Technology and Surveillance
Authors: Carrie B. Sanders and Stacey Hannem
Title: Policing “the Risky”: Technology and Surveillance in Everyday Patrol Work
Source: Canadian Review of Sociology
Keywords: Surveillance, risk management, crime control, patrol duty, legitimacy, and profiles.
The article focuses on the impacts of crime control on the use of technology in carrying out surveillance and patrol duties and managing perils.
The author concludes that technology has greatly improved security and surveillance in the society. The technologies help the police department store public data instituting individual profiles. Utilizing the technologies has, however, a negative impact on the minority in society.
In my observation, based on the individual profile in the police systems, police can initiate bias on judgment based on the records and charges. They may fail to base their judgments on investigations and may choose to depend on historical actions which they may not have encountered or certified. The use of technologies raises questions about its legitimacy in regards to surveillance and risk management. The act of police justifying and legitimizing their actions based on the IT systems changes the public perception of the departments.
Authors: Christopher Koper, Cynthia Lum & Julie Hibdon
Title: The Uses and Impacts of Mobile Computing Technology in Hot Spots Policing
Source: Journal of police studies
The article place emphasis on how technology specifically mobile computing has been used to curb crimes especially in police patrols in areas where crimes are on the rise. The effects of use of this technology are put into consideration and variance observed in different hot spots
The authors conclude that the application of mobile computing has little effect on police officer’s ability to reduce the number of crimes while in the field. Strategic measures and attention to the behavior of police officers are considered most effective when using mobile computing for reduction of crimes.
According to my observation, use of mobile computing can be very effective if the technology is regarded with discipline. Police officers who are corrupt may hinder the effectiveness of the technology. It is also important to diversify the use of mobile computing so that during the fieldwork, criminals may be caught easily since they would not be aware of all the uses. Mobile computing should, therefore, be strategic.
Author: Peter K. Manning
Title: Information Technology in the Police Context: The “Sailor” Phone
Source: Information Systems Research
Keywords: Work processes, communication, discretion, authority, and structures.
The article focuses on the effects on integration and social coordination of the men in blue in the nineties. It relates to showing the changes in communication and work processes in police work.
The author concludes the use of cellular phones in the nineties as embedding change into the policing authority structures. Its use enhanced discretion and helped institute change in the department.
In my observation, the phone came to institute change by enhancing discretion among the officers in the departments. The different levels and ranks of authority traditionally limited communication and integration between the levels. Communication was cumbersome with limited discretion. Use of cell phones came to break the obstacle and enhance coordination.
Authors: Christopher S. Koper, Cynthia Lum, and James J. Willis
Title: Optimizing the Use of Technology in Policing: Results and Implications from a Multi-Site Study of the Social, Organizational and Behavioural Aspects of Implementing Police Technologies
Source: Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice
Keywords: Policing, job satisfaction, cooperation, productivity, training
The study focuses on the social, organizational and behavioral aspects that are associated with the use of technology in police departments. Specific technologies are put into consideration and their impact on policing.
The authors conclude that to achieve the most out of technology, police must be willing to enforce law and order. Police should be trained on how to effectively use technology and its use in reducing the rate of crime. Job satisfaction is achieved when the work of the police is made easier.
From my observation, training among police officers is important and should be embraced in police departments. Police should be made aware that the technology does not give them right to support criminal activities but rather help in curbing the crimes. With technology, the level of cooperation and productivity among police officers is enhanced.
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal of Police Studies, 20(3), 17-40.
Koper, C. S., Lum, C., & Willis, J. J. (2014). Optimizing the use of technology in policing: Results and implications from a multi-site study of the social, organizational, and behavioral aspects of implementing police technologies. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 8(2), 212-221.
Manning, P. K. (1996). Information technology in the police context: the “sailor” phone. Information systems research, 7(1), 52-62.
Sanders, C. B., & Hannem, S. (2012). Policing “the risky”: Technology and surveillance in everyday patrol work. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie, 49(4), 389-410.