patient plantar flexes the leg uplifting the bones that hold ankle and the sole. Contraction of the flexor muscles causes the rest part of the leg to move downwards. In addition to plantar flexion process, the flexor muscles are also involved to flex phalange of the leg.

Wallace (2000) claims that two types of flexor muscles have different insertions, therefore, facilitating the movement or reaction of the foot during plantar flexion process. The muscles are flexor digitorium and flexor halluces. Tibialis posterior is a plantar flex muscle that acts in a different way when the patient plantarflexes his leg. The muscle act in two distinct actions namely foot inversion and plantarflexion. The muscle is found in the posterior part or compartment of the foot. Plantaris muscle is odd looking relative to other muscles that are involved in the plantarflexion process. The muscle is more looking like a whipcord. An apparent muscle is located in the posterior section of the leg.

Kannape, Oliver and Herr (2014) argue that the muscle is also called accessory muscle and consist of a thin, and small muscle bellies and have thin tendons. During plantar flex action, the muscle shows different reactions. The muscle contract when the patient plantarflex his or her leg to provide steadiness. This is because the muscle is considered as assisting muscle, therefore, work by providing steadiness to the leg of the patient during the act.


Carleton, W. L. 2006. Dynamic balance and ankle plantar flexion and dorsal flexion strength in second grade boys.

Field, D., & Hutchinson, J. O. 2012. Field’s Anatomy, Palpation and Surface Markings. London: Elsevier Health Sciences UK.

Hall, S. J. 2014. Basic biomechanics. McGrawHill pub.

Kannape, Oliver, & Herr, H. 2014. Volitional control of ankle plantar flexion in a powered transtibial prosthesis during stair-ambulation.

Ramsay, C. 2011. Anatomy of muscle building. Pearson Pub.

Wallace, D. J. 2000. The lupus book: A guide for patients and their families. New York: Oxford University Press.

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